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Naxalism in India, Government Steps and Recommendations


Naxalism in India UPSC

In our previous article, we have discussed about naxalism meaning, history of naxalism in India and the causes of its spread. In this article, we will discuss about the several steps taken by the government and the recommendations to contain naxalism in India.


Government steps to tackle naxalism

  • The government has laid down a clear plan to tackle the naxalism problem in India.
  • It has formulated a two-pronged strategy—law and order approach and development approach—to solve the problem of Naxalism.

भारत में नक्सलवाद: सरकार के कदम एवं सिफारिशें

Law and order approach

  • Modernization of Police Forces: The government has launched a Police Modernization Scheme in areas affected by Naxal movements. Under this scheme, central government provided money to the state governments to modernize their equipment and tactical gear including latest communication, vehicles and infrastructure facility.
  • Multi-Agency Centre (MAC): MAC at the Central level and State Multi-Agency Centre (SMAC) at the state level have proved to be highly effective in Maoist hotbeds like Jagdalpur and Gaya. Other institutional measures include strengthening of State-Intelligence Bureaus(SIBs) in the LWE affected areas.
  • Deployment of Central Paramilitary Forces: Central Reserved Police Forces (CAPF) have been created to carry out counterinsurgency strategies. More than 70,000 CRPFs have been deployed in the Naxal-affected states. In addition, the Centre has helped states to raise 14 Specialized Commando Battalion (CoBRA) that are equipped and trained in guerrilla and jungle warfare techniques and deployed to the worst-affected districts.
  • SAMADHAN– The NDA government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, launched ‘SAMADHAN’ in May 2017. The acronym stands for the following: S – Smart Leadership, A – Aggressive Strategy, M – Motivation and Training, A – Actionable Intelligence, D -Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators), and KRAs (Key Result Areas), H- Harnessing Technology, A – Action plan for each theatre and N- No access to Financing.


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Development approach

  • The government started the Backward Districts initiative in 2003-2004 and the Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) under which 55 of the worst affected areas in 9 states were to be provided with funds to the tune of Rs. 2475 crores to tackle the problem of Naxalism.
  • The Flagship Integrated Action Plan (IAP) was launched in 2010 to address the longstanding grievances of Adivasis are enacting few landmark legislations recognizing the rights of Adivasis to access forests for self-governance.
  • Universal Services Obligation Fund (USOF): It provides financial and administrative support to expand mobile services at 4072 tower locations identified by MHA in 96 districts in 10 states.
  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY): It offers tremendous opportunities for rural road connectivity, thus strengthening the rural economy.
  • MGNREGA: It is being implemented in 330 districts affected by Naxalism so as to universalize the demand-driven programme for wage-employment.
  • Health and education: Schemes like PM-JAY and Samagra Siksha Abhiyan are also aimed at providing the health and education facilities in the backward regions of our country.
  • Enabling laws: Laws like Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007 and Forest Rights Act, 2006 are also aimed at providing the legal support to the people.


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Naxalism UPSC: Recommendations

  • A long-term (10-year) and short-term ( 5-year) Programme of Action based on the ‘14-Point Strategy’ announced in Parliament may be formulated by the Union Government in consultation with the concerned State Governments to identify State specific action.
  • There is need to enhance the capacity of the security forces to act effectively and firmly, but in conformity with constitutional bounds.
  • Training and reorientation including sensitising the police and paramilitary personnel to the root causes of the disturbances that they are seeking to curb, are necessary.
  • Formation of trained special task forces on the pattern of the Greyhounds in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Establishing and strengthening local level police stations, adequately staffed by local recruits, in the extremist affected regions.
  • A multi-disciplinary Oversight Committees may be constituted to ensure the proper implementation of Forest Rights Act.
  • The nexus between illegal mining/forest contractors and transporters and extremists which provides the financial support for the extremist movement needs to be broken.


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