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Minerals and Energy Resources in Bihar, Types and Sources

India’s mineral and energy resources are not dispersed equally among its regions. Nature contains a variety of minerals that are derived from rocks and other materials. The primary producer of these minerals is Bihar, which holds 95% of the country’s pyrite deposits. Bihar’s Jamui district is home to large deposits of bauxite, as well as cement mortar in Bhabhua, mica in Muzaffarpur, Nawada, Jamui, and Gaya, and salt in Jamui and Gaya.

Minerals And Energy Deposits of State

The Gangetic Plains make up the majority of Bihar, and agriculture is the primary driver of the state’s economy. Before its division in 2000, the state of Bihar ranked among the top producers of minerals. But just a small portion of the state’s vast mineral riches survived following the division.

Regions in the state’s southeast are home to the archean rocks. Metallic minerals, including bauxite and gold, make up the bulk of these rocks. There are ancient rocks in the districts of Jamui, Nawada, Munger, Banka, Bhagalpur, and Gaya. The Vindhyan rock group in southwest Bihar contains non-metallic minerals. Quartz, mica, pyrite, slate, and china clay are some of these minerals. Vindhyan rocks are found in Jamui, Aurangabad, Nawada, and Rohtas districts.

District Wise Mineral Resources in Bihar

The majority of the nation’s pyrite resources are found in Bihar, although the province still has little access to other minerals such as quartzite, mica, silica, sand, and stone. Bihar was left with only soil and sand after the split. However, pyrite, limestone, and mica are currently abundant in Bihar.

The important mineral occurrences in Bihar are

District-wise Minerals in Bihar
Type of Mineral District
Limestone Kaimur (Bhabhua), Monghyr, and Rohtas
Mica Nawada
Quartz/Silica Bhagalpur, Jamui, Monghyr and Nalanda
Quartzite Lakhisarai, Monghyr, and Nalanda
Talc/ soapstone/ steatite Monghyr
Bauxite Monghyr and Rohtas
China clay Bhagalpur and Monghyr
Felspar Gaya, Jamui and Monghyr
Fireclay Bhagalpur and Purnea
Gold Jamui
Granite Bhagalpur, Gaya, Jahanabad and Jamui
Iron ore (hematite) Bhagalpur
Iron ore (magnetite) Gaya and Jamui
Lead-zinc Banka and Rohtas
Pyrites Rohtas

Minerals And Energy Found In Bihar

When small pieces of rock collect below the surface, it leads to the formation of sedimentary rocks known as layered rocks which leads to the formation of various minerals. Minerals are the primary source of industrialization and development of a state. The main list of minerals found in Bihar is discussed below:

1. Asbestos

  • It is a fibrous mineral composed of silica, magnesium, and water.
  • The two main varieties are amphibolite and chrysotile.
  • It is used in products that are both fireproof and electricity-proof because of its superior resistance to fire and electricity.
  • Firefighters’ fire-resistant gear is made of asbestos.
  • It is utilized in both aircraft and trains.
  • It is primarily found in Munger’s Bihar district.

2. Bauxite

  • It is an important mineral that goes into making aluminum.
  • It is not a specific mineral; rather, it is a rock mainly composed of hydrated aluminum oxides.
  • It can be found in Rohtas and the Munger district’s Kharagpur hills.
  • An estimated 1.5 million tonnes of high-quality bauxite are available in this region.

3. Beryllium

  • It is mainly used as a moderator in cyclotrons, ship carburetors, the spring industry, fluorescent light manufacturing, nuclear reactors for the production of atomic power, and other devices.
  • In the Gaya district, it can be found in the igneous rocks.

4. China Clay (Kaolinite)

  • Feldspar in granite rocks erodes to produce china clay, also known as kaolinite.
  • Fire resistance is much increased when soda and potash are absent.
  • The cement, ceramics, fertilizers, textile, paper, paint, and blast furnace industries are the main industries that use it.
  • Their deposits are located in the districts of Vaishali, Banka, Munger, and Bhagalpur.

5. Coal

  • The state of Bihar is home to 160 million tonnes of coal resources, according to the Geological Survey of India (GSI).
  • It is found in the Rajmahal Hills region’s neighboring districts of Bhagalpur and Munger (Jharkhand).

6. Feldspar

  • It coexists with quartz in pegmatite rocks.
  • It finds application in the glass, ceramic, and refractory sectors.
  • Feldspar is found in the districts of Gaya, Jamui, and Munger.
  • It’s also used to make sunstones and moonstones.

