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Second Anglo-Maratha War

Second Anglo-Maratha War- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

Second Anglo-Maratha War_40.1

 

Background of Second Anglo-Maratha War

  • The First Anglo-Maratha war concluded with the treaty of Salbai in 1782 bringing 20 years of peace between Marathas and British EIC.
  • After the fall of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, only Marathas were left as a worthy challenger to British Power in India.
  • Internal differences among various powers in Maratha Confederacy presented an opportunity to the British to intervene and defeat them and rise as the only significant power in India.

Second Anglo-Maratha War_50.1

 

Causes of Second Anglo-Maratha War

  • Death of Nana Phadnavis and Internal Conflicts among Marathas: The death of Nana Phadnavis, a strong leader led to a power vacuum in the Maratha Empire and various forces within Maratha Confederacy tried capture this, leading to Internal conflict and suspicion.
    • Maratha Confederacy consisted of five major chiefs, the Peshwas at Pune, the Gaekwads at Baroda, the Holkars at Indore, the Scindias at Gwalior, and the Bhonsle’s at Nagpur.
  • Unworthy Peshwa of Maratha: After the Death of Madhavrao II, Baji Rao II (son of Raghunathrao) was installed as the Peshwa. He was an unworthy and underconfident ruler.
    • He killed the brother of Yashwantrao Holkar when he was visiting Pune. This Angered Yashwant Holkar, who defeated the combined army of Bajirao II and Scindias.
    • Bajirao II fled and sought protection from the British.
  • Treaty of Bassein and Aspirations of British: A frightened Bajirao II signed a treaty of Bassein with the British East India Company. He agreed to to-
    • Ceded territory to the British and
    • Also agreed to the maintenance of British troops in the Capital.

First Anglo-Maratha War

 

Course of Second Anglo-Maratha War

  • Beginning: Other partners of the Maratha confederacy like Scindias and Bhosale opposed to the Treaty of Bassein and started the second Anglo-Maratha war in 1803 in Central India.
  • Defeat of Bhosle and Scindias: They lost against the forces of the British in 1803 and signed a humiliating Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon (Scindia) and Treaty of Deogaon (Bhosale) with British EIC.
  • Participation of Holkar: Yashwantrao Holkar got to know the intentions of the British EIC and decided to attack.
    • However, he was also defeated in 1805 and signed the Treaty of Rajghat in 1805.

Second Anglo-Mysore War

द्वितीय आंग्ल-मराठा युद्ध

Result of Second Anglo-Maratha War

  • Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon (1803): Under this treaty, Scindias agreed to cede British territories of Rohtak, Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Gurgaon, Delhi Agra region, Broach, some districts in Gujarat, parts of Bundelkhand and Ahmadnagar fort.
  • Treaty of Deogaon (1803): Under this treaty, the English acquired Cuttack, Balasore and area west of Wardha River from Bhosale of Nagpur.
  • Treaty of Rajghat (1805): According to this treaty, Holkars gave up Tonk, Bundi and Rampura to the British.
  • Ultimately, the Second Anglo-Maratha war resulted in the British control over a large part of Central India and establishing the dominance of the British in India.

प्रथम आंग्ल-मराठा युद्ध

First Anglo-Maratha War

First Anglo-Maratha War

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