To land on the red planet is a dream of every nation and many are continuously chasing to achieve it .Recently we have come across the launch of three major missions to Mars that shows the mindset of nations worldwide that how crucial the mission is, the three mission are   –

1. China’s Tianwen-1  –  23 July 2020  : With the goal to land on the planet mars , the Red Giant
2. UAE’s Al Amal (Hope) –  20 July 2020 : It was an orbital mission and the mission is nowhere in a mood to land on Red Pannet, it is organized to study the Martian atmosphere
3.Perseverance mission -30 July 2020 Since 1975 it was 10th Mars landing mission by US Since many nations are trying to reach mars, these ambitious space missions are increasing rapidly. Many astrobiologists have shared their concerns about possible contamination in the planets.


Such contaminations are generally categorized into two types

1. Forward contamination : Forward contamination refers to the transport of microbes or other particles from Earth  to the other planets or the celestial bodies.

2. Backward contamination :  Backward contamination refers to the transfer of extraterrestrial organisms  with the fact if they exist or other particles into the Earth’s .


Let’s have a brief about Forward contaminating Mars :

In the past, there we have witnessed many space missions that are found to have physical contact with astronomical celestial bodies like  comets and asteroids, and multiple successful missions through many nations have landed on the Moon. However, due to antagonistic availability of life these are not dangerous.

If we consider Mars, we have witnessed many reports claiming however the possible presence of liquid water on the red  planet,  due to this many astronauts are claiming that there is a chance of life . Astrobiologists say that if there is a little chance that Mars has life then   one should not interfere in other celestial living bodies’ environment even in its most primitive form, there is an ethical obligation on humanity to ensure that microbes should not create any change from Earth to red planet .


Apart from it, the second thought of experts is the  worry that multiple actions of Earth-based organisms could contaminate the Red Planet’s sample which they want to get in its initial form without any change 

Now what is Back contamination ?

Recently we came to know that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration also plans for a Mars sample-return mission, which would bring samples of the Red Planet to Earth, through which the team of NASA can check the possibility of life by 2031.Scientists, however,  does not agree on the fact that if the backward contamination took place this may  cause many new pandemic similar like the current Covid’19 situation so as to have Planetary protection many have opposed it.


According to the  United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967, its 110 state parties include the US, Russia, China, and India are against the military opposition of interplanetary riskTo ensure the Treaty, a ‘planetary protection policy’ is formed by a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) that focuses on how to limit the number of microbes sent or received from one plant to another.


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The concept of brain drain (the moment of emigration of  trained or highly qualified citizens from one  nation to another) should not be conceptualized when young citizens are migrating to other countries . Because one should not put implication on their move as they are not leaving their nation but with a forward looking thought moving ahead. Instead of using the term brain drain one should use the term Indian Diaspora to describe the people who migrated from territories that are currently within the borders of the Republic of India, the diaspora  also defines their descendants.


The Diaspora at present estimated  over twenty million, that includes NRIs (Indian citizens not residing in India) and PIOs (Persons of Indian Origin who have acquired the citizenship of some other country). It is circulated all over the world. The Indian Diaspora has played an important role in promoting India’s economic presence abroad and indirectly working as an unnamed ambassador. Fields including culture, education, economic development, health, arts , engineering and others Indians have emerged as leaders in some fields as information technology. Moreover all these communities can help India by investment and infrastructure which will definitely add on economic growth.

The real fact is that if we keep the  brain unutilized and the environment where there is no further growth prospect for a specific individual then there will be brain drain faster.The critics apparently say it  is brain drain and they appreciated the fact, BUt instead of oppose and making conflict of the term  the process should be encouraged as one of service to the world. Because of our presence world wide we can seek friendly gestures from neighbouring nation.In the past we  approached the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for loans and were grateful for obtaining them. Indian institutions still borrow from the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation, which are subsidiaries.


