World TB Report 2021: Relevance
- GS 3: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
World TB Report 2021: Context
- Recently, WHO has released World TB Report for the year 2021 to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic, and of progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease, at global, regional and country levels.
World TB Report 2021: Key findings
- The COVID-19 pandemic has reversed years of progress in providing essential TB services and reducing TB disease burden. Global TB targets are mostly off-track, although there are some country and regional success stories.
- The countries that contributed most to the global drop between 2019 and 2020 were India (41%), Indonesia, (14%), the Philippines (12%) and China (8%).
- These countries and 12 other countries accounted for 93% of the total global drop of 3 million.
- The global number of deaths officially classified as caused by TB in 2020 was almost double the number caused by HIV/AIDS.
- In 2020, it is anticipated that TB will rank as the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after COVID-19.
- Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), China (8.5%), Indonesia (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.8%), Nigeria (4.6%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.3%).
World TB Report 2021: COVID disruptions
- The most obvious impact on TB of disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is a large global drop in the number of people newly diagnosed with TB and reported in 2020 as compared to 2019.
- These disruptions included
- reduced health system capacity to continue to provide services,
- less willingness and ability to seek care in the context of lockdowns and associated restrictions on movement,
- concerns about the risks of going to health care facilities during a pandemic, and
- stigma associated with similarities in the symptoms related to TB and COVID-19.
- TB is caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is spread when people who are sick with TB expel bacteria into the air (e.g., by coughing).
- The disease typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can affect other sites.
- Most people (about 90%) who develop the disease are adults, with more cases among men than women.
- About a quarter of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis.
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that is a major cause of ill health and one of the leading causes of death worldwide.
- Until the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, TB was the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS.