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UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY 06 July, 2022 | A COMPILATION OF CURRENT AFFAIRS

Table of Contents

 

UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

RIMPAC Exercise 2022

RIMPAC Exercise 2022- Relevance for UPSC Exam

RIMPAC Exercise 2022: Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) Exercise 2022 is being conducted under the leadership of USA. RIMPAC Exercise 2022 is important for UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 (International Relations- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests) and GS Paper 3 (Security- Security challenges and their management in border areas).

RIMPAC Exercise 2022 in News

  • Indian Navy’s indigenous Frigate INS Satpura and P8I LRMRASW aircraft are at Pearl Harbour in Hawaii taking part in one of the largest multilateral Naval Exercises, the Rim of the Pacific exercise, also known as RIMPAC.

RIMPAC Exercise 2022

  • Background: The RIMPAC started in 1971 as an annual exercise by the US, Australia, and Canada.
    • However, from 1974, maritime exercise became a biennial event.
  • About: RIMPAC Exercise 2022 spans over six weeks of intense operations and training aimed at enhancing interoperability and building trust among Navies of friendly foreign countries.
    • Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) Exercise is the world’s largest international maritime exercise.
  • Location: Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) Exercise 2022 is being conducted around the Hawaiian Islands and southern California.
  • Host Country: USA hosts the biennial Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) Exercise.
  • RIMPAC 2022 Theme: The theme of RIMPAC 2022 is ‘capable, adaptive, partners’.
  • Mandate: The RIMPAC exercises serve as an opportunity for the United States to put on a show of multilateral cooperation, or collective action, against a more assertive China.
  • Participation: 28 countries, 38 warships, 09 land forces, 31 unmanned systems, 170 aircraft and over 25,000 personnel are participating in the multi-dimensional exercise RIMPAC 2022.
  • Frequency: Rim of Pacific (RIMPAC-22) is conducted biennially. RIMPAC-2022 is the 28th edition of the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) Exercise.
    • Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, RIMPAC was an on-sea only exercise in 2020.

RIMPAC Exercise 2022- Key Events

  • This year’s RIMPAC exercise program will include-
    • Gunnery, missile, anti-submarine, and air defense exercises, as well as
    • Amphibious, counterpiracy, mine clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, diving, and salvage operations.
  • Additionally, the RIMPAC 2022 exercise will also introduce space and cyber operations for all partner nations.

China’s Participation in RIMPAC Exercise

  • China took part in RIMPAC for the first time in 2014 and again in 2016 during the Obama administration.
  • However, in May 2018 during the Trump administration, the Pentagon rescinded an invitation to China to participate in RIMPAC that year.
    • USA cited Beijing’s rapid militarization of the South China Sea, where it has overlapping territorial claims with smaller Asian countries.

India’s Participation in RIMPAC Exercise

  • As Observer: India participated in RIMPAC exercise in 2006, 2010 and 2012 editions as an observer nation.
  • As Full Member: In 2014, for the first time India participated in the multi-lateral Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) Exercise.
    • Shivalik class stealth frigate INS Sahyadri took part in the RIMPAC 2014 exercise.
  • In the RIMPAC 2022 edition, the Frigate INS Satpura and P8I LRMRASW aircraft are taking part from Indian side.

CORPAT 2022 Exercise

 

FPI Selling

Why is FPI Selling In News?

Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPIs) have been on a selling spree in India. June 2022 witnessed the worst sell-off since March 2020 

What are FPIs?

  • Foreign portfolio investors are those that invest funds in markets outside of their home turf.
  • Their investments typically include equities, bonds and mutual funds.
  • They are generally not active shareholders and do not exert any control over the companies whose shares they hold.
  • The passive nature of their investment also allows them to enter or exit a stock at will and with ease.

What impact does an FPI sell-off have?

