Jallianwala Bagh Massacre- Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper1: Modern Indian history- The Freedom Struggle, its various stages, and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre- Context
- Recently, the Prime Minister of India has inaugurated the revamped Jallianwala Bagh Memorial.
- The Jallianwala Bagh Memorial in Amritsar is now a national monument.
Jallianala Bagh Memorial- Key Points
- The up-gradation project for the Jallianwala Bagh monument was sanctioned in 2019 under the National Implementation Committee to mark 100 years of the massacre.
- The official memorial was only built-in 1961, long after India had gained its Independence. Since then, the site has attracted tens of thousands of visitors from all over the world.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre- Key Points
- Incident: A peaceful protest was carried out by local people against the confinement of Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, within the premises of Jallianwala Bagh when Brigadier-General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer ordered his soldiers to open fire at the unarmed peaceful protesters.
- Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew were two leaders fighting for Independence and against the implementation of the Rowlatt Act 1919.
- On the afternoon of April 13, a crowd of at least 10,000 men, women, and children gathered in a park called the Jallianwala Bagh, walled on all sides but for a few small gates, against the orders of the British.
- Many of them had come to the city from the surrounding region to celebrate Baisakhi, a spring festival.
- General Dyer ordered his 90 soldiers to open fire on unarmed protestors in order to teach them a lesson.
- Many were shot dead instantly, many tried to climb the wall and flee but in vain. Many jumped into the well located inside the park.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre- After Events
- Proclamation of martial law in Punjab: which included public floggings and other humiliations.
- Renouncement of titles:
- The Bengali poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore renounced the knighthood (which he received in 1915).
- Mahatma Gandhi renounced his ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ title, bestowed by the British for his work during the Boer War.
- Hunter Commission: Also known as the ‘disorders Inquiry Committee’, was formed to inquire about the massacre.
- It censured General Dyer for his actions and was directed to resign from his appointment as Brigade Commander.