It is analysed that receiving a loan is welcomed but the arrival of immigrants is often termed  as infiltration by the host countries. What is eventually a  requirement of the  developing &  organized world is a procedure whereby migration will be seen as export and import.There will be only a solution to make the happiness index rise, when we accept the immigrants . There are many countries one of those is Canada that issues a number of requirements every year and analyses multiple applications, select after interview and once the selection is confirmed there will be no  hassles thereafter. The immigrants also do not face any problems in Canada. Several of my relatives have migrated to Australia, New Zealand, the U.S.A., apart from Canada.


There are some cases where there is a broken heart of visitors and the immigration departments but it’s not a recurring case.
It is seldom realized that infiltration is far more serious than smuggling of goods. The emigrant, after being well settled in his new country, should gradually turn into an envoy or ambassador.If any person behave well in other country he/she is representing nation and somewhere it is to be kept as responsibility to manage their action seeking the result not as their own but the move representing their nation .

It is a must to train and well educate the behavioral requirement to every person leaving the home country by the embassy issuing the passport. Since the world wide population is also not distributed equally migration therefore, is necessary whereby the thickly populated countries could send some of their citizens to the thinly populated places. Citizens generally accept moving to developed economies rather than area where there is less population in terms of permanent settlements so it’s also a factor where to balance the population in area with least population or in place where the economic growth prospects are high.



Russia should be one of the choices except for its culture and extremely cold climate . Generally For Muslims, North Africa stretching from Libya in the east to Morocco in the west will be an area of choice. Even though Japan’s population is declining so we cannot come to a conclusion despite many of its citizens having crossed 100 years. But Japan has a strict immigration policy. Australia and New Zealand follow a procedure similar to Canada’s and has plenty of space .So one should treat world as a globle family and should look forward for growth , one should try to expand rather than getting convinced with the fluctuating thoughts


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UPSC civil services exam is the exam with utmost respect and pride , recently UPSC CSE 2019 mains result was declared and many aspirants are now preparing for their interview . Adda247 congratulates all qualified aspirants and motivates all those who missed the attempt or those who want to prepare for IAS exam.

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With the aim to help aspirants Adda247 has launched UPSC section in Adda247 App where aspirants will get current affairs, daily quizzes, videos and course updates.Adda247 has lauched various online live courses / batches to help aspirants in such pandemic situation so that their studies should continue without any delay.

UPSC PRELIMS 2020 Batch | Live Bilingual Batch | Lauched


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  • Indian Polity
  • Economy
  • History
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  • Current Affairs
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  • CSAT Comprehension
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A well strategy and defined plan makes your goal half achieved.The very first step to start with the strategy for preparing for UPPCS is the mindset of the aspirant because this journey could be long and needs patience and consistency. Every year millions of students appear for UPPSC exam and many students  generally feel that they need coaching to prepare for civil services examination but it completely depends upon aspirant to aspirants ,if one  thinks that he/she is smart enough to study on their own this can be very well dealt with but still everyone need better guidance ,Adda247 brought you the solution of this problem, the experienced team of Adda247 are all together here and guiding students to clear exam in their first attempt.

Adda247 has launched Online Live Classes UPPSC crash course for all those dedicated aspirants who want to become a PSC officer. The detailed about the course it

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Subject Covered : General Studies Paper


  1. Current events of national and international importance.
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  4. Indian Polity and governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues etc.
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  6. General Issues on Environmental ecology, Biodiversity and Climate Change- that do not require subject specialization.
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  8. UP GK

    General Studies Paper -2

  9. Comprehension.
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  11. Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  12. Decision making and problem solving.
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  14. Elementary Mathematics upto Class X level- Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry and Statistics.
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  16. General Hindi upto Class X level.