  • When FPIs sell their holdings and repatriate funds back to their home markets, the local currency takes a beating. After all, they sell rupees in exchange for their home market currency.
  • As supply of the rupee in the market rises, its value declines.
  • In this instance, the rupee has been seeing all-time lows recently. About a year ago, it was trading in the region of 73 to a U.S. dollar; it is now flirting with the 78 level.
  • With a weaker rupee, we have to shell out more funds to import the same unit of goods.
  • The most telling impact is on the cost of our crude oil imports that contribute to 85% of our oil needs.

 

China’s Belt and Road Initiative

Why is China’s BRI In News?

At the recently concluded summit of G-7 leaders in Germany, U.S. President Joe Biden and his allies unveiled their $600 billion plan called the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Intelligence which is being seen as a counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Key Points

  • In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping, during his visits to Kazakhstan and Indonesia, expressed his vision to build a Silk Road Economic Belt (SERB) and a 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (MSR), to break the “bottleneck” in Asian connectivity. Thus, the Belt and Road initiative was born.
  • The biggest project under BRI is in Pakistan, the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).
  • The initiative envisioned a Chinese-led investment of over $1 trillion in partner countries by 2025.
  • More than 60 countries have now joined BRI agreements with China, with infrastructure projects under the initiative being planned or under construction in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America.
  • Bangladesh, which joined the BRI in 2016, has been promised the second-highest belt and road investment by China in South Asia after Pakistan.

 

State ranking Index for NFSA

Why is State ranking Index for NFSA In News?

Odisha, UP, AP emerge as top three states among General Category States in the 1st ‘State Ranking Index for NFSA’; Tripura, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim take top three positions in the Special Category States/UTs.

About State ranking Index for NFSA

  • “State ranking Index for NFSA” attempts to document the status and progress of implementation of NFSA and various reform initiatives across the country, post consultation with states.
  • The National Food Security Act (NFSA) was enacted on July 5, 2013
  • It highlights the reforms undertaken by States and UTs and create a cross-learning environment and scale-up reform measures by all states and union territories.
  • The present Index is largely focused on NFSA Distribution and will include procurement, and PMGKAY Distribution in future.
  • The Index for ranking the states and UTs is built on three key pillars which covers the end-to-end implementation of NFSA through TPDS. These pillars are: i) NFSA— Coverage, targeting and provisions of the Act, ii) Delivery platform, and iii) Nutrition initiatives.

 

Index funds

  • Index funds are mutual funds that replicate a particular market index like saying the Nifty 50 or S&P BSE Sensex 30.
  • The replication is not only in terms of the companies present in the index but also its weightage.
  • This means an index fund will buy all the securities that are present in an underlying index in the same proportion as the underlying index.
  • For example, Let us consider an index fund that is based on the Nifty50 index. Such an index fund will buy all the Nifty50 stocks in the same weightage as that of the Nifty50 index. As and when the Nifty 50 is rebalanced, the index fund too will mimic the changes made.”
  • Given the passive nature of the index fund, there is no active decision made by the fund manager here.

 

What is the EU Mission for Adaptation to Climate Change?

  • The frequency and severity of climate and weather extremes is increasing so EU has taken a step to build strategies to adapt with climate in mission mode.
  • It will support the European Green Deal and the EU Climate Adaptation Strategy.
  • The signatories belong to 18 EU member states.
  • The Mission Adaptation aims to support at least 150 regions and communities in accelerating their transformation towards climate resilience by 2030.
  • As part of the mission, the signatories will receive €370 million in 2021-23 to develop pathways towards climate resilience while having access to climate data and methodologies for climate risk assessments and receiving tailor-made guidance on effective adaptation measures.
  • Seventeen private companies, service centres, research networks and local action groups have agreed to become friends of the mission.

 

Global Sustainable Development Report, 2022

  • India has been ranked 121 out of the 163 countries in the latest global Sustainable Development Report, 2022.
  • The country’s rank has slipped for the third consecutive year in the annual report.
  • India faces major challenges in achieving 11 of the 17 SDGs. It includes SDG 8 (ensuring decent work) and SDG 2 (ending hunger)

 

Visible Shift in Monkeypox Virus Spread

1958: Monkeypox virus was identified for the first time in a macaque colony in Denmark.

