An IFSC is a zone that provides a platform to world-class financial services to non-residents and residents in a currency other than the domestic currency (Indian rupee) of the location where the IFSC is located.

International Financial Service Centre (IFSC) is India’s first its kinds of centre that was commissioned at the Gujarat International Financial Tec (GIFT) City, Gandhinagar. With an IFSC in India, India now competes against global financial hubs like Dubai and Singapore to attract foreign investors who are willing to trade in foreign currencies. Many emerging IFSCs around the world are aspiring to play a global role e.g. Shanghai and Dubai.

GIFT City is a multi-services that provides a special economic zone (SEZ) which has set up the first International Financial Service Centre in India (IFSC) in accordance with the SEZ Act 2005.

The main objective behind establishing an IFSC in India is providing a platform for international financial services to operate from and to specialize in exports of high value-added International Financial Services.

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Types of IFSCs

1. Global Financial Centers (GFCs): These are the centres that sincerely serve clients from all over the world in the provision of the widest possible through the group of organisation e.g., international financial services based in London, New York, Singapore.

2. Regional Financial Centers (RFCs): They serve their regional economies rather than their national economies, e.g., Dubai or Hong Kong.

3. Non-global and non-regional, ordinary international IFSCs: They provide a broad range of international financial services but cater mainly to the needs of their national economies rather than their regions or the world. In a way, they connect their financial systems to the world. These centres are like Paris, Frankfurt, Tokyo and Sydney.

4. Offshore Financial Centers (OFCs): These are centres that primarily tax havens for wealth management and global tax management rather than providing the full array of international financial services.

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IFSC and India

An IFSC looks for to bring those types of financial services and transactions that are currently carried on outside India by overseas financial institutions and overseas branches/ subsidiaries of Indian financial institutions in India.

It was first decided to set up in Mumbai on the basis of the reports of the High Powered Expert Committee (HPEC) in 2007. But it was commissioned in Gandhinagar, Gujarat and Gujarat became India’s first International Financial Service Centre (IFSC).

Under Section 18 and Section 55 of India’s Special Economic Zone Act, 2005 provides for the establishment of an IFSC in India and enables the Central Government to regulate IFSC activities. GIFT SEZ Limited has been notified by Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India on 18 August 2011 for setting up a sector-specific SEZ for multi-services at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

Only one International Financial Services Centre is approved in a Special Economic Zone.

IFSC has been set up for all practical purposes as a ‘deemed foreign territory’ which would have the same ecosystem as other offshore locations, but which is physically on Indian soil.

In this, a wide range of participants including the Banks, Insurance companies, Stock Exchanges, Clearing Corporations & Depositories, Brokers, Investment Advisors, Portfolio Managers, Alternate Investment Funds and Mutual Funds have been permitted to participate in GIFT-IFSC.

Hon’ble Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi inaugurated BSE’s India International Exchange (IFSC) Ltd (India INX), and India International Clearing Corporation Limited (India ICC) on January 09, 2017. Subsequently, India International Exchange (INX) commenced trading from January 16, 2017. NSE’s International Exchange & Clearing Corporation has also commenced operations in June 2017.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 7 January, 2021

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Recently in the news that a mutated variant of the novel coronavirus has been associated with infections in England. What does this mean? Whether the mutation could affect people’s response to vaccines? Is this strain in India? Know more about it here.

It has been found that a mutated variant of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 has been associated with recent infections in England. The virus has undergone various mutations since it first infected humans and as per scientist, it is neither unexpected nor a cause for panic.

About the New Mutant Coronavirus

In England, the mutant virus has been identified as N501Y and is likely to be a mutation in the spike protein. Or we can say that it is the coronavirus spike protein that binds to a human protein to initiate the process of infection. Here the changes could possibly affect how the virus behaves like the ability of the virus to infect, or cause severe disease or may escape the immune response made by vaccines. Anything can be there and is a major concern.

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According to reports quoting UK Health Secretary Matt Hancock, the virus-carrying this mutation has caused around 1,100 new infections in 60 local authority areas. The mutation has been tracked by the Consortium for COVID-19 genomics UK (COG-UK) and is likely to provide a critique soon.

As explained above as per Professor Ravi it is likely to be a mutation in the spike protein. He further said that there has been a single nucleotide change in one portion of the spike protein, so there would be no bearing on the disease biology or even diagnostic.

Here a question arises that what is a mutation? Do you know about it?

A mutation is a change in the genetic sequence of the virus. As in the case of SARS-CoV-2, which is an RNA virus, here mutation is a change in the sequence in which its molecules are arranged. In the RNA virus mutation occurs which often happens when the virus makes a mistake while it is making copies of itself.

Prof V. Ravi, retired Head of the Department of Neurovirology at NIMHANS (National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences), Bengaluru explained that only if the mutation results in a significant change in the protein structure can the course of disease be altered.

What will be the effect on infection and vaccination?

As we know that various COVID-19 vaccines have been designed to develop antibodies to target the spike protein. Vaccine target several regions on the spike and mutation is change in a single point. So we can say that is there is one mutation then it does not mean that vaccine would not work. Also, all strains of SARS-CoV-2 are genetically similar to one another and scientists are not expecting that these mutations will have a significant impact on the ability to cause more severe disease that what has been observed so far.

