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Third Anglo-Maratha War

Third Anglo-Maratha War- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

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Background of Third Anglo-Maratha War

  • Anglo Maratha Wars were fought between the British and Maratha Empire to imprint dominance in India. These wars led to the defeat of the Maratha Empire and established British Supremacy in India.
  • The second Anglo Maratha War (1802-05) weakened Maratha Power in India which was finally destroyed after the third Anglo Maratha war (1817-18).

Third Anglo-Maratha War_50.1


Causes of Third Anglo-Maratha War

  • Last Maratha Attempt to Regain Power: Though Maratha lost in the second Anglo Maratha war, their aspirations to be the supreme power in India remained, leading to the Third Anglo-Maratha War.
  • Pindari’ Question: Pindaris were part of the Maratha army who became unemployed after Maratha rulers weakened. They resorted to raiding Britishers and other traders.
    • English blamed Marathas for this and even Marathas secretly supported Pindaris, leading to the third Anglo-Maratha war.
  • British High-Handedness of Marathas: In 1813, Governor-General Lord Hastings imposed many measures against the Marathas.
    • The British then accused Bajirao II of maladministration and continued to harass the Marathas with several demeaning treaties.
    • An irritated Bajirao II sacked and burned the British residency in Pune.

First Anglo-Maratha War

तृतीय आंग्ल-मराठा युद्ध

Course of Third Anglo-Maratha War

  • Alliance: The Maratha chiefs Peshwa Bajirao II, Malharrao Holkar, and Mudhoji II Bhonsle forged a united front against the English East India Company (EIC) in the Third Anglo-Maratha War.
    • The fourth major Maratha chief Daulat Rao Shinde stayed away due to diplomatic pressure put by British EIC.
  • Defeat of Peshwa: The Peshwa-led alliance was defeated in the battles of Khadki and Koregaon.
    • After which several minor battles were fought by the Peshwa’s forces to prevent his capture but to no avail.

Second Anglo-Maratha War


Outcome of Third Anglo-Maratha War

  • Supremacy of British Power: Britishers defeated Marathas Chiefs in several battles and signed various treaties which ensured hegemony of British EIC in India.
  • Annexation of Maratha Territories: English annexed most of the Maratha territories under the Bombay Presidency and sent Bajirao II on a small estate at Bithur, near Kanpur.
    • Peshwa Bajirao II was given a pension for living in Bithur where he lived till his death.
  • The titular head of Maratha Confederacy: A descendent of Chhatrapati Shivaji was made the titular head and placed at Satara.
  • British Supremacy: Marathas were the last hurdle in the path of ensuring British Supremacy in India. A comprehensive victory of the English in the Third Anglo-Maratha war established British Supremacy in India.


First Anglo-Maratha War

Second Anglo-Maratha War

Second Anglo-Maratha War

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