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India Ocean Mission in 2023


Gaganyaan Mission UPSC: Relevance

  • GS 3: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.


Deep Ocean Mission UPSC: Context

  • Recently, Union Minister of Earth Science said that India will achieve the unique distinction of simultaneously launching the first Human Space Mission “Gaganyaan” as well as the first manned Human Ocean Mission in 2023.


India Ocean Mission: Key points

  • Trials for both the Space and Ocean manned missions have reached advanced stage and the unique feat will be achieved, most likely, in the second half of 2023.
  • Sea trials of 500 metre rated shallow water version of the manned submersible are expected to take place in early part of 2023, followed by the MATSYA 6000, the deep-water manned submersible which will be ready for trials by the second quarter of 2024.
  • Similarly, for Gaganyaan, the major missions: Test vehicle flight for the validation of Crew Escape System performance and the 1st Uncrewed mission of Gaganyaan (G1) are scheduled in 2nd half of 2022. It will be followed by second uncrewed mission at the end of 2022 carrying “Vyommitra” a spacefaring human robot developed by ISRO and finally the first crewed Gaganyaan mission in 2023.
  • Blue Economic Policy: Government will soon unveil the “Blue Economic Policy” and an estimated 40 million people will be employed by ocean-based industries by 2030.
  • Deep Ocean Mission (DOM): Government had approved Deep Ocean Mission (DOM) in June last year to be implemented by Ministry of Earth Sciences at a total budget of Rs. 4,077 crore for 5 years.
    • The objective is to develop niche technology and collaborate with Industries in carrying out deep ocean exploration of the non-living resources such as polymetallic manganese nodules, gas hydrates, hydro-thermal sulphides and cobalt crusts, located at a depth between 1000 and 5500 metres.


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Mission Samudrayaan: Ocean degradation

  • Oceans are marred with concerns like depletion of big fish populations by 90% and destruction of 50% of coral reefs.
  • Every year thousand tons of garbage composed of plastics, glass, metals, sanitary, clothes etc. reach the oceans and plastics contribute a major portion (~ 60%) of the total garbage that finds its pathway to the ocean every year.
  • As per COP resolutions, all nations should put efforts to protect at least 30 % of our blue planet by 2030.
  • It’s very critical that 30 % of our planet’s lands, waters and oceans are protected and hence it is known as 30*30.

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Gaganyaan programme benefits

  • Progress towards a sustained and affordable human and robotic programme to explore the solar system and beyond.
  • Advanced technology capability for undertaking human space exploration, sample return missions and scientific exploration.
  • Future capability to actively collaborate in global space station development & to carry out scientific experiments of interest to the nation.
  • Create a broad frame work for wider Academia – Industry partnership in taking up development activities for national development.
  • Ample scope for employment generation and human resource development in advanced science and R&D activities.
  • Unique opportunity to inspire and excite Indian youth and steer many students toward careers in science and technology towards challenging jobs that encourage knowledge, innovation and creativity.
  • The programme will strengthen international partnerships and global security through the sharing of challenging and peaceful goals. Having a vibrant human spaceflight programme can be leveraged as a potent foreign policy tool.


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