Various mutation means nothing at all, or at least are more successful for reasons not known. We can understand in this way that a different strain may be more transmissible, but cause less disease.

Therefore, researchers need to monitor the mutations as there is no evidence that the new strain in the UK is more transmissible or more severe/resistant to treatment or vaccination.

What is Serosurvey and what does it indicate?

Is a mutation in the spike protein important or significant?

According to the Dr Gagandeep Kang, Professor at Christian Medical College, Vellore, there would be more concern about a mutation in the spike region than other regions of the coronavirus genome. To initiate the process of infection, it is the coronavirus spike protein that binds to a human protein. He further stated that changes here could possibly affect how the virus behaves in terms of its ability to infect, or cause severe disease, or escape the immune response made by vaccines — but these are theoretical concerns at the moment.

Is this type of Mutant Variant in India?

As per researchers, they have not seen this type of variant in India. As per Dr Rakesh Mishra, Director, CISR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, “We have not seen this variant in India.” “But we are watching out for mutations as they are constantly happening. For the moment, it is not something to be worried about and is restricted to a few countries.”

Dr. Mishra told that there are no indications so far that the UK mutation has more affinity to the ACE-2 receptor (the human protein with which the virus spike protein binds). Also, it is not proven that there are clinical and immunological consequences.

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So, what about the earlier Mutation?

D614G Mutation aided the virus in attaching more efficiently with the ACE2 receptor in the human host and so it makes more entry in the human body more successful than its predecessors.

D614G showed increased infection but it also displayed greater ability at attaching itself to the cell walls inside an individual’s nose and throat, increasing the viral load. Over 4,000 mutations have been detected in the spike region through the pandemic. Dr Gang stressed the need to understand why the increase and what it means.

Is there need to worry about these changes or mutations?

It is a fact that mutation will keep happening and the new virus variant will also survive or maybe disappear depends upon the immune response and their ability to multiply and transmit as per the Professor Arindam Maitra of the National Institute of Biomedical Genomics.

He also explained that the strains of all SARS-CoV-2 are genetically similar to one another and scientists are not expecting these mutations to have a significant impact on their ability to cause more severe disease than what has been observed so far.

What is ‘Vaccine Nationalism’?

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Topics covered are:
– About Black Fungus
– Cause of Fungal Infection
– Who are at risk?
– Mucormycosis Types
– Transmission
– Symptoms
– Diagnosis and Testing
– Treatment
– Prevention and Cure
– Facts about Mucormycetes

Doctors have witnessed increased cases of Covid-19 triggered Mucormycosis, recently. COVID-19 patients immunity gets reduced which makes them more susceptible to this fungal infection.

Mucormycosis is also known as Black Fungus or Zygomycosis.

It is said that if anyone is recovered from coronavirus and are experiencing a little soreness in eyes or nose obstruction, then people should not ignore it.

The prestigious doctors at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital in New Delhi have identified new cases of fungal infection triggered by COVID-19. It causes loss of eyesight, affect the nose, jaw-bone or even death if left untreated. It can also lead to 50% mortality when it affects the brain in about fifteen days.

This fungal infection is associated with a rare killer fungus known as Mucor which exists in environment. This fungus causes a disease named as Mucormycosis or Black Fungus, previously called as zygomycosis or we can say that it is a serious but rare fungal infection caused by a group of molds called mucormycetes.

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How this fungal infection is caused?

It is nothing but a kind of fungal infection caused by moulds known as mucormycetes which exists in the environment. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States, these molds live throughout the environment. When any one comes in contact with the fungal spores in the environment then he or she get affected by mucormycosis.

Who are at risk?

It is said that those who are taking medicines for any specific kind of illness and those people who have recovered from coronavirus disease are at high risk of this killer fungus. Also, people with diabetes or kidney problems are at higher risk.

According to Dr Manish Munjal, the Senior ENT surgeon at the Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, “The frequency with which we are witnessing the occurrence of Covid triggered mucormycosis with high morbidity and mortality is alarming. Early clinical suspicion on symptoms such as nose obstruction, swelling in the eye or cheeks, and black dry crusts in the nose should immediately prompt a biopsy and start of the antifungal therapy as early as possible.”

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Mucormycosis Types

1. Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis: It is mostly found in young children rather than adults mainly premature and low birth weight infants less than 1 month of age, who are taking antibiotics, or faced surgery or in medications due to which the ability of the body to fight with germs and sickness gets lowered.

2. Rhinocerebral (Sinus and Brain) Mucormycosis: The infection is in the Sinus that can spread to the brain. It is commonly found in those people who are suffering from uncontrolled diabetes and who had a kidney transplant.

3. Cutaneous (Skin) Mucormycosis: When fungi enters a body due to break in the skin like after surgery, a burn, or other types of skin trauma, it is caused. It is most common in those people who do not have weakened immune system.

4. Pulmonary (Lung) Mucormycosis: In cancer patients it is most common type of mucormycosis and also in peole who have had an organ transplant or a stem cell transplant.

5. Disseminated Mucormycosis: When an infection spreads through bloodstream to affect another part of the body it occurs. This infection most commonly affects the brain but can also affect other organs like spleen, heart and skin.

How is it transmitted?

It can be transmitted through inhalation, inoculation or ingestion of spores from the environment. It does not  spread between people or between people and animals. It hasbeen seen and sicussed above that it usually occurs in people who have health problems or take medicines that lowers the ability of the body to fight with germs and sickness.

