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First Anglo-Maratha War

First Anglo-Maratha War- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

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Background of First Anglo-Maratha War

  • The First Anglo-Maratha War was fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire, during 1775–1782.
  • Weakening of Maratha Power: After the Third Battle of Panipat, the Maratha power in India started declining.
    • Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao died in 1761 and was succeeded by his son Madhavrao I who was able to recover some of the territories lost in the third battle of Panipat.
  • Fight for the Maratha Throne: Madhavrao I died in the early 1770s, leading to a fight for Maratha’s throne between Narayan Rao (Son of Madhavrao I) and uncle Raghunathrao.

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प्रथम आंग्ल-मराठा युद्ध

Causes of First Anglo-Maratha War

  • Treaty of Surat 1775: It was signed between Raghunath Rao and the British East India Company (EIC). British EIC agreed to support the claim of Raghunathrao over Peshwaship.
    • In return, Raghunathrao conceded Salsette and Bassein to the English.
  • Beginning of the First Anglo-Maratha War: Treaty of Surat in 1775 is considered as the beginning of the First Anglo-Maratha War.

First Anglo-Mysore War


Course of First Anglo-Maratha War

  • Raghunathrao supported by the British EIC attacked and won the battle against the Peshwa of Maratha.
  • Disagreement among Britishers: British Calcutta Council under Warren Hastings cancelled the agreement reached between Raghunathrao and the Bombay Presidency.
    • British Calcutta Council signed a new Agreement of Purandhar with Ministers of Maratha in 1776.
    • Raghunathrao was given the only pension and Salsette was held on by the British.
  • Breach of Agreement of Purandhar 1776: the British establishment at Bombay breached this treaty and protected Raghunathrao.
    • On the other hand, Nana Phadnavis gave permission to the French to build a port on the west coast.
  • Battle at Wadgaon: Above conflict led to a battle at Wadgaon near Pune in which the Marathas under Mahadji Shinde secured a conclusive victory over the English.
    • Treaty of Wadgaon: The English were forced to sign a humiliating agreement with Marathas in Wadgaon in 1779.

Second Anglo-Mysore War


First Anglo-Maratha War Treaty

  • Treaty of Wadgaon did not resolve the difference between the British and the Maratha Empire. Subsequently, many other battles were fought between them.
  • Treaty of Salbai: After many battles Both Marathas and Britishers signed the Treaty of Salbai to Conclude the first Anglo-Maratha War in 1782.

Third Anglo-Mysore War


Outcomes of First Anglo-Maratha War

  • British East India Company: It retained Salsette and Broach snatched from Marathas.
    • The British EIC also obtained a guarantee from the Marathas that they would not support Hyder Ali of Mysore in his battle against the British.
    • Marathas also agreed to retake their possessions in the Deccan from Hyder Ali.
    • The Marathas also agreed to not grant any more territories to the French.
  • Peshwa of Maratha Empire: All territories taken by the British after the Treaty of Purandhar were ceded back to the Marathas.
    • The English accepted Madhavrao II (son of Narayanrao) as the Peshwa.
    • Raghunathrao was to receive a pension of Rs.3 lakh every year.


Fourth Anglo-Mysore War

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War

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