Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Rockets_00.1
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Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Rockets

Table of Contents

Context

  • Recently, the GSLV-F10 rocket failed midway in its mission to put into orbit the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS-03).
  • As per the ISRO, the Cryogenic Upper Stage ignition did not happen due to a technical anomaly leading to the failure of the mission.
    • It must be noted here that, the cryogenic engine in GSLV-F10 is of a Russian design originally, unlike that of the GSLV Mark III rocket, which is indigenous.
  • About the GSLV-F10: It was a three-stage engine rocket, with the first being solid fuel and the four strap-on motors by liquid fuel; the second was liquid fuel, and the third a cryogenic engine.

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Rockets_50.1

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Key points

  • About GSLV rockets: It is a three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO. They are the largest launch vehicle developed by India.
    • Development for the GSLV rockets began in the early 2000s, with the first launch planned for 2009-2010.
    • A Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket consists of three stages-
      1. First stage: consists of a solid rocket motor and four liquid strap-ons.
      2. Second stage: consists of Vikas engine/engines (a family of liquid-fueled rocket engines conceptualized and designed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre in the 1970s).
      3. Third stage: consists of an indigenously developed (by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre) cryogenic engine.
  • GSLV Mark-II rockets: It is a fourth-generation launch vehicle.
    • Payload carrying capacity: It can place 2500 kg satellite in Geo-synchronous orbit and 5000 kgs satellite into low earth orbit.
    • First successful launch: GSLV-D5 (launched in 2014) was the first successful flight of the GSLV Mark-II using the indigenously developed cryogenic engine.
  • GSLV Mark-III Rockets: It is the most capable launch vehicle India has. Its three stages consist of solid boosters, liquid motor, and cryogenic upper stage.
    • Payload Carrying Capacity: It is capable of putting a communication satellite of 4 tonnes into Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and 10 tonnes satellite into Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
    • First successful flight: taken in December 2014 when it successfully carried a crew module to a height of 120km.
    • Some of the successful flights by GSLV Mark-III:
      • CARE (Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Mission), Dec 2014.
      • GSAT – 19 Mission, launched in June 2017.
      • GSAT – 29 Mission, launched in November 2018.
      • Chandrayaan 2 Mission, 2019.

 

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