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National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has been declared by the government of India . The policy changes proposed in NEP 2020 could lead to better learning and employment outcomes for everybody. MHRD is now changed its name to Ministry of Education

If we consider the education system in India and draw conclusions we can analyse the growth easily .Education in India has achieved growth which is a remarkable achievement. 3.74 crore students are now studying in 51,649 institutions. As per Ministry of Education as per NEP 2020, 91 lakh students graduate per year. This is now officially the largest education system in the world.  The main  target of NEP 2020 is to create at least one large multidisciplinary institution in or near every district by 2030.The main concern is to think about the young population of the age group of 18-23 years .Since the enrollment of women in educational institute has exceeded the population of men in terms of GRE .SC community, 14.9% enrolment against 16.6% of the population; remarkably close

ST community, 5.5% enrolment against 8.6% of the population it’s also an achievement, OBC community, 36.3% enrolment against 40.9% of the population.Minorities, however, have not demonstrated the same progress. If we consider about the Minorities constitute 20.2% of India’s population but only 7.5% in Higher Education enrollment. The report received by AISHE that only determines Muslims population separately, that represents 5.2% of Higher Education enrolment as against 15% of the population now. The only concern is about the Muslim community  , goeverment need to work upon motivating them else they only will left behind

The following reforms announced in NEP 2020  :

1. Top 200 institutions full autonomy

Because of heavy government regulation, the Indian education system was legging behind which has taken the focus away from quality. NEP 2020 has put a ‘light but tight’ regulatory framework without any fear that will bring positive changes .Through NEP 2020, India should work to provide full academic grant, administrative and financial autonomy to its 200+ top-ranked universities, so that they can expand updated course that can match the global standards

2. The National Research Foundation establishment must be priority

To cater the situation of major economies in research and innovation Indian government should work towards the establishment of NRF , government should respond to the urgent need .Moving  toward nation-building via R&D, GoI must allocate at least Rs 5,000 crore per year on a non-lapsable basis

3.Top 100 universities should be provided better incentive plans

NEP 2020’s drawn its farsight towards professional education and frontier technologies like AI/ML, engineering  etc.If students at such top notch institutes receive better incentives, more talent can be made attracted towards doctorate programs and others.  India only produces about 40,800 PhDs a year, mostly of indifferent quality. We must quickly scale to 50,000 more per year to a total of 100,000 of high global standards of quality.

4.With Market Loan Indian should improve its infrastructure

With new-age learning environments NEP2020 has cleared its path with research and development, sports, culture, medical facilities etc.Student should be given wide options of selecting and option higher education and the policies should be made easy for those who want to get best education

5.Improvement  of GER in low-GER districts must be planned

Many states and districts of India have a GER below 25 , if we consider fews states like Bihar/WB and other the GER is not matching the standard as required;

Bihar (13.6),
West Bengal (19.3),
Jharkhand (19.1),

These states and districts must be given special grants with a 50/50 participation from central and relevant state governments.

6.Allowing top global universities to set up in India

GoI must plan to allow top 100 global universities to set up in India with which we can save at least  $20 billion a year as nearly 7 lakh or more students visited abroad for higher education across 90 countries

7.National Scholarship Fund should be set up

The National Scholarship Fund can be modelled as a Public-Private-Partnership

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A most famous discussion of July 16, 1945,  when the world’s first super bomb blasted in a desert in New Mexico which was dumped with 13 pounds of plutonium circulating at its core . It has destroyed all and nothing was left lively . Within a few seconds it has turned the greenery into a vast desert


After a few minutes after the blast theUS scientists and military personnel were celebrating their success from a distance of a few ten  thousand kilometers and they named it as the beginning of the nuclear era .Before explosion many were in doubt that there will be no blast or destruction and some believed to have one, but after the blast many were celebrating success while others feared that this might be the conclusion or more clearly the cause of destruction of the world


The world’s first atomic bomb was also tested on this day, exactly 75 years ago named Gadget the ‘Trinity Test’. After not more than a nuclear bomb was dropped in Nagasaki that has destroyed the place completely named Fat Man


Albert Einstein  (Nobel prize winning physicist) warned then-US President Franklin D Roosevelt of the potential threat posed by an atomic weapon being developed by Adolf Hitler.After just a month the giant Germany initiated World War II by approaching Poland