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What are its symptoms?

Common symptoms are

– One-sided facial swelling

– Headache

– Nasal or sinus congestion

– Black lesions on nasal bridge or upper inside of the mouth that quickly becomes more severe

– Fever

– Loss of eyesight

– Abdominal pain

– Gastrointestinal bleeding

– Nausea

Sometimes it is difficult to know about the symptoms that are related to mucormycosis because disseminated mucormycosis typically occurs in people who are already sick from other medical conditions. Patients with disseminated infection in the brain can develop mental status changes or coma.

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How it can be diagnosed or tested?

Healthcare providers when diagnose mucormycosis conisder medical history, symptoms, physical examinations, and laboratory tests.

If suspected with an infection then healthcare providers collect a sample of fluid from the respiratory system or may perform a tissue biopsy.

What is the treatment?

With some antifungal medicine a patient need to be treated to prevent from mucormycosis and other mold infections.

Also, mucormycosis requires surgery to cut away the infected tissue.

What is the prevention and cure?

To prevent from mucormycosis, there is no vaccine. Therefore, it is difficult to avoid breathing in fungal spores because the fungi are common in the environment.

Some ways may be there to lower the chances of developing mucormycosis for those people who have weakened immune systems. These can be avoid going in areas with a lot of dust including construction or excavation sites, avoiding direct contact with water-damaged buildings and flood water after hurricanes and natural disasters and avoiding activities that involve close contact to soil.

If early detected then loss of eyesight, nose or jaw through clinical intervention can be prevented.

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Some facts about Mucormycetes

They are group of fungi that cause mucormycosis. Ther are present throughout the environment, mainly in soil and in association with decaying organic matter, like leaves, compost piles, and animal dung.

The most common types of fungi that cause mucormycosis are Rhizopus species and Mucor species.

More commonly they are found in soil than in air, and in summer and fall than in winter or spring.

To those people these fungi are not harmful who have

These fungi are not harmful to most people but for those people they are who have weakened immune systems. Also,  breathing in micromycetes spores can cause an infection.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 17 December, 2020

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The journey of UPSC can prove to be a life-changing experience in the life of any candidate. UPSC has decided the date for Prelims exam for 2021 and it is 27 June. So, the clock has been started for the candidates who are planning to appear for UPSC CSE 2021. The most common question that comes in everyone’s mind especially the beginners that How to Prepare for UPSC Civil Services Exam 2021.

It will be better to read some basic books at the starting of the preparation or at the initial stages so that an understanding is developed which is required to crack the examination and also to fulfil the responsibilities of a civil servant effectively.

It is rightly said, “By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.”

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Here, we are mentioning some essential books and plan to create an understanding regarding the syllabus of the UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam and how to prepare.

Names of the Books are as follows:

– All NCERTs (6th class to 12th class)

– For Polity Laxmikanth

– For Ancient Indian history Tamil Board book

– For Modern Indian History Spectrum

– For Science and tech Tata Mcgrawhill

– For Indian art and culture Nitin Singhania

– For Environment ICSE Books, Monthly magazines and newspapers

Things to Remember

– It is necessary to understand that strategy should always be Mains perspective. If you are preparing for Mains automatically most of the Prelims will be prepared and also try to finish the maximum syllabus of Mains before prelims.

– Or we can say that complete the Mains syllabus at least once before the Prelims.

– Answer writing practise should be there and it will be better to have a good answer writing practice before Prelims.

– Revise the whole week work on Sunday or frequent revision is required.

– If you want you can also make short notes of General Studies topics.

– Analyse previous Years questions before starting with any subject.

– Cover the newspaper on daily basis do not leave for many days incomplete.

– Study daily with consistency for about 6 to 8 hours or according to your capacity. During the course of preparation, you may don’t feel like studying on some days but you will have to study and focused.

UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2021: General Studies and CSAT for CSE

List of the basic minimum resources or books with some important topics subject-wise are mentioned. This will help the freshers to plan the preparation accordingly.

Subject Sources
Economy
  • Indian Economic Development- 11th NCERT
  • Macroeconomics- 12th NCERT
  • Economic Survey, Budget
  • Niti Aayog Report
  • Agriculture- Recent Trends & Problems, Schemes, initiatives & programmes ( From magazines, PIB, newspaper, etc.)
Polity
  • M.Laxmikanth
  • D.D. Basu
  • Focus on Bills, Acts in the news as it can be asked in Prelims and Mains
  • RSTV videos
Geography
  • Class 8th NCERT (Resources and developments)
  • Class 9th NCERT ( Contemporary India -1)
  • Class 10th NCERT (Contemporary India -2)
  • Fundamentals of Physical Geography- 11th NCERT
  • Physical Environment of India- 11th NCERT
  • Human Geography- 12th NCERT
  • Indian People and Economy- 12th NCERT
  • Certificate Geography- G.C. Leong
  • Map book
  • Mains- Savinder Singh, Khullar/Majid Hussain
  • Interlink with Mains topics such as Disaster Management.
Environment
  • Biology class 12th NCERT- Last 4 Chapters
  • ICSE Books
  • Newspaper, Monthly magazine

Topics to be covered are:

