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Indian Geography UPSC Notes PDF Topic Wise

Indian Geography UPSC Notes PDF Topic Wise_30.1

Indian Geography Notes For UPSC

Preparing for the UPSC Civil Services Examination requires a thorough understanding of Indian geography, as it is an integral part of both the prelims and main stages of the exam. Here’s a comprehensive study material guide tailored for the year 2024 to help you master Indian geography and excel in the IAS exam:

Indian Geography Notes PDF Topic Wise

Classification of Soil in India: Here you can find Indian Geography Notes Topic-wise. These Topice wise notes will help you to reach each individual topic easily. Click out the Table provided below for the Classification of Soil in India.

Indian Geography Notes for UPSC PDF Free Download
Types of Soil in India Part I Click Here 
Types of Soil Part II Click Here
Types of Soil Part III Click Here
What is the Soil Erosion Click Here
Different Layers of Soil Horizon Click Here
Soil Tillage Updating soon
Types of Tillage Click here
Types of Soil Tillage Part-1 Click here 

1. Physical Geography
Major Landforms: Study the major landforms of India, including the Himalayas, Western and Eastern Ghats, Indo-Gangetic Plains, and the various plateaus.
Climate and Weather: Understand India’s diverse climatic zones, monsoons, and the impact of climate change on the country.
Rivers and Drainage: Learn about India’s major rivers, their origins, tributaries, and significance for irrigation and transportation.

2. Political Geography:
– States and Union Territories: Familiarize yourself with the political map of India, 28 states and Capitals, and its union territories
– Bordering Countries: Study India’s neighboring countries, their geopolitical importance, and the issues related to border disputes.

National Events
Moon Landing  Chandrayaan 3 
Luna 25 mission 2023  Aditya L 1 Mission 

3. Economic Geography
– Agriculture: Gain insights into India’s agricultural practices, cropping patterns, major crops, types of farming in India, and the revolutions of agriculture in the Indian economy.
– Minerals and Industries: Understand the distribution of minerals and industrial regions and their impact on economic development.
– Transportation: Study the modes of transportation, major ports, and their significance for trade and commerce.

4. Social and Cultural Geography:
– Population: Analyze India’s population distribution, density, growth, and demographic challenges.
National Languages and Religions: Learn about the linguistic and religious diversity of India and their regional variations.

5. Environmental Geography:
– Ecosystems: Understand India’s varied ecosystems, the List of biodiversity hotspots in the world, and loss of biodiversity, and the importance of conservation.
Natural Disasters: Study the vulnerability of different regions to natural disasters like earthquakes, floods, and cyclones.

6. Geopolitical and Strategic Aspects:
– Border Disputes: Deepen your understanding of India’s border conflicts and their historical, political, and strategic dimensions.
– International Relations: Explore how India’s geography influences its foreign policy and relations with neighboring countries.

Preparation Strategy for Indian Geography

Indian GeographyPrepration Strategy: By mastering Indian geography with this study material in 2024, you’ll not only fare well in the UPSC IAS Exam but also develop a comprehensive understanding of India’s physical, social, and economic landscape. Remember that consistent and focused preparation is key to success in this challenging examination.

  • Integrated Approach: Link geographical concepts to current affairs, environment, and economics for a holistic understanding.
  • Maps and Diagrams: Practice drawing maps and diagrams to aid visual memory and accurate representation.
  • Previous Year Papers: Solve past years’ questions to understand the exam’s trend and types of questions asked.
  • Mock Tests: Regularly take mock tests to assess your preparation and improve time management.


What is the geography for India?

Most of India forms a peninsula, which means it is surrounded by water on three sides.

What is the father of Indian geography?

James Rennell has been called the Father of Indian Geography, and for his pioneering work on oceanography as the Father of Oceanography.

What is unique geography of India?

It has a diverse topography, including the Himalayan Mountains to the Deccan Plateau and Indo-Gangetic Plain.

What are the main topics of Indian geography?

Indian Geography can be divided into three – Physical Geography, Economic Geography and Social Geography. The major sub-topics under Physical Indian Geography are Physic-graphic divisions, Drainage, Climate, Vegetation, Natural Resources etc.

What is the brief note of Indian geography?

India is situated north of the equator between 8°4' north (the mainland) to 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' east to 97°25' east longitude. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).