After waiting for some time the United States launched a secret atomic research named the Manhattan project led by US Army Colonel Leslie R Groves. Around 1942 facilities were established in remote locations across the US, as well as in Canada. The laboratory was named as Los Alamos


The team at Los Alamos was headed by J Robert Oppenheimer, a physics professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Oppenheimer later came to be known as the “father of the atomic bomb”. His team included Danish scientist Niels Bohr, Italian scientists Enrico Fermi and Emilio Segré, Hungarians Edward Teller and John von Neumann, Hans A. Bethe from Germany, as well as American-born scientist Richard Feyman.


The two types of bombs developed are —

1.Uranium based – which was later code-named ‘the Little Boy’ before it was dropped on Hiroshima
2.Plutonium Core


In an interview with NBC in 1965, Oppenheimer translated the Bhagavad Gita phrase that has passed his mind during the blast “Now I am becoming death, the destroyer of worlds.”After celebrating the success of the test, Colonel Leslie Groves and Oppenheimer drafted report to submit to the Secretary of War and the US President.


As a deadly conclusion of the war there was a sudden rise in infant mortality rate.  According to a  famous study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after  the explosion several residents also complained that the number of cancer patients went up after the Trinity Test.It was only in 1990, when the federal government passed the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA), that residents of North Mexico who contracted Cancer and other other illnesses due to radiation exposure received compensation.


Many residents since more than 100 miles from the test site complained that they had suffered from skin burns, bleeding and loss of hair and cancer. Much more information was released about the damage done by the atomic bombs in Japan. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings are known to have killed well over 2 million people


The uranium bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, destroyed around 1 million people by the end of 1945. The plutonium bomb explosion over Nagasaki, which took place three days later, killed 74,000 people that year, according to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICANW) data.After witnessing such a destruction in japanese cities Oppenheimer publicly admitted that he regretted building a bomb that had created such destruction


Few countries like the US, the UK, Russia, France, India, China, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea possessing nuclear weapon now


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Considering the unfortunate killing of 20 soldiers from India by Chinese troops at Galwan, the entire nation is indirectly seeking a cold war against the dragon.The whole nation all together raising voice to boycott Chinese products. Few cases we have witnessed where few of the patriots of Indian had destroyed Chinese TVs, mobiles and Chinese products, even demanding a ban on Chinese food at Indian restaurants.


Twitter and social media are exploding with #ChineseProductsInDustbin and #BharatUnitedAgainstChina etc. Outrage against China is stoking anti- China sentiments not only in India or the countries encircling the South China Sea which was suffering due to Chinese attempt of self development but along with all these nation , few major powers like  Europe and America witnessing the pandemic are also against the dragon


Before getting trapped with nationalistic wave lets understand the matter in brief and lets have a reality check :

1.China is the world’s second largest economy with a GDP of $13.6 trillion

2China is also India’s second biggest trading partner after the USA (Rs 7.3 lakh crore in FY 2019-20)

3.India’s export to China is around  Rs 1.8 lakh crore nearly  25 percent of the total trade.

4.China exports to India is around Rs 5.5 lakh crore that accounts nearly 75 percent.

China is enjoying a comfortable trade surplus with the USA, the UK and many other countries. Apart from it , the total goods that china exports to India are not finished products; most of it is in the form of raw materials and products like pharmaceutical ingredients which India processes into generic drugs and exports all over the world.


Other goods like electrical machinery and parts, auto components,organic chemicals, fertilisers, etc. covers 67 percent of India’s imports from China, and in the event of a trade blockade, it is Indian manufacturing and exports that are going to be hurt the most. As per the data received by DGCIS for 2018- 19, China covers more or less nearly 14 percent of Indian imports (USA 7 percent) and 5 percent of Indian exports (USA 16 per cent), but for China, its trade with India is almost inconsequential.


