All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE): It is a national survey of higher educational institutions conducted by the Ministry of Education since 2011. All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2020-21 Report is also important for UPSC Prelims 2023 Exam and UPSC Mains Exam (GS Paper 2- Various governance initiatives to promote various sectors including education sector in India).
All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2020-2021 in News
Recently, All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2020-2021 was released by the Ministry of Education, Government of India.
All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE)
- Background: The Education Ministry has been conducting All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) since 2011.
- Coverage: AISHE Report 2022 covers all higher educational institutions located in Indian Territory and imparting higher education in the country.
- Parameters Used: The AISHE survey collects detailed information on different parameters such as student enrolment, teacher’s data, infrastructural information, financial information etc.
- Objectives: Main objectives of the All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) are to-
- Identify & capture all the institutions of higher learning in the country
- Collect the data from all the higher education institutions on various aspects of higher education
- AISHE 2020-21 Online Data Collection: For the first time, in AISHE 2020-21, HEIs have filled data using entirely online data collection platform through the Web Data Capture Format (DCF).
- DCF is developed by Department of Higher Education through the National Informatics Centre (NIC).
- AISHE Data Application: Data collected though AISHE Survey used for calculation of Indicators of educational development such as Institution Density, Gross Enrolment Ratio, Pupil-teacher ratio, Gender Parity Index, Per Student Expenditure.
- These are useful in making informed policy decisions and research for development of education sector.
All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2020-21 Highlights
All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2022-2021 report covers three broad aspects of India’s Higher Education System. These are- Student Enrollment, Number of Institutions, Faculty. Detailed All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2021-21 findings are discussed below.
AISHE Report 2020-21 on Student Enrolment
AISHE Report 2022 found that the total enrollment in higher education has increased to nearly 4.14 crore in 2020-21 from 3.85 crore in 2019-20. Since 2014-15, there has been an increase of around 72 Lakh in the enrolment (21%). Others details are discussed below-
- Female enrolment: It has increased to 2.01 crore from 1.88 crore in 2019-20.
- There has been an increase of around 44 Lakh (28%) since 2014-15.
- The percentage of female enrolment to total enrolment has increased from 45% in 2014-15 to around 49% in 2020-21.
- Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER): As per 2011 population projections for 18-23 years age group, GER has increased to 27.3 from 25.6 in 2019-20.
- Notable increase of 1.9 points is observed in GER of ST students in 2020-21, as compared to 2019-20.
- Female GER has overtaken Male GER since 2017-18. Gender Parity Index (GPI), the ratio of female GER to male GER, has increased from 1 in 2017-18 to 1.05 in 2020-21.
- Enrolment of Vulnerable Section: The enrolment of SC students is 58.95 Lakh as compared to 56.57 Lakh in 2019-20 and 46.06 Lakh in 2014-15.
- The enrolment of ST students has increased to 24.1 Lakh in 2020-21 from 21.6 Lakh in 2019-20 and 16.41 Lakh in 2014-15.
- The average annual enrolment of ST students has increased to around 1 Lakh during the period 2014- 15 to 2020-21, from around 75,000 during the period 2007-08 to 2014-15.
- Enrolment of OBC students has also increased by 6 Lakh to 1.48 crore in 2020-21, from 1.42 crore in 2019-20. There is a notable increase in OBC student enrolment since 2014-15 of around 36 Lakh (32%).
- Enrolment of N-E States: The total Student Enrolment in North East States is 12.06 Lakh in 2020-21 as compared to 9.36 Lakh in 2014-15.
- The female enrolment in North East States is 6.14 lakh in 2020-21, higher than the male enrolment of 5.92 lakh [For every 100 male students, there are 104 female students in NER].
- The female enrolment outnumbered male enrolment for first time in 2018-19, and the trend continues.
- Distance Education: The enrolment in Distance Education is 45.71 Lakh (with 20.9 Lakh Female), an increase of around 7% since 2019-20 and 20% since 2014-15.
- Enrolment from States: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan are the top 6 States in terms of number of student enrolled.
- As per response in AISHE 2020-21, about 79.06% of the total students are enrolled in undergraduate level courses and 11.5% are enrolled in postgraduate level courses.
- Among Disciplines at undergraduate level, enrollment is highest in Arts (33.5%), followed by Science (15.5%), Commerce (13.9%) and Engineering & Technology (11.9%).
- Among streams at postgraduate level, maximum students are enrolled in Social Science (20.56%) followed by science (14.83%).
- Of the total enrolment, 55.5 Lakh students are enrolled in Science Stream, with female students (29.5 Lakh) out numbering male students (26 Lakh).
- Government Universities (59% of total) contribute towards 73.1% of the enrolment.
- Government Colleges (21.4% of total) contribute towards 34.5% of the enrolment.
- The enrolment in Institute of National Importance (INIs) has increased by nearly 61% during the period 2014-15 to 2020-21.
- Enrolment has increased in 2020-21 compared to 2014-15 in the Specialized Universities relating to Defence, Sanskrit, Biotechnology, Forensics, Design, Sports etc.
- Availability of different infrastructural facilities in HEIs in 2020-21:
- Libraries (97%)
- Laboratories (88)
- Computer centres (91%, 86% in 2019-20)
- Skill Development Centre (61%, 58% in 2019-20)
- Connectivity to National Knowledge Network (56%, from 34% in 2019-20)
AISHE Report 2020-21 on Number of Institutions
A The total number of Universities / University like institutions registered is 1,113, Colleges 43,796 and Standalone Institutions 11,296. During 2020-21, the number of Universities has increased by 70, and the number of Colleges has increased by 1,453. Since 2014-15, there has been increase of 353 Universities (46.4%). Other findings are listed below-
- The Institutes of National Importance (INIs) have almost doubled from 75 in 2014-15 to 149 in 2020-21.
- 191 new Higher Education Institutions have been established in North Eastern States since 2014-15.
- Highest number of Universities is in Rajasthan (92), Uttar Pradesh