7. Fire Clay

  • Silicate rocks contain it beneath the coal deposits.
  • It is a refractory clay with comparatively low soda and potash contents.
  • For melting materials in businesses, it is mostly used in blast furnaces, chimneys, and boiler buildings.
  • Fire clay is used in industries to create fire bricks.
  • Purnea, Munger, and Bhagalpur districts are the primary sources of fire clay.

8. Galena

  • It is a lead ore.
  • Paint and nuclear energy are two industries that use it, along with other chemical-based industries.
  • It is mainly found in the Abrakha region of the Banka district.

9. Gold

  • Throughout the world, this priceless material is utilized to create ornaments and as a kind of currency.
  • It is also utilized in dentistry and sculpting.
  • The Geological Survey of India (GSI) estimates that 57% of India’s gold resources are found in Bihar.
  • The gold reserves are located in Jamui, Gaya, and Nalanda districts.
  • The river sand contains some of the auriferous lodes.
  • The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has verified the existence of gold reserves in the Sono block of Jamui district, the Kabutra and Nakia hill regions of Rajgir and Karmatia, Rani Hill, Badmaria, and Marhi Hill.

10. Granite

  • It belongs to the granular, phaneritic class of crystalline intrusive igneous rocks.
  • Quartz and feldspar are two of its key constituents.
  • It is primarily found in Bhagalpur, Nawada, Banka, and Munger districts of Bhagalpur, Nawada, Banka, and Munger as decorative black and colored granite.

11. Iron-Ore

  • The districts of Gaya, Bhagalpur, and Jamui contain deposits of iron ore.
  • Gaya and Jamui are home to magnetite iron ore, while Bhagalpur district is home to haematite iron ore.

12. Limestone

  • Limestone deposits originate from sediments and are mostly found in the Vindhyan rocks group in the Western region of Bihar.
  • Either calcium carbonate or two components—calcium and magnesium—are used to make it.
  • In addition to these, it also contains sulfur, phosphorus, iron oxides, silica, and alumina.
  • Most of the limestone deposits in the state are found in the Rohtas district, including in the areas of Dehri-on-Son, Banjari, Ramdihra, and Rohtasgarh.
  • Good quality limestone may be found in Rohtas Hills, Kaimur Plateau, and Munger.
  • Superior limestones are used in the production of cement, whereas inferior limestones are used in the production of iron, sugar, and buildings.
  • The yearly production of limestone is around 4,78,000 metric tons.

13. Manganese

  • Manganese is found in the Dharwar era sedimentary strata as a metal supplement in the form of natural ash.
  • Its deposits are found in the districts of Patna, Gaya, and Munger in Bihar.
  • Although it does not naturally exist as a separate element, it is commonly found in conjunction with iron in minerals.
  • Manganese is used to make steel and iron, and it is also a raw material needed to make alloys.
  • It is also used in the production of paint, batteries, bleaching powder, and insecticides.
  • Manganese alloys are bornite and pyroclusite.
  • The ninth-largest reserves and the fifth-largest producer in the world is India.

14. Mica

  • It is not very good at carrying heat or electricity.
  • Bihar led the world in mica production before the split.
  • A mica belt with a width of 3400 square kilometers (sq km) covers the whole nation of Bihar.
  • It leaves the eastern part of Nawada and enters the state of Jharkhand.
  • This belt is located at Chakai, Batia, and Charka Pathar in the Bihar districts of Jamui and Nawada.
  • Bihar and Jharkhand have the world’s best ruby mica.
  • The districts of Gaya, Bhagalpur, and Munger are important places to find mica.
  • Three types of mica are found in India: biotite, phlogopite, and muscovite.
  • It is mostly used in heat-related industries and the manufacturing of products with high electrical resistance.
  • Mica is used in the paints, and semiconductors industries.

15. Monazite

  • It is a mixture of the elements thorium, uranium, cerium, and tantalum.
  • It is primarily found in the pegmatite rocks of the Gaya and Munger districts.

16. Pyrite

  • It is an iron sulfide.
  • The main deposits are found in the Amjhor Sone Valley in the Rohtas district of Bihar. Here are deposits with a 47% sulfur content.
  • Additionally, pyrite can be found in Kurari, Manda, and Kariria as well as the upper Vindhyan rocks group.
  • The production of sulfuric acid requires it more often than the production of iron.
  • Sulfur’s high concentration makes it detrimental to the process of producing iron.
  • Approximately 95% of India’s pyrite deposits are found in Bihar, according to a 2017 Indian Bureau of Mines assessment.
  • Sulfuric acid is used by many industries, such as those that make fertilizer, chemicals, rayon, steel, and petroleum. Elements sulfur is useful for vulcanizing rubber, making explosives, matches, fungicides, and insecticides.
  • Pyrite is produced at a rate of about 9539 tonnes annually.