Keeping just  2.1 percent of its share of total trade, India  is quite lagging behind in chinese share if we consider or analyse other trading partners of china like USA, Japan, South Korea, Germany and others. Indian is at the 12th place in 2018 if we see the share in Chinese economy. Trade suspension is hardly going to impact China, and certainly cannot be an effective tool to resolve India’s border disputes with that country. Rather it is going to hurt India in many more ways. Take for example the Chinese investments in India.


Chinese Investment In India

1.A Brookings report in April 2020  analysed briefly that by 2017, the total Chinese investment in India had stood at over $ 9 billion, with Alibaba and Tencent being the two biggest investors in India

2.Report was also stating that over 800 Chinese companies operating in the Indian market with 75 manufacturing facilities spread throughout India. These industries include the intermediate industries like that of smartphones, appliances, equipment for construction and others . Many of the major companies that are operating in India have involvement in China. Industries like  Adani, Godrej Boyce, and even the Indian PSU like BEML, BHEL and others are having operations of China


3.Chinese investment can be seen in many Indian companies – Snapdeal, Swiggy, Ola, Paytm, Flipkart, Bigbasket, Zomato etc

4.As of March 2020, 18 of India’s 30 unicorns were funded by Chinese companies.

5.Nearly 60 percent of the Indian market share is claimed by three Chinese companies, Xiaomi, Vivo and Oppo.

6. The top 10 Chinese companies including Huawei and Xiaomi are running 68 ongoing projects in India.

Blockade of trade and investment would be almost suicidal for Indian start-ups and other companies, especially when the economy is in the doldrums.

Government policies and vision to make India import-substitution, self-reliance, Atmanirbhar Bharat etc. is not a one day deal . To manufacture everything and to mark a presence in the International market is a continuous process.  For that, we must source the raw materials and capital from wherever we could get them the cheapest, because that is what basically drives international trade.

The only way to stand up to China is by increasing our competitiveness. One should not feel shy from using Chinese capital, Chinese technology and Chinese products. We have to work hard with a forward looking vision as it is  our inefficiency that has enabled China to penetrate our market to pose serious challenges to domestic industries.If we ban Chinese products we will not be able to save our own economy rather the nation all together should work to become self reliant in all phases.

The pandemic Covid’19 situation left a question in front of market experts: one should never rely on one trade source who at any time can claim and enter our economy. This has given India one lifetime opportunity to attract investments and companies away from China unto itself. Hence the Prime Minister’s emphasis on ‘Buy Local, Be Global’ and Atmanirbhar Bharat, and to ultimately substitute China as the world’s supplier. With drawing the focus towards vocal to local prime ministers has emphasised upon self-reliance in all segments.

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The question is still lively who is taking  responsibility for all the casualties taken in Galwan valley in the late evening of June 15. If we try to analyse the number of casualties we find that 20 on the Indian side, was the highest since 1967, and included that of a high ranking Colonel of the Bihar Regiment. The exact casualty details from chinese side as it was not officially declared yet,though they have conceded that at least one Colonel was among those killed.

With all these casualties, it can be easily analysed that with these incidents the future of China-India relations will be on stack. But,the meeting of the senior Commanders of India and China on June 22-23 appeared to reach a “mutual consensus” and embark on lowering “tensions” through a “gradual and verifiable disengagement”.

India is a bit keeping its cards closed and the debate  has so far been largely limited to China’s perfidy in violating the status quo. Many leaders came forward against the violating action of China . The former PM Dr. Manmohan Singh accused China of illegally claiming  parts of Indian Territory such as the Galwan Valley and Pangong Tso. Adding a bit of extra salt to the discussion  was Mr.Narendra Modi (Honourable PM’s) statements on June 19 upon discussing the issue that“there was no intruder on our land now and no post in anyone’s custody”.