1971: First human case was reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1970 and in Nigeria in 1971. The number of human cases increased from 48 in 1970-79 to 520 in 1980- 89. Cases found only in Africa.

2003: The US records the first human case of monkeypox outside Africa. From 2000-09, Africa records 10,117 human cases and the rest of the world records 47 cases. In 2010-19, Africa records 19,065 human cases. The rest of the world’s tally remains just six.

2022: On May 6, the United Kingdom records fresh human outbreak. By June 2, human cases were reported in 27 non-African and seven African countries. The world records 824 human cases, almost 95% of the cases reported outside Africa.

 

India’s POX Problem

  • The recent spread of monkeypox to non-endemic countries has trained the spotlight on re-emerging viruses such as buffalopox, which was first isolated in India in 1934.
  • The zoonotic disease endemic to India has its roots in smallpox vaccines. Live viruses used to inoculate buffaloes to produce the smallpox vaccine in India evolved into buffalopox over time.
  • India has recorded several sporadic outbreaks of the disease.
  • Human cases were reported across five districts in Maharashtra between December 1985 and February 1987.
  • The next major outnreak was recorded in three Maharashtra districts in 1992-96.
  • In 2008- 2009, Maharashtra’s Sholapur and Kolhapur districts recorded 21 human cases.
  • The last outbreak was recorded in 2018 when 28 human cases of buffalopox were diagnosed in the state’s Dhule district.
  • A majority of the infected people were milkers and had close contact with buffalos.
  • Recent trends suggest that increasing numbers of outbreaks in the Indian subcontinent are being recorded, but awareness about diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures in humans is much lower, according to a study published in the Clinical Dermatology Review journal in August 2020.

 

Masala Bonds

Masala bonds India

Masala bonds hit the news in 2014 when it was first introduced by International Finance Corporation (IFC).  IFC raised Rs.1,000 crore bond to fund infrastructure projects in India. Later in 2015, IFC issued green masala bonds and raised Rs.3.15 billion to be used for private sector investments that addressed climate changes in India. Since then, it has become a popular product in the last few years. HDFC, Yes Bank, NTPC and IRFC are among the Indian companies that have raised money through the Masala Bonds route. In this article, we will understand what exactly are masala bonds and what are the key features and benefits of masala bonds that are important for UPSC GS paper 3.

What are masala bonds?

  • Masala bonds meaning: Simply put, masala bonds are rupee-denominated bonds.
  • These are debt instruments through which Indian entities can raise money from overseas markets in the rupee, not foreign currency.
  • A Masala bond is a Rupee bond but is repaid in dollar terms based on the extant conversion rate.
  • Here, the objective is to shield issuers from currency risk and instead transfer the risk to investors buying these bonds.

Why it is called masala bonds?

  • IFC used the term ‘Masala’ to evoke the cuisine and culture of India.
  • Masala bonds make the investors bear the risk, unlike dollar bonds where the borrower takes the currency risks.

What is a Maharaja bond?

  • In 204, International Finance Corporation, an arm of the World Bank, issued rupee-denominated borrowing in international markets.
  • It came up with two bond issues:
    • Maharaja Bonds which were issued to Indian investors; and the other one was
    • Masala Bonds that were issued to overseas investors.
  • These Bonds were issued with the specific approval of RBI.

Key features of masala bonds

  • Eligibility: Both the government and private entities can issue masala bonds.
    • Any offshore resident can subscribe to these bonds which are members of the Financial Action Task Force.
    • Multilateral and Regional Financial Institutions of which India is a member country can also subscribe to these bonds.
  • Objective: To fund infrastructure projects, internationalise the Indian rupee and ignite internal growth through borrowings.
  • Minimum maturity: The minimum maturity period for such bonds will be 3 years.
  • Amount: The maximum amount that any eligible borrower can raise through issuance of these bonds under automatic route is INR 50 billion or its equivalent during a financial year.

UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY 06 July, 2022 | A COMPILATION OF CURRENT AFFAIRS -_3.1

 

Benefits of masala bonds

Benefits for the investors

  • These bonds offer higher interest rates and thus benefiting the investor.
  • It also helps in building up foreign investors’ confidence in the Indian economy.
  • It strengthens the foreign investments in the country as it facilitates foreign investors’ confidence in Indian currency.
  • The capital gains arising from the rupee denomination are exempted from tax.
  • Moreover, if the rupee appreciates at the time of maturity, it benefits the investor.

Benefits for the borrowers

  • Masala bonds benefits the borrower as there is no currency risk. It saves the borrower from currency fluctuations.
  • Borrowers need not worry about rupee depreciation as the issuance of these bonds is in Indian currency rather than foreign currency.
  • It helps the Indian entity issuing these bonds to diversify their portfolio.
  • It aids borrowers to cut down their cost as they are issued outside India below 7% interest rate.
  • Since these bonds issuing are in the offshore market, it helps borrowers to tap a large number of investors

 

Read current affairs for UPSC

CIET (NCERT) wins UNESCO’s King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize World Mental Health Report 2022 National Conference on Cyber Safety and National Security Single-use Plastic Ban to Effective from 1st July
MoHUA Launches NIPUN Scheme under DAY NULM Pragati Maidan Integrated Transit Corridor Critical Information Infrastructure (CII): Definition, Need and Protection UNHCR Report on Forced Displacement in 2021
Payment Vision 2025 Parliamentary Panel Report on Promotion and Regulation of E-commerce in India Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF) Key Takeaways of WTO 12th Ministerial Conference
India-EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA): Negotiations Re-launched Desertification and Drought Day Criminal cases in Parliament: 40% Newly Elected RS MPs have Criminal Cases AGNIPATH Scheme: Age Relaxation and Anti-Agnipath Protests

Tuberculosis (TB) in India

Tuberculosis (TB) in India: Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges– Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to- Health.

Tuberculosis (TB) in India in News

  • Tuberculosis is the worst among endemic diseases, killing 1.5 million people every year (WHO). TB affects adults in their most productive years and therefore impoverishes the family and the nation.

Tuberculosis (TB) in India

  • In India, the TB capital of the world, the disease kills some 1,400 persons every day. These are gross estimates, for our health management system has no method to count the exact numbers.
  • In the 1950s and ’60s, India was the global leader in research in epidemiology, transmission and domiciliary treatment of TB.
  • India is a high-burden country. Large proportions of adults carry TB infection in the lung in a dormant condition for life (latent TB). Some among them deteriorate and develop overt TB disease (reactivation TB).
  • HIV infection, diabetes, undernutrition, lung damage due to pollution, tobacco smoking, fall in immune functions due to chronic diseases, alcoholism, etc. accelerate reactivation TB.

Stop TB Partnership of UNOPS

TB Control Programs in India

  • National TB Control Programme: The National TB Control Programme of 1962 was a district-based one with public-private participation.
    • However, upscaling the model proved unsuccessful and the programme failed to control TB.
  • Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP): With that we lost self-confidence and began doing what we were told to do by the WHO under the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP).
    • WHO experts, without factoring in the differences between the TB epidemiology of poor and rich countries, used a theoretical construct of TB control to design RNTCP.
    • By 2018, India realised that light at the end of the tunnel was still elusive.

 

India’s First 5G Testbed

Associated Concerns with RNTCP

  • Lack of Proper Monitoring: For a programme that is heavily funded by the government, there is no prescribed method of monitoring the trajectory of TB control.
  • The assumption that treating pulmonary TB patients alone would control TB was epidemiologically fallacious in India. The theoretical principle is ‘source reduction’.
    • If one patient is the proximate source of infection and disease to another in the community, early diagnosis and treatment would work as source reduction.
  • Lack of People Participation: RNTCP has failed to elicit people’s partnership in TB control. In India’s AIDS Control Programme, public education was given high priority.
    • Red ribbon clubs in schools and colleges are its legacy. Without people’s informed participation, stigma and delay in seeking help will continue.