17. Quartz

  • It is mostly used in the cement, refractory, iron-and-steel (in furnaces), electronic, and power industries.
  • It is located in the districts of Jamui, Gaya, and Nawada.

18. Quartzite

  • It is a metamorphic rock that is hard and lacks foliation. It is sandstone in a modified form.
  • It is mostly used in the industrial sector to make heat-resistant materials and as a building construction material.
  • Its major deposits are located in the hills of the Kharagpur district in Munger district and the Chakai area in Jamui district. Nalanda, Lakhisarai, and Jamalpur are more significant locations.

19. Saltpetre

  • It is present as sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. The principal applications for it include fertilizers, the disposal of tree stumps, rock propellants, fireworks, glass, and the softening of steel.
  • Saraiya Pahari (Gopalganj) and Manjhi (Saran) are its primary producers.
  • Muzaffarpur, East Champaran, Saran, Darbhanga, Bhojpur, Gaya, and Munger districts are other significant producers.

20. Sand Stone

  • The Kaimur hills, which have significant silica contents, are where it is primarily found.
  • It is mostly utilized in the glass industry and as decorative building materials.

21. Slate

  • Slate stone is used in decorative items and for industrial purposes.
  • The Kharagpur hill region in the Munger district is believed to contain quantities of black and colored slate stones totaling about 2.53 million tonnes.
  • Dharhara and Kajra in the town of Jamalpur, Munger district, are additional significant regions.

22. Steatite

  • It is mostly employed in the paint industries and beauty products.
  • It is primarily found in Bihar’s Shankarpur area of the Jamui district.
  • Steatite production in the state is about 945 tonnes per year.

23. Uranium

  • It is an element that is radioactive and found in igneous rocks.
  • Pitchblende (uranite), pegmatite, and uranium compounds all include it.
  • It is found in the mica mines of the Akbari Hills in the Gaya district and the pegmatite pores in the Nawada districts.
  • Furthermore, there is a sizable deposit on the border fault of the Magadha division.

24. Zinc and Lead

  • These minerals are found in Banka and Rohtas districts.
  • Lead is used in the iron and steel industry and it is a bad conductor of electricity.

Mineral-Based Industries in Bihar

The state of Bihar is a prime location for a variety of industries due to its substantial pool of inexpensive industrial labor. The industrial sector is one of the pillars of an economy’s growth. Increased employment, urbanization, revenue collection (as a result of value creation), and the development of other industries are all consequences of industrialization.

1. Mining and Quarrying

Despite the state’s extremely low level of mining activity brought on by its inadequate mineral resources, revenue collection has dramatically increased recently. This has occurred as a result of the government’s several commendable actions. Bricks, stone and crusher, the works department, sand, and other materials were the sources of income collection. Brick kiln revenue collection was tracked by the government using a geo-mapping program, which greatly improved revenue collection. It also shows an increase in building activity. To avoid catastrophic environmental repercussions, the state government has also been developing a sustainable sand and stone mining program.

2. Cement Industry

Chhotanagpur, Bihar (now in Jharkhand) was the site of the first cement factory in the state of Bihar because it had abundant supplies of coal and calcium carbonate. which are the raw materials needed to make cement? Cement was still only produced in Rohtas, nevertheless, following the state’s separation. Dalmia Nagar (Rohtas), Bhabhua, Patliputra, and other places are currently home to the majority of Bihar’s cement firms.

3. Fertilizer Factory

The biggest fertilizer firm in Bihar, Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited, was founded in Barauni in 1976. however, it closed in 2002 after the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs deemed it unwell. Pyrite, Phosphates and Chemicals Limited (PPCL) was the name of another plant that was founded in 1990 at Amjhor, Rohtas. This factory produced fertilizer by using the pyrite ore found in Rohtas. However, this company’s poor profitability also led to its closure in 2010.

However, in 2017, a glimmer of optimism appeared when the cabinet committee resolved to use the former Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited (HPCL) site to reconstruct the fertilizer factory in Barauni. Numerous governmental and private institutions collaborated to launch this project.

Energy Resources Of Bihar

Energy is among the most crucial elements of the infrastructure of the economy. Bihar uses 327.7 kWh of power per person, compared to India’s 1030.25 kWh. nonetheless, has continuously encountered a power outage. Economic progress requires the creation of jobs that promote civilization and help alleviate poverty, and to do so, there needs to be a consistent supply of reliable, affordable, high-quality power.

