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Second Anglo-Mysore War

Second Anglo-Mysore War- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

Second Anglo-Mysore War_40.1

 

Background of Second Anglo-Mysore War

  • Anglo-Mysore wars were fought between Rulers of Mysore and Britishers in India to ensure dominance in the region.
  • There were four Anglo-Mysore wars that took place in the second half of 18th Century India.
  • The First Anglo-Mysore war ended with the Treaty of Madras but it did not solve the conflict between the British and Hyder Ali, leading to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Second Anglo-Mysore War_50.1

 

Causes of Second Anglo-Mysore War

  • Breach of Madras Treaty: As per the treaty, both parties were to come to aid to each other in cases of war with a third party but Britishers stayed away when Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771.
    • This resulted in the defeat of Hyder Ali. Some of his territories were taken away by Marathas.
    • Hyder Ali had to buy peace with the Marathas for a sum of Rs.36 lakh and another annual tribute.
  • Collaboration with French: Haider Ali found the French a more resourceful partner. He took the help of the French in terms of fulfilling the army requirements of guns, saltpetre and lead.
  • Battle for Mahe: Hyder Ali imported various war supplies from the French through Mahe port which was under possession on the Malabar Coast.
    • This raised concerns of the British who tried to capture Mahe which was under Haider Ali’s protection.
    • This angered Hyder Ali who attacked British forces in 1780, leading to Second Anglo-Mysore War.

First Anglo-Mysore War

 

Course of Second Anglo-Mysore War

  • Alliance with Nizam and Marathas: Hyder Ali forged an alliance with Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas against Britishers.
    • Hyder Alli-led alliance attacked the Carnatic and captured Arcot. He defeated the English army under Colonel Baillie in 1781.
  • Breaking of Alliance: Skillful Sir Eyre Coote (British Commander) managed to detached both the Marathas and the Nizam from Haidar’s side.
  • Defeat of Porto Novo: Despite the above setback, undeterred Haidar faced the English boldly only to suffer a defeat at Porto Novo in November 1781.
    • However, He later defeated the British and captured their commander, Braithwaite.
  • Death of Hyder Ali: Hyder Ali died in 1782 due to cancer. His son, Tipu Sultan carried on the war for one year without any positive outcome.

Battle of Wandiwash | Third Carnatic War

 

Second Anglo-Mysore War Treaty- Treaty of Mangalore

  • Treaty of Mangalore: Second Anglo-Mysore war continued till 1884 without any conclusion. This led to both parties signing the Treaty of Mangalore to end the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
    • Under the Treaty of Mangalore, both parties agreed to return the captured territories and prisoners to each other.

First Anglo-Mysore War

First Anglo-Mysore War

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