Tuberculosis (TB) in India- Way Forward

Epidemiologically, human mastery over microbes includes control, elimination and eradication.

  • Control refers to the reduction of disease burden through specific interventions to a pre-determined level in a pre-stated time period.
    • Evidence will have to show that reduction was due to those interventions and not due to a ‘secular trend’.
    • Diseases that have social determinants tend to decline over time with better housing, nutrition, education and income — this is what a ‘secular trend’ is.
    • Globally, by this ‘secular trend’, the burden of TB had been falling by 1% or 1.5% per year.
  • Elimination refers to achieving zero frequency of new cases. As we have a huge backlog of latent TB, we cannot eliminate TB, but we must aim for a high level of control (lowering from 200 per lakh per year to 50 per lakh per year) and document it with measurement.
  • High control is achievable as we have major assets by way of the RNTCP.
    • Trained State and District TB officers are already on the job and we have an extensive network of TB clinics and an army of community and field workers.
    • Once the deficiencies listed above are corrected, we can control TB.

World TB Report 2021

 

NITI Aayog Report on Alternative Products and Technologies to Plastic

Alternative Products and Technologies to Plastic: Relevance

  • GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Plastic ban in India: Context

  • Recently, NITI Aayog has released a new report titled,’ Alternative Products and Technologies to Plastics and their applications.

What is a Single-Use Plastic (SUP)?

  • Single-use plastics (SUP), often referred to as disposable plastics, are commonly used for plastic packaging and include items intended to be used only once before being thrown away or recycled.
  • They are non-biodegradable and harm our health, wildlife, and the environment.
  • They take years to disintegrate and further break down into smaller pieces of plastics known as microplastics contaminating food and water, including oceans.

Plastic industry in India

  • The plastics industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in India.
  • Plastic consumption has grown by almost 20 times since it was introduced in 1945.
  • The plastics industry is one of the biggest generators of employment in the country, valued to be around INR 5.1 lakh crore (USD 73 billion).
  • There are over 30,000 units that produce plastic materials in India. Approximately 90% of these units are small and medium-sized enterprises.

Plastic waste in India

  • Approximately 4 million tons per annum of plastic waste was generated in India in 2019-20 while the per capita waste generation trend for the last five years (2016-20) has almost doubled over the previous five years.
  • Goa, Delhi & Kerala have reported the highest per capita plastic waste generation, while Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura have reported the lowest per capita plastic waste generation.

Plastic impact on climate

  • The life of plastic begins as a fossil fuel, and greenhouse gases (GHG) are emitted at
    each stage of the plastic lifecycle:

    • fossil fuel extraction and transport,
    • plastic refining and manufacture,
    • managing plastic waste, and
    • ongoing effects within oceans, waterways, and various ecosystem landscapes
  • According to CIEL report, at current levels, greenhouse gas emissions from the plastic lifecycle threaten the ability of the global community to keep global temperature rise below 1.5°C degrees.
  • If plastic production and use grow as currently planned, by 2030, these emissions could reach 1.34 gigatons per year, equivalent to the emissions released by more than 295 new 500-megawatt coal-
    fired power plants.
  • By 2050, the cumulation of these greenhouse gas emissions from plastic could reach over 56 gigatons, or 10 – 13% per cent of the entire remaining carbon budget.