  • Introduction to Environment & Ecology
  • Ecological Hierarchy: Habitat & Niche
  •  Ecological Principles
  •  Ecological Succession
  • Ecosystems Definition & Concept
  • Ecosystem Dynamics: Pyramids, Food web
  • Biomagnification and Biochemical cycles
  • Biomes: Forests, Grasslands, Mountain & Desert Ecosystem
  • Aquatic Life: Zones of the Ocean, Coral Reefs & Mangroves
  • Aquatic Life: Conventions-Montreux, Ramsar Convention
  • Biodiversity: Basics and Concepts
  • Biodiversity: Keystone, Indicator and Invasive species
  • Biodiversity Hotspots, Eco-regions & Megadiverse Regions
  • Biodiversity: Uses & Values
  • Biodiversity: Biogeographic Classification of India
  • Biodiversity: IUCN Classification & Red List
  • Biodiversity: Ex-situ & In-situ Conservation
  • Biodiversity: UNESCO, CBD & Cartagena Protocol
  • Biodiversity: Nagoya Protocol; Aichi Targets
  • Environment: Pollution-Air, Water; carcinogens
  • Environment Impact Assessment: Recent issues
  • Environmental Laws & Institutions
  • Environment: Schemes & Policies
  • International Environmental Governance, etc.
History
  •  Ancient History: Cover Old NCERT,(Class XIth, RS Sharma)
  • Tamil Board, (Class: 8,10,11,12,13,14 (Ancient India) Quiz
  • Indian Medieval History- Satish Chandra( Old NCERT )
  • Indian freedom struggle- Spectrum
  • Bipin Chandra- India’s struggle for Independence
  • Bipin Chandra- India’s struggle after Independence
  • World History- Arjun Dev NCERT
Art and culture

 

  • An introduction to Indian Art- 11th NCERT
  • Focus on art and culture chapters of Indian Ancient History- R S Sharma( Old NCERT )
  • Indian Medieval History- Satish Chandra( Old NCERT )
  • CCRT
  • Art & Culture: Nitin Singhania’s notes
  • Watch videos on youtube. Audio-visual helps memorize better,
IR
  • Focus on country-country relations – static and current developments
  • Newspapers and Magazines will help
  • V.N Khanna

Topics to be covered:

  • India and its neighbourhood-relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.
  • The Indian diaspora, Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate etc.
General science
  • NCERT- 9th
  • NCERT – 10th
  • Newspaper and monthly magazine
Ethics
  • ARC- Ethics in Governance
  • Remember definitions
  • Subba Rao- For case studies

Topics to be covered are:

  • Fundamentals of Ethics, Morality & Legality
  • Determinants of Ethics & Ethics in Public Life
  • Dimensions/Branches of Ethics
  • Human Values: Values & Skills
  • Fundamental Values Vs. Instrumental Values
  • Aptitude & Foundational Values of Civil Services
  • Concepts of Neutrality, Anonymity and Commitment; Morality of Civil Servants
  • Contributions of Western Moral Thinkers
  • Contributions of Western Moral Thinkers
  • Contributions of Indian Thinkers
  • Contributions of Indian Religious Philosophy
  • Attitude: Types & Functions of Attitude
  • Ethics & Law: Enforcement of Ethics through Civil Services Conduct Rules & Code of Ethics
  • Ethics & the Law: RTI Act, Citizens’ Charters
  • The challenge of Corruption: Laws and Regulations
  • Probity in Governance
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Components of Emotional competencies
  • Corporate Governance: Ethics and Probity
  • Case Studies Session
  • Ethics: Paper related Terms & Glossary
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service; associated case studies
  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; associated case studies.
  • Ethics, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service; associated case studies, etc.
Other Mains topics
  • Society- Indian Society- 12th NCERT, Social change and Development- 12th NCERT
  • Governance- ARC report, Adda Videos and study material
  • Social Issues- ARC reports, Newspaper, PIB, PRS, Frontline
  • Disaster Management- ARC Report ( Crisis Management )
  • Security- Challenges to Internal Security of India- Ashok Kumar

Topics for Society:

  •  Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues.Poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society. Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism, etc.

Topics for Governance:

  •  Governance: Meaning & Concepts
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability
  • Ministries & Departments of Government
  • E-Governance-applications & models
  • E-Governance: Successes, limitations, and potential
  • Role of Civil Services in a Democracy
  • Transparency & Accountability: Meaning & Concepts
  • Citizens charters, RTI, institutional and other measures
  • Transparency & Accountability: Public Services Delivery Act, SEVOTTAM Model
  • Vulnerable sections: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
  • Schemes & Programmes: performance and evaluation
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger
  • Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States, etc.

Topics for Disaster Management:

  •  Introduction to Disaster Management
  • Types of Disasters: Classification
  • The occurrence of Disasters worldwide
  • Disaster Management Act & Apparatus [Evolution & Future]
  • National Disaster Management Plan
  • Government Initiatives to reduce vulnerabilities
  • Application of ICT & Space Technology in Disaster Mitigation
  • International Organisations & Associations dealing with Disasters
  • Economic & Social Impact of Disasters, etc.