The Electricity Supply Act was used to create the Bihar State Electricity Board in April 1958. In Bihar, fossil fuels serve as the main energy source. The BSEB was divided into the following companies in November 2012 as part of the Bihar State Electricity Reforms Transfer Scheme 2012:

Firms under the new Bihar State Electricity Reforms Transfer Scheme
Bihar State Power Holding Company Limited (BSPHCL) The parent company of the four newly reorganized corporations, BSPGCL, BSPTCL, NBPDCL, and SBPDCL, is the former BSEB, which also holds a majority stake in those companies. In essence, it is an investment firm that organizes events, resolves conflicts, and gives these businesses the assistance they require.
Bihar State Power Generation Company Limited (BSPGCL) This company’s key responsibilities include coordinating other power-producing firms, obtaining fuel, transporting it, and resolving any outstanding problems.
Bihar State Power Transgression Company Limited (BSPTCL) This company’s primary duties include transmitting electricity throughout the state and creating an effective system of intra-state transmission lines for electricity that links load centers with generating units.
North Bihar Power Distribution Company Limited (NBPDCL) and South Bihar Power Distribution Companies Limited (SBPDCL) These two organizations are in charge of distributing power to all consumers and carrying out programs for rural electrification.

Thermal Power Stations In Bihar

Minerals such as coal, stale, and marble are found in sedimentary rocks. Coal is an example of sedimentary rock of biotic origin. India produced more than half of the World’s production of coal. Coal acts as the primary energy source for thermal power. Bihar’s significant thermal power plants are

Thermal power plants in Bihar
Barauni Thermal Power Station (BTPS)
  • This project was designed and constructed with Russian aid in the Barauni area of Begusarai, Bihar.
  • The Barauni Oil Refinery provided the fuel and raw materials for it when it first began operating in 1962.
  • The Bihar government reached an agreement on May 15, 2018, to transfer ownership of the Barauni Thermal Power Station to the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).
Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Limited (KBUNL)
  • It was founded in 1985 and is situated in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar’s Kanti block.
  • The coal mines in Jharkhand provide the coal for this coal-fired power plant.
  • This plant provides electricity to the Northern parts of Bihar.
  • It consists of two 110 MW units.
  • Kanti Thermal Power Station was turned over to NTPC on May 15, 2018.
Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Station
  • In 1979, it was put into commission, and it started operating in 1992.
  • Jharkhand is where this power plant obtains its coal.
  • This power plant can produce up to 2340 MW in total when installed.
Buxar Thermal Power Project
  • An agreement for the development of two 660MW-each Greenfield power projects at Chausa in
  • Buxar was signed in November 2015 with Saluj Hydroelectric Corporation (i.e. 1320 MW).
Patna Thermal Power Plant
  • It is situated in the Patna district’s Karbigahiya.
  • The power plant is quite small yet very old.
  • At the moment, it is managed by the Bihar Rajya Vidyut Parishad.
Barh Super Thermal Power Station


  • It is situated in the Patna district’s Barh area.
  • In October 2013, it was put into operation.
  • In November 2014, the commercial business got underway.
  • This station was created and is owned by National Thermal Power Corporation.
  • Its total installed capacity is 3300 MW.

New Thermal Projects

Some new Thermal plants are discussed below:

New Thermal plants
Nabinagar Stage-1 Thermal Power Project
  • It is situated in the district of Aurangabad.
  • In the year 2018, the production process officially began.
  • The Nabinagar Thermal Power Project has a 1980 MW of generation capacity (660 MW3). On May 15, 2018, the Nabinagar Thermal Power Station was transferred to NTPC for a 33-year lease.
Ultra Mega Power Project (Banka)
  • It is a proposed thermal power plant with an installed capacity of 4000 MW.
Kajara Power Plant
  • It will be constructed by NTPC.
  • The project will be constructed at Lakhisarai.
Pirpainti Power Plant
  • It will be constructed by NHPC.
  • The project will be constructed at Bhagalpur.

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Is Bihar a major producer of minerals?

Yes, Bihar has significant mineral reserves and is a major producer of minerals like limestone, coal, bauxite, and mica. However, the mining industry in Bihar has faced challenges in terms of infrastructure and regulatory issues.

What are the major natural resources found in Bihar?

Bihar is rich in several natural resources, including minerals like limestone, coal, bauxite, iron ore, copper, mica, and precious stones. It also has fertile soil, abundant water resources, and potential for hydropower generation

Are there any oil and gas reserves in Bihar?

Bihar does not have significant reserves of oil and gas. The state has explored the possibility of extracting shale gas in some areas, but commercial production has not been established

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