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Green hydrogen- Definition, India’s Current Production and Key Advantages 

Green Hydrogen- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Indian Economy- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

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Green hydrogen in News

  • Recently, Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas at World Economic Forum in Davos said that India will emerge as the leader of green hydrogen by taking advantage of the current energy crisis across the globe.
  • His assertion came almost a month after Oil India Limited (OIL) commissioned India’s first 99.99% pure green hydrogen plant in eastern Assam’s Jorhat.

 

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About Hydrogen

  • Hydrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic and highly combustible gaseous substance.
  • Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most abundant member of the family of chemical elements in the universe.

Green India Mission (GIM)

हरित हाइड्रोजन- परिभाषा, भारत का वर्तमान उत्पादन एवं प्रमुख लाभ 

What is Green hydrogen?

  • Green hydrogen is produced through electrolysis using renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind or hydel power.
  • The ‘green’ depends on how the electricity is generated to obtain the hydrogen, which does not emit greenhouse gas when burned.

Analysis of Sansad TV Discussion: ”Green Hydrogen”

 

How Green hydrogen is different from Grey Hydrogen and Blue Hydrogen?

  • Green hydrogen is produced through electrolysis using renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind or hydel power.
  • Grey hydrogen is generated through fossil fuels such as coal and gas and currently accounts for 95% of the total production in South Asia.
  • Blue hydrogen, too, is produced using electricity generated by burning fossil fuels but with technologies to prevent the carbon released in the process from entering the atmosphere.

 

Need for Green hydrogen in India

  • Promoting Non-fossil fuels: India has just begun to generate green hydrogen with the objective of raising non-fossil energy capacity to 500 gigawatts by 2030.
  • Adhering to Paris Pledge: Under Paris Agreement 2015, India is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 33-35% from the 2005 levels.
    • At the 2021 Conference of Parties in Glasgow, India reiterated its commitment to move from a fossil and import-dependent economy to a net-zero economy by 2070.
  • High Import Bills: India’s average annual energy import bill is more than $100 billion and the increased consumption of fossil fuel has made the country a high carbon dioxide (CO2) emitter.
    • India’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emission accounts for nearly 7% of the global CO2 burden.
  • India’s quest to become energy independent by 2047: the government stressed the need to introduce green hydrogen as an alternative fuel that can make India the global hub and a major exporter of hydrogen.
  • National Hydrogen Mission (NHM): It was launched on August 15, 2021, with a view to cutting down carbon emissions and increasing the use of renewable sources of energy.

 

India’s first Pure Green Hydrogen Plant

  • On April 20, India’s first 99.99% pure green hydrogen pilot plant was set up in eastern Assam’s Duliajan.
  • Key objectives: it was set up in keeping with the goal of “making the country ready for the pilot-scale production of hydrogen.
    • This was also done to ensure that its use in various applications” go on while “research and development efforts are ongoing for a reduction in the cost of production, storage and the transportation” of hydrogen.
  • Location: The Hydrogen plant was set up at the petroleum exploration major’s Jorhat pump station, also in eastern Assam.
  • Key Features of the Plant:
    • Powered by a 500 KW solar plant, the green hydrogen unit has an installed capacity to produce 10 kg of hydrogen per day and scale it up to 30 kg per day.
    • A specialised blender has also been installed for blending green hydrogen produced from the unit with the natural gas and supplying the blended gas to the Jorhat area for domestic and industrial use.
    • OIL has engaged experts from the Indian Institute of Technology-Guwahati to assess the impact of the blended gas on the existing facility.

 

Advantages of Green hydrogen

  • Reliable source of energy: The intermittent nature of renewable energy, especially wind, leads to grid instability.
    • Green hydrogen can be stored for long periods of time. The stored hydrogen can be used to produce electricity using fuel cells.
  • Commercialization of Oxygen produced: Experts say the oxygen, produced as a by-product, can also be monetised by using it for industrial and medical applications or for enriching the environment.
    • According to estimates, 8 kg of oxygen is produced per 1 kg of hydrogen.
  • Investment opportunities: The possibilities of hydrogen have made many countries pledge investments with Portugal having unveiled a national hydrogen strategy worth $7.7 billion in May.
  • Huge Renewable Energy Markets: Renewable developers see green hydrogen as an emerging market and some have targeted the transport sector, although electric vehicles have begun to catch the imagination of consumers today.

 

Green Hydrogen Policy | Green Ammonia Policy

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