Social issues

Topics to be covered are:

  • Vulnerable Sections: Basic meaning & Indexes
  • Role of Women, NGOs and associations
  • Women:  Laws and their analysis
  • Women: Schemes & Policies
  • Children: Laws & analysis
  •   SCs/STs: Constitutional Safeguards and laws
  • Schemes & Policies related to SCs/STs
  • Senior Citizens-Constitutional Provisions & Schemes
  •   Judiciary and Vulnerable sections
  • LGBT: Legal status; jurisprudence and challenges
  • Discussion on Mains Answer writing
  • Disability and Disabled: Legal provisions & Challenges
  • Role of NGOs, SHGs, Donor agencies
  • Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society
  • Urbanisation: Problems & Solutions
  • Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism
  • Caste & Religion
  • Population issues: Decoding Census-2011, etc.
Internal Security

Topics to be covered are:

  •  Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Insurgency in North East
  • Naxalism in India: Causes & Solutions
  • Militancy in North East
  • Internal Security & International Relations Affairs linkage
  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism, etc.
Current affairs
  • Read newspaper keeping both Prelims and Mains syllabus
  • As per your capacity and interest make notes
  • Cover Current Affairs issue- wise and not date wise
  • Revise Current Affairs with a monthly magazine
  • Attempt test series
  • And current notes of Adda247
  • Videos based on current burning topics of Adda247

It will be better to separate the topics or study as per your level. We have just provided an idea that in this way you can cover topics and strategize your preparation.

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Key facts:

– It is important to know the basics of the exam. Analyse previous years papers, you should know how and what is asked in the exam. You can also see some Youtube channels of experts including Adda247. This will help in the preparation and understanding the basics of an exam.

Strengthen and build your foundation: Cover NCERTS from 6th to 12th class and develop regular reading newspaper habit. For building the foundation start reading some standard books for each subject. Always remember it is necessary to limit the resources and frequent revision. It will be better to read one book for each subject with a thorough understanding and revise it multiple times.

– The key to success is revision and consistency in studies.

Answer- writing practice for Mains also plays an important role in the examination.

– You can start Prelims focused preparation about two months before the Prelims. Try to give full mock tests in a simulated environment and also take precautions while giving Mock tests due to COVID-19.

– For Interview preparation, you should be confident about yourself, work on soft skills, groom personality, read newspapers regularly, etc.

We can’t ignore the fact that each stage of the UPSC Civil Services Exam is an elimination round where the UPSC declares cutoff after the declaration of the result. So, it will be better to check out the cutoff for all the three stages.

Adda247 brings you online courses and Youtube videos of several current burning topics and also subject-oriented to help in the preparation. During COVID-19 you will be able to start the preparation of the UPSC Civil Services Exam from home itself under the guidance of an expert. Check out the details and courses.

Best of Luck!

UPSC CSE Mains 2020 Detailed Syllabus: GS Paper-I (Indian Heritage & Culture, History & Geography of the World & Society)

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The UN Population Award for 2020 recently has been presented to the HelpAge India in the institutional category.

Also for 2020, the United Nations Population Award has been awarded to Bhutan’s Queen Mother Gyalyum Sangay Choden Wangchuck in the individual category for her work on sexual health and ending gender violence.

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About HelpAge India

In India, it is a leading charity working with and for disadvantaged elderly for nearly 4 decades. In 1978, it was set up and is registered under the Societies’ Registration Act of 1860. In 20 States it is working across India. The organisation also provides employment opportunities to older people, advocates for their rights in the community and helps local organisations to support them.

About Her Majesty Gyalyum Sangay Choden Wangchuck

She is a long time champion of sexual and reproductive health and rights and in Bhutan need to end violence against women, girls and children. In recent decades, she achieved a lot and helped to create an enabling environment to openly discuss sexual reproductive health in the kingdom and also founded a volunteer organisation known as “Respect, Educate, Nurture and Empower Women” (RENEW) in 2004. For more than 20 years she has also been a Goodwill Ambassador for UNFPA.

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About the United Nations Population Award

The Committee for the United Nations Population every year honours an individual and/or institution in recognition of outstanding contributions to population reproductive health issues and solutions.

In 1981, the General Assembly, in the resolution 36/201 established the award and in 1983, it was first presented. The award consists of a gold medal, a diploma and a monetary prize.

The United Nations Population Award’s Committee comprised of 10 UN Member States with United Nations Secretary-General and UNFPA Executive Director serving as ex-officio members. Through 31 December of each year nominations for the award are accepted.  United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) serves as its secretariat.

Source:unfpa.org

What is MSP, how is it calculated and the reason behind the farmer’s protest?