China was sustaining its steps that India should move out of the valley. And to leave Galwan is not in the cards of India and it was clear that India will no longer ignore or resist it,by claiming the Galwan Valley, China has again opened it can be some of the issues left over from the 1962 conflict, and it can be easily analyzed that China is working  to embark on a new confrontation.

Equivocation still pertains to the Line of Actual Control (LAC),the Chinese “claim line” is since November 1959, while that of  India is since September 1962. Since the last few years, both India and China have not supported opening  the issue, but China has never given up its claims. China with its unilateral declaration is looking forward  to settling the matter in chinese favour. India is looking forward to manage this challenge

Aksai Chin and its worth for neighbouring bilateral relations

The matter that session by session is left over the government is still upto the current administrations in Delhi , China since last many years  has consistently asserted its claims over the complete Aksai Chin. Aksai Chin is valuable for China because it can provide direct connectivity between two of the most troubled regions of China, the first is  Xinjiang and other one is Tibet. The statement of then Home Minister Amit Shah’s statement last year laying claim to the whole of Aksai Chin has created kios among the chinese consortium

Assessing and analysing the intelligence 

The attack on the valley has raised a direct question over the failure of intelligence. It is regarding the context of the intelligence team that if they would have provided enough information then the government can make better decisions. Since it was expected from the intelligence team to have in depth understanding of ground reality somewhere it has raised the question on intelligence . The Chinese calculation now can be analysed from the front easily .Built-up in the Galwan Valley, Pangong Tso and Hotsprings-Gogra did not require any great intelligence effort, since there was little attempt at concealment by the Chinese. India is equipped with high quality imagery intelligence (IMINT) along with the signals intelligence (SIGINT) is divided among the NTRO, the Ministry of Defence and other,which make it possible to track chinese next steps 

It can not be ignored that India has developed its  technological capabilities for intelligence and tracking systems but one cannot ignore the fact that the capability of understanding and analysis has not kept speed with the advancement of technology upfront. Artificial intelligence have covered the world all together but analysing the data is still not in equal pace

Even so, since last year when it was known to all that the economy of China’s was declining and then there was a devastating pandemic situation that’s that of COVID-19 pandemic. China became   known to have become extremely sensitive and trying to conceal its economical weakness.China with this front is facing debate with United States

The Bilateral Meet was limited 

The limited meeting agendas has still kept the ideology of growth pending and with no specific obligations still the matter has nonconclusion

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In the 2011 Kerala High Court decision was completely reversed of the recent decision given by the honorable  Supreme court where the court gave the right of the Travancore royal family to manage the property of deity at Sree Padmanabha Swamy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram. As per law and customary obligations, the rights to manage the financial affairs of the deity will continue to be with the members of the family . If the last ruler too will die then also  it will certainly be with the family.

Lets us understand the exact case: The main question to be kept as the central legal question was that after the death of the last ruler of Travancore ‘Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma’ in 1991 ,whether the younger brother Utradam Thirunal Marthanda Varma could claim to be the “Ruler of Travancore” .

Then the honorary court further analyzed and found the claim within the abstract meaning of that term according to the Travancore-Cochin Hindu Religious Institutions Act, 1950  that claims the  ownership, control and management of the ancient Sree Padmanabha Swamy Temple  should lie with the family.

As per the Instrument of Accession signed between the princely states and the Government of India, since 1949, the administration of the Padmanabhaswamy Temple was “vested in trust” in the Ruler of Travancore.Before 1947 ,The temples which were under the control and management of the Princely States of Travancore and Cochin were under the control of the Travancore and Cochin Devaswom Boards .Although the state of Kerala was formed in 1956 but the temple was managed ,controlled  by the family

In 1971, the sovereign’s private income to the former royals were abolished through a constitutional amendment by abolishing all of  their privileges and entitlements  This step  was further sustained by the honorable court in 1993 and the last ruler of Travancore ‘Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma’ who died in 1991 during the continuation of this case managed the temple 