Alternatives to plastics

  • Bio-plastics: It encompass many materials that are either bio-sourced or biodegradable or both and are made from renewable biomass resources, most often corn starch/ sugarcane/ cassava – which might be either biodegradable or not.
  • Biodegradable plastic: It means that plastics, other than compostable plastics, which undergo complete degradation by biological processes under ambient environmental (terrestrial or in water) conditions, in specified time periods, without leaving any micro plastics, or visible, distinguishable or toxic residue, which has adverse environment impacts, adhering to laid down standards of BIS and certified by CPCB.
  • Compostable plastics: It mean plastics that undergo degradation by biological processes during composting to yield CO2 , water, inorganic compounds and biomass at a rate consistent with other known compostable materials, and do not leave visible, distinguishable or toxic residue. These can be plant- based, but can also be petroleum-based as well.
  • Oxo-degradable/ oxydegradable/ oxo-biodegradable plastics: These are conventional plastics such as PE, which include an additive to help them break down into smaller fragments, which could lead to microplastic leakage in the environment.

 

Read current affairs for UPSC

CIET (NCERT) wins UNESCO’s King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize World Mental Health Report 2022 National Conference on Cyber Safety and National Security Single-use Plastic Ban to Effective from 1st July
MoHUA Launches NIPUN Scheme under DAY NULM Pragati Maidan Integrated Transit Corridor Critical Information Infrastructure (CII): Definition, Need and Protection UNHCR Report on Forced Displacement in 2021
Payment Vision 2025 Parliamentary Panel Report on Promotion and Regulation of E-commerce in India Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF) Key Takeaways of WTO 12th Ministerial Conference
India-EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA): Negotiations Re-launched Desertification and Drought Day Criminal cases in Parliament: 40% Newly Elected RS MPs have Criminal Cases AGNIPATH Scheme: Age Relaxation and Anti-Agnipath Protests

Election to the Office of Vice-President of India

Vice-President Election 2022- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Indian Constitution- Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Vice-President Election News

  • Recently, the Election Commission issued notification for the August 6 poll to elect the next vice president of India, setting in motion the process of filing nomination papers by candidates.

Qualifications for the election of Vice-President

  • The Vice-President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State.
    • If a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected Vice-President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as Vice-President.
  • No person shall be eligible for election as Vice-President unless he –
    • is a citizen of India;
    • has completed the age of thirty-five years; and
    • is qualified for election as a member of the Council of States.
  • A person shall not be eligible for election as Vice-President if he holds any office of profit under-
    • The Government of India or
    • The Government of any State or
    • Any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.
  • Note: For the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason only that he is the President or Vice-President of the Union or the Governor of any State or is a Minister either for the Union or for any State.

Vice-Presidential Election 2022 Process

  • Constitutional Provisions: Article 66 says that the Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament.
    • The Vice-President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State.
  • Eligible Voters: The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament.
    • Note: Both elected and nominated members of the parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) participates in the election of Vice-president.
  • Vote Value: Since all the electors for the Vice-president election are members of Parliament, the value of the vote of each MP would be the same – one.
  • Election Method: The election of the Vice-President of India is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote.
    • The voting in the Election of the Vice-President of India shall be by secret ballot.
  • Electors and Proposers: The nomination paper of a candidate has to be subscribed by at least 20 electors as proposers and by at least 20 other electors as seconders.
    • An elector can subscribe to only one nomination paper of a candidate as either a proposer or a seconder.
  • Security Deposits: A candidate can file a maximum of four nomination papers. The security deposit for the election is ₹15,000.

Constitutional Articles relating to Vice-President of India

 

Vice Presidents of India [Article 63 to Article 71]
Article 63 There shall be a Vice President of India
Article 64 The Vice-President shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office of profit
Article 65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President
Article 66 The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament. The Vice-President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State.
Article 67 The Vice-President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date of his appointment.
Article 68 An election to fill a vacancy created because of the completion of the term of office of Vice-President shall be completed before the expiry of the term.

The election to fill a vacancy created because of the death, resignation or removal of Vice-President shall be held as soon as possible.

Article 69 Every Vice-President shall make an Oath or Affirmation on entering upon his office before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him
Article 70 Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies
Article 71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a president or vice-president

Vice-President of India (Articles 63-73)

 

 

Reforms in Higher Education: Parliamentary Standing Committee Submits Report

Reforms in Higher Education UPSC: Relevance

  • GS 2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Education in India: Context

  • Recently, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Education, Women, Children, Youth and Sports has made recommendations on reforms in higher education in India.