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To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. Consider the following statements regarding Aurora.
1. An Aurora is a display of light in the sky predominantly seen in the high latitude regions (Arctic and Antarctic).
2. It is also known as a Polar light.
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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2. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Anthrax?
1. Is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacteria.
2. It does not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another; it is spread by spores. These spores can be transported by clothing or shoes.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
3. Consider the following statements with context to the cultural history of India.
1. In the making of Buland Darwaza and Khankah at Fatehpur Sikri white marble was used.
2. In the making of Bara Imambara and Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow red sandstone and marble were used.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 70, 11 December
4. Recently, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) released the 2019 Global Health Estimates. Consider the following statements.
1. The new data of Global Health Estimates cover the period from 2005 to 2019.
2. The WHO Global Health Estimates provide a comprehensive and comparable assessment of mortality and loss of health due to diseases and injuries for all regions of the world.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
5. Consider the following statements regarding Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY).
1. Under this, Government of India will provide subsidy for two years in respect of new employees engaged on or after 1st October, 2020 and up to 30th June, 2021.
2. Government will pay both 12% employees’ contribution and 12% employers’ contribution i.e. 24% of wages towards EPF in respect of new employees in establishments employing upto 1000 employees for two years.
3. Government will pay only employees’ share of EPF contribution i.e. 12% of wages in respect of new employees in establishments employing more than 1000 employee for two years.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 69, 10 December
6. Which of the following are not necessarily the consequences of the proclamation of the President’s rule in a State?
1. Dissolution of the State Legislative Assembly
2. Dissolution of the local bodies
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
7. Consider the following statements.
1. Sarvastivadin held that the constituents of phenomena were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.
2. Sautrantika and Sammitiya were the sects of Jainism.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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8. Consider the following statements regarding ‘Jagananna Jeeva Kranthi’ scheme.
1. It was launched by the Andhra Pradesh government.
2. Under this scheme 2.49 lakh sheep and goats will be distributed to women in a phased manner at a cost of ₹1,869 crore.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 67, 8 December
9. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about Hanukkah?
1. It is a Jewish festival commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.
2. It is also known as the Festival of Lights.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
10. Consider the following statements regarding Ischaemum janarthanamii.
1. It is a novel species of Muraingrass identified by scientists in the plateaus of Western Ghats of Goa.
2. The species was named Ischaemumjanarthanamiiin honour of Prof. M. K. Janarthanam, Professor of Botany, Goa University
3. It grows on low altitude lateritic plateaus in the outskirts of Bhagwan Mahavir National Park, Goa.
Choose the correct answer
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: 1(c), 2(c), 3(a), 4(b), 5(d), 6(c), 7(a), 8(c), 9(c), 10(c)

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1. Consider the following pairs and choose correct option:

              Glacier     River
1 Bandarpunch Yamuna
2 Bara Shigri Chenab
3 Milam Mandakini
4 Siachen Nubra
5 Zemu Manas

Options:
(a) 1, 2 and 4
(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 2 and 5
(d) 3 and 5

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2. What is common to the places known as Aliyar, Isapur and Kangsabati?
(a) Recently discovered uranium deposits
(b) Tropical rain forests
(c) Underground cave systems
(d) Water reservoirs
3. Consider the following statement and choose the correct one:
1. The Union Cabinet approved the launch of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana.
2. Under the scheme the government will provide employees provident fund contribution two firms hiring additional work force.
Options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 69, 10 December
4. Which of the following state government has recently issued an order to the mother’s cooperation committee to monitor services delivered at Anganwadi or Day Care Centre?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Chhattisgarh
(d) Uttarakhand
5. Reserve Bank of India has been cancelled the licence of which of the following banks?
(a) Jandhan Bank
(b) Maharashtra Cooperation Bank
(c) Karad JanataSahakari Bank
(d) Bandhan Bank

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 68, 9 December
6. Which date is observed by the United Nations as the International Day of commemoration and dignity of victims of the crime of genocide and of the prevention of this crime?
(a) 6 December
(b) 7 December
(c) 8 December
(d) 9 December

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7. Consider the following statements regarding ATP tournament:
1. Daniil Medvedev defeated Dominic Thiem to win the ATP tournament 2020.
2. The tournament was held in London.
3. The ATP tournament is the second highest tier of men’s Tennis Tournament after the Grand Slam.
4. The tournament was first held in 1970.
Choose the correct option:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2, and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, and 4

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8. Consider the following statements:
1. Government of India has signed the Memorandum of Understanding with Luxembourg.
2. It was signed between SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) and Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier (CSSF) of Luxembourg.
3. The MoU will help the CSSF to enhance its supervisory functions and enable effective enforcement of laws.
Choose the correct option:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2, and only
(d) 1, 2, and 3

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 67, 8 December
9. The Indian Railways is to use LiDAR technique to conduct ground survey for-
(a) New Delhi-Agra Rail Corridor
(b) Delhi-Varanasi High Speed Rail Corridor
(c) Varanasi-Ahmedabad High Speed Rail Corridor
(d)Shivaji Terminal-Goa
10. Which of the following countries has imposed ‘millionaire tax’ on about 12,000 of the country’s richest people to fund coronavirus countermeasures?
(a) Argentina
(b) US
(c) Britain
(d) Canada
Ans: 1 (a), 2 (d), 3 (c), 4 (b), 5 (c), 6 (d), 7 (d), 8 (a), 9 (b), 10 (a)

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 11 December, 2020

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To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. Which of the following statement(s) is/are the feature of Indian federalism?
1. The federating units have been given unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha
2. It is the result of an agreement among the federating units.
3. Powers have been clearly divided between the Centre and the States.
Choose the correct answer
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

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2. Consider the following statements regarding the Mount Everest.
1. It is also known as Sagarmatha in Nepal and Mount Qomolangma in China.
2. The Foreign Ministers of Nepal and China jointly certified the elevation of Mount Everest at 8,848.86 metres above sea level 86 cm higher than what was recognised since 1954.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 68, 9 December
3. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)?
1. Constituted under Companies Act, 2013
2. The President of the Tribunal and the chairperson and Judicial Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be appointed after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
3. Term of office of chairperson and members is 5 years and they can be reappointed for additional 3 years.
Choose the correct answer
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