In 1991, when the last ruler’s death took place his younger brother came forward and had taken the management and ownership of control in his hand. It then caused anger among devotees who moved the courts. The government since then also joined in the  support of the claims of the petitioner that the younger brother had no legal right to further claim the control and  management of the temple.And since then the verdict lies with the supreme court

The temple was considered and still considered a public institution and not as the legal property of any one family  The argument of the royal family is that  as per the family traditions and the ancient custom the temple management was with the family and they claimed even the temple is a public institution but to manage the autocracy the family is following custom generation after generation.And also the last ruler had not included the Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple as his personal property and there is no mention of the temple in his last will as well

In 2007, the younger brother of the last ruler Marthanda Varmahas claimed that all  money, jewellery and metals of the temple were the family property . After his claim, multiple suits were filed against his claim and a lower court in Kerala passed a law not to open any vault of temple 

In 2011, the Kerala High Court passed an order that to manage and control the affairs of the temple it is required to form a board and the order is against the royal family. The appeal against this verdict was filed by the royal family immediately  after the order of Kerala high court but the honorary  Supreme Court sustained the High Court verdict.

The honorary court had  appointed two members, the first one is the senior advocate Gopal Subramaniam and the second was  former Comptroller and Auditor General of India Vinod Rai. It was an order of the SC that they had to prepare an inventory of items in the vaults.The team of the two most experienced members worked and finally had opened  five vaults out of the six vaults . The vault B was kept unopened because the royal family  was continuously claiming that a mythical curse is associated with the opening of vault B and it can cause destruction if was tried to open the vault

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Indian constitution is as wide as it can be analysed.The Indian constitution is the world’s longest for a sovereign nation At the time of its enactment, it had 395  articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules.It is the second-longest active constitution after the Constitution of Alabama in the world.The latest amendment was performed on January 2019 and now the constitution has a preamble and 470 articles,which are grouped into 25 parts.With 12 schedules and five appendices. 104 times  it has been amended

Now let us understand the front articles , get the information of article 1 to 15th :

PART I – The Union And Its Territory

India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.The territory of India shall comprise, the territories of the States , the Union territories specified in the First Schedule;such other territories as may be acquired.


  1. Name and territory of the Union.
  2. Admission or establishment of new States.
  3. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.
  4. Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.


  1. Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
  2. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
  3. Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
  4. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
  5. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.
  6. Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
  7. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.


  1. Definition.
  2. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

    Right to Equality
  1. Equality before law.
  2. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

    Article 15 :
    Clause 1 :  Says that the Govt. (State) shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, date of birth.

    Clause  2 : States that no private organisation or individual shall discriminate against any citizen on the same grounds as well or deny their entry to public spaces, tanks, etc.

    Clause 3 : The third clause puts a qualifier wherein the State can make protective legislation for women and children.

    Clause 4 : The fourth clause states that “Nothing in this Article or in Article 29(2) shall prevent the State from making special provisions for socially/educationally backwards classes and SC / ST.

Article 29 :
Clause 1 :   Minority section of society to practise and conserve their culture through means of educational and religious institutions.

Clause 2 : The second clause says that no citizen shall be denied entry/admission into any State maintained or funded educational institution.

Now, the source of these Articles is The Right to Equality  that is  explained Article 14. However, where Article 15 provides a broad ambit within which it is made clear that everyone is equal and it is illegal to discriminate on the basis of caste, sex, etc. here  article 29 actually puts a small and specific filter on article 15 that states, the smaller and socially backward people can promote their own culture by means of educational institutions. Therefore, it mandates the running of Madrassas / Amadhiya Movements etc. Along with this, 29(2) states that nobody will be denied entry into a state run educational institution because of their religion, race, etc

The Difference Between Article 15 and 29 is :

Article 15 protects all citizens nation wide whereas Article 29 clause 2 cover specific protection against a state run institution .Artice 15 protects all citizens against all discrimination while Article 29 clause 2 protects only when admission into an educational institution is denied or discrimination is faced by any citizen in entry of any educational institution

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