Reforms in Higher Education: Key points

  • The committee has observed that only 30 per cent of the universities and 20 per cent of the colleges are accredited in India.
  • The committee recommends that the Government should give an active consideration to the demand that deemed universities be allowed to use the term ‘university’ to avoid confusion abroad as most foreign countries do not use such a nomenclature.
  • The proposed Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will have a vertical on accreditation.

Government steps for higher education

  • University Grants Commission has relaxed the norms and standards for setting up open universities. Particularly, land requirement has been reduced from 40 acres to just five acres.
  • More universities are being enabled to offer courses in the distance, open and online mode, mostly in collaboration with EdTech start-ups and unicorns.
  • Students are also made to complete a certain portion of their course requirements through Massive Open Online Courses.
  • Additionally, they can accumulate credits at will and deposit them in their Academic Bank of Credit to be exchanged for a degree at a later stage.

National Education Policy

  • 50% GER in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) by 2035.
  • Academic Bank of Credit to be created to provide multiple entry and exit options for students in Higher education.
  • The M.Phil program to be discontinued.
  • Multidisciplinary Education & Research University (MERU) to be created.
  • By 2040, all HEIs to be multi-disciplinary.
  • Over a period of 15-years, all HEIs to become independent and self-governing (ending of affiliation system).
  • Higher education institutions to be driven by two missions: Mission Nalanda and Mission Takshashila.

 

Read current affairs for UPSC

CIET (NCERT) wins UNESCO’s King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize World Mental Health Report 2022 National Conference on Cyber Safety and National Security Single-use Plastic Ban to Effective from 1st July
MoHUA Launches NIPUN Scheme under DAY NULM Pragati Maidan Integrated Transit Corridor Critical Information Infrastructure (CII): Definition, Need and Protection UNHCR Report on Forced Displacement in 2021
Payment Vision 2025 Parliamentary Panel Report on Promotion and Regulation of E-commerce in India Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF) Key Takeaways of WTO 12th Ministerial Conference
India-EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA): Negotiations Re-launched Desertification and Drought Day Criminal cases in Parliament: 40% Newly Elected RS MPs have Criminal Cases AGNIPATH Scheme: Age Relaxation and Anti-Agnipath Protests

 

 

Toy Industry Boom in India

Toy industry of India: Relevance

  • GS 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Toy manufacturing in India: Context

  • Recently, Ministry of Commerce & Industry has informed that the import of toys is down by 70% in the last three years, showing the robust growth of toy sector in India.

Toy sector growth in India

  • The Indian toys market reached a value of US $1.35 billion in 2021.
  • The toy market is projected to reach US $2.73 billion by 2027, showing a CAGR of 12.6% during 2022-2027.
  • According to a FICCI-KPMG report, the Indian toy market, which is currently estimated at $1 billion, has the potential to double itself by 2025.
  • There is high growth potential for India in exports of plastic toys and board games in the US, EU and Middle East among other markets.

Key drivers of toy sector growth

  • Huge consumer base: With a population of around 1.3 billion, India is the second largest populated country in the world. Moreover, the country has a very large young population with around half of the total population under the age of 25.
  • Rising disposable income: The increasing domestic demand for toys in India is also being catalysed by the country’s strong economic growth and rising disposable incomes.
  • Historical connection: The existence of toys in India dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization around five thousand years ago.
    • While the earlier toys were made from materials found in nature such as sticks, clay and rocks, the advent of advanced technology and machinery has encouraged manufacturers to produce modern and innovative toys.
  • Diversity of toys: There is a huge diversity in toys. While some are made by the MSMEs, others are made by the big companies. The price of toys also has a wide range.
    • Based on gender, unisex toys dominate the Indian toys market, accounting for the majority of the overall market share. Unisex toys are followed by girls’ and boys’ toys.
  • Online sales: Online sales channels have also recently witnessed a boom in India with the evolution of smartphones and other digital media. With the kind of internet penetration in India, online sales channels have appeared to be one of the fastest growing distribution channels for toys in India.