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4. Consider the following statements regarding Rigvedic Aryans and Indus Valley People.
1. Rigvedic Aryans knew gold, silver, and copper whereas Indus Valley people knew only copper and iron.
2. Rigvedic Aryans used the coat of mail and helmet in warfare whereas the people of Indus Valley Civilization did not leave any evidence of using them.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
5. Consider the following constitutional provisions regarding Highways.
1. Highways declared by or under law made by Parliament to be national highways – Union List under Seventh Schedule.
2. Article 257 (2): The executive power of the Union shall also extend to the giving of directions to a State as to the construction and maintenance of means of communication declared in the direction to be of national or military importance.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 67, 8 December
6. Which of the following objectives is not embodied in the Preamble to the Constitution of India?
(a) Economic liberty
(b) Liberty of belief
(c) Liberty of expression
(d) Liberty of thought
7. Consider the following statements regarding the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
1. Consists of Eight Member States namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
2. The last SAARC Summit in 2014 was held in Kathmandu (Nepal), which was attended by India.
3. SAARC Summits are usually held biennially and hosted by member states in alphabetical order.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 66, 7 December
8. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the Participatory Guarantee System?
1. PGS is a process of certifying organic products, which ensures that their production takes place in accordance with laid-down quality standards.
2. The certification is in the form of a documented logo or a statement.
3. It is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare.
Choose the correct answer
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 3

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9. Whom of the following the memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories and Epictales was the profession in context to the cultural history of India?
(a) Parivraajaka
(b) Magadha
(c) Agrahaarika
(d) Shramana
10. Consider the following statements regarding Partners in Population and Development (PPD).
1. Its Secretariat is located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
2. Currently, PPD has a membership of 26 developing countries, representing more than 59% of the world’s population.
3. Launched at the 1995 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), when ten developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America formed an intergovernmental alliance to help implement the Cairo Program of Action (POA).
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: 1(c), 2(c), 3(a), 4(b), 5(c), 6(a), 7(d),8(a), 9(b), 10(a)

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 10 December, 2020

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A chain barricade has been put up by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) to prevent people from touching or climbing the iconic stone chariot in front of the Vijaya Vittala Temple at Hampi. And so now no one can cause any type of damage to it in any way. It is also stated that the most visited monuments in Hampi is the stone chariot and so need extra protection.

This is the UNESCO World Heritage site of Hampi. Under the Ministry of Culture, Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is the premier organisation for the archaeological research and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation.

Therefore, wooden barricades have been placed by the ASI around the famous stone chariot at Vijaya Vittala Temple Complex in Hampi for protection.

As per the official “Many times, tourists quarrel with security personnel over taking photographs by sitting or leaning on heritage structures. The idea is to minimise human intervention and preserve these structures for the future.”

Further, the official added that those who cross the barricades will be fined as per the rules. Ans also told that “The Central ASI had cleared the project to barricade important monuments in Hampi about six months ago. But due to the lockdown, the work began only recently.”

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About Hampi Chariot

The “Stone Chariot” is additionally referred as the flagship tourist attraction of Hampi. Basically, it is not a chariot, as the name suggests, rather a shrine built like a chariot. This is located inside the Vittala Temple complex.

In India, it’s among three famous stone chariots and therefore the other two being in Konark (Odisha) and Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu). The Hampi Chariot was built in the 16th century by the orders of King Krishnadevaraya and he was a Vijayanagara ruler. from 14 to 17 Century CE, Vijayanagara rulers ruled. It is also a shrine dedicated to Garuda and is the official vehicle of Lord Vishnu.

The design of the Chariot:

The chariot is built on a rectangular platform of a foot approximately high. With mythical battle scenes, all around this base platform is carved. Though the chariot isn’t resting thereon, the four giant wheels attached mimic the real-life ones complete with the axis shafts and even the brakes.

A series of concentric floral motifs decorate the wheels. It appears from the marks on the platform, where the wheels rest, the wheels were liberal or free to move round the axis. In front of the chariot, two elephants are positioned as if they’re pulling the chariot. There was even a dome-like superstructure over the chariot. That too is missing now. However, you’ll see them on the first-ever photographs of Hampi taken in 1856 by Alexander Greenlaw.

Buddhism: Origin and Teachings of Buddha

Some facts about Hampi

– It consists of the remnants of the capital city of the Vijayanagara Empire and is located in the Tungabhadra basin in central Karnataka. Harihara and Bukka founded it in 1336.

– Some famous places here are Krishna temple complex, Narasimha, Ganesa, Hemakuta group of temples, Achyutaraya temple complex, Vitthala temple complex, Pattabhirama temple complex, Lotus Mahal complex, etc.

– UNESCO in 1986 classified it as a World Heritage Site and also the “World’s Largest Open-air Museum”.

– Here to inform you is that in 1565 CE Batte of Talikota was fought which led to massive destruction of its physical fabric.

Battle of Talikota was the confrontation within the Deccan region of southern India and was fought between the Hindu King of Vijayanagar and therefore the four allied Muslim sultans of Bijapur, Bidar, Ahmadnagar, and Golconda.

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About Vittala Temple

In the 15th Century it was built during the rule of Devaraya II. He was one of the rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire.

It is also known as Vijaya Vittala Temple as it is dedicated to Vittala. It is said that Vittala is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. The complex is built in the Dravidian style and is further enhanced by the elaborate carvings.

About the Vijayanagara Empire

Vijayanagara is also known as “city of victory”. It is the name of both a city and an empire. In the fourteenth century in 1336 AD the empire was founded by the Harihara and Bukka and they belong to Snagama dynasty.

The empire was stretched from the river Krishna in the north to the extreme south of the peninsula. The empire of Vijayanagara was ruled by the four important dynasties namely: Sangama, Tuluva, Saluva and Aravidu.

The most famous ruler of Vijayanagar was Krishnadevaraya who ruled from 1509-29 and belongs to the Tuluva dynasty. His rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation.

He is credited to build some fine temples and also added gopurams to several important south Indian temples. A suburban township near Vijayanagar which is known as Nagalapuram was also founded by him after his mother. He had composed a work on statecraft known as Amuktamalyada in Telugu.

In the rest of Southern India, Dravidian architecture survives and it spread through the patronage of the Vijayanagara rulers.

The architecture of Vijayanagara is additionally known for its adoption of elements of Indo Islamic Architecture in secular buildings including the Queen’s Bath and therefore the Elephant Stables and represents a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society.

Government Schemes/Programmes for Welfare and Development of Minorities

Some more facts related to Dravidian Architecture are as follows:

– In the country, two broad orders of temples are known as Nagara in the north and Dravida in the South. Also, some scholars have mentioned an independent style named as Vesara style of temples which was created through the selective mixing of the Nagara and the Dravida orders.

Nagara and Dravida orders of Temples: Features

The temple of Dravida is enclosed within a compound wall, unlike the Nagara temple. In its centre, the front wall has an entrance gateway referred to as gopuram.

The main temple tower shape is known as Vimana in Tamil Nadu which is like a stepped pyramid that rises up geometrically rather than the curving Sikhara of North India.

In the South Indian temple, the word ‘shikhara’ is used only for the crowning element which is equivalent to the Amlak and Kalasha of North Indian temples.

Garbhagriha is there at the entrance of the North Indian temples. It is also common to find a large water reservoir, or a temple tank, enclosed within the complex.

Some examples of Dravidian and Nagara style are:

Dravidian Style: Brihadeshwara Temple and Mahabalipuram Temple, Tamil Nadu

Nagara Style: Kandariya Mahadeva Temple (Khajuraho), Madhya Pradesh

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To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. Who among the following has won the Western and Southern Open tennis tournament?
(a) Roger Federer
(b) Rafael Nadal
(c) Dominic Thiem
(d) Novak Djokovic

UPSC 2021 Online Coaching Classes | Bilingual GS Foundation Batch
2. Consider the following statements regarding Eco-Bridges and choose the correct option:
1. The Eco-Bridges or Eco-Ducts are constructed to enhance the wildlife connectivity that are usually disrupted due to logging or highways.
2. The Ramnagar Forest Division in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand built the first eco-bridges for smaller mammals and reptiles.
Options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 67, 8 December
3. Which of the following statements is/are correct about the Global Climate Change Performance Index?
1. The Global Climate Change Performance Index was recently released by the New Climate Institute, Germanwatch and CAN (Climate Action Network).
2. The index has been rating the fifty-seven greenhouse emitters in the world since 2005. These countries account to 90% of global emissions.
3. The index aims to enable comparison of mitigation efforts, enhance transparency in international climate politics.
Options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Only 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
4. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option:
1. The Home Minister Amit Shah has released the Smuggling in India Report 2019-20.
2. The report was released during the 63rd founding day celebrations of Directorate of Revenue Intelligence.
3. The report analyses the smuggling trends on narcotic drugs, gold and foreign currency, security and commercial frauds.
Options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2 and 3
(c) Only 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2020 – Set 66, 7 December
5. Fausta, a female black rhino, believed to be the world’s oldest rhino, had recently died in the Tanzanian conservation area. What is the IUCN status of the black rhinos?
(a) Endangered
(b) Critically Endangered
(c) Least concern
(d) Near threatened
6. Which of the following became the first country to ban sun screens, that is toxic to coral reefs and sea life?
(a) Palau
(b) Papua New Guinea
(c) Philippines
(d) Indonesia

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7. The Transiting Exo-planet Survey Satellite (TESS) has discovered a new habitable exo-planet, that belongs to which space agency?
(a) Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
(b) Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
(c) China National Space Administration (CNSA)
(d) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
8. Which of the following is related to a Shopper?
(a) e-Commerce website
(b) Malware
(c) Robot
(d) Electric vehicle for shopping

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9. Dhanu Jatra is celebrated in which of the following state?
(a) Odisha
(b) Chhattisgarh
(c) Telangana
(d) Jharkhand
10. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Tharu tribes?
1. The Uttar Pradesh government has launched a scheme to take the unique culture of the Tharu tribes all over the world.
2. The intention of the scheme is to put these tribal villages on the tourism map.
3. This will create jobs and bring economic Independence to the tribal population in the region.
Options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 1 and 2
(c) Only 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans. 1(d), 2(c), 3(d), 4(b), 5(b), 6(a), 7(d), 8(b), 9(a), 10(d).

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 9 December, 2020

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