Government steps for toy sector

  • Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) mandated sample testing of each consignment and no permission for sale unless the quality testing is successful. In case of failure, the consignment is either sent back or destroyed at the cost of the importer.
  • Basic Custom Duty (BCD) on Toys has been increased from 20% to 60% in February, 2020.
  • The Government issued Toys (Quality Control) Order, 2020 through which toys have been brought under compulsory Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) certification.
  • BIS made special provisions in so as to grant license to micro scale units manufacturing toys without testing facility for one year and not to insist on establishing in-house facility.
  • BIS has granted 843 licenses to domestic manufacturers from safety of toys, out of these, 645 licenses have been granted for non-electric toys and 198 licenses granted for electric toys. In addition to this, 6 licenses have been granted to international toy manufacturers.

 

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State Ranking Index for NFSA

State Ranking Index for NFSA- Relevance for UPSC Exam

State Ranking Index for NFSA: The first State Ranking Index for NFSA was released recently. State Ranking Index for NFSA 2022 is part of UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 (Governance, Administration and Challenges- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.)

UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY 06 July, 2022 | A COMPILATION OF CURRENT AFFAIRS -_4.1

 

State Ranking Index for NFSA in News

  • Recently, Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution released the 1st edition of ‘State Ranking Index for NFSA’ during the conference of Food Ministers of States/UTs on ‘Food Nutrition and Security in India’.

State Ranking Index for NFSA 2022

  • About: “State ranking Index for NFSA” attempts to document the status and progress of implementation of NFSA and various reform initiatives across the country, post consultation with states.
  • Mandate: The first State Ranking Index for NFSA has been developed to create an environment of competition, cooperation and learning among states while addressing matters of food security and hunger.
  • Focus Areas: The present State Ranking Index for NFSA is largely focused on NFSA Distribution and will include procurement, PMGKAY Distribution in future.
  • Pillars of the Index: The Index for ranking the states and UTs is built on three key pillars which covers the end-to-end implementation of NFSA through TPDS. These pillars are-
    • NFSA— Coverage, targeting and provisions of the Act,
    • Delivery platform, and
    • Nutrition initiatives
  • Significance: “State ranking Index for NFSA” highlights the reforms undertaken by States and UTs and create a cross-learning environment and scale-up reform measures by all states and union territories. It will also help in-
    • Creating transparency in the system to publish reliable and standard data in the public domain for citizens and
    • Periodically publishing data that global and Indian agencies can use for their research and analysis.

State Ranking Index for NFSA Findings

  • Overall, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh scored the highest and secured the top three positions in the Index.
    • Odisha topped the list of 34 states and Union territories (UTs). Ladakh was ranked last on the index.
  • Tripura, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim secured the top positions among special category states.
  • Tripura ranked first and Ladakh came last among the 14 smaller states and UTs.
  • Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu scored the highest in terms coverage, targeting and implementing provisions of NFSA.
  • Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana had the best delivery platform displaying the efficiency of the TPDS (Targeted Public Distribution System) Supply Chain.

Conference of Food Ministers of States/UTs on ‘Food Nutrition and Security in India’

  • About: Conference of Food Ministers of States/UTs on ‘Food Nutrition and Security in India’ is being organized in order to celebrate the enactment day of National Food Security Act (NFSA).
    • National Food Security Act (NFSA) was enacted on July 5, 2013.
  • Organizing Department: Conference of Food Ministers of States/UTs on ‘Food Nutrition and Security in India’ is being organized by the Department of Food and Public Distribution.
  • Mandate: the conference was organized to deliberate and discuss nutritional security, food security, best practices followed in Public Distribution System, crop diversification, reforms in PDS and storage sector.

Global Food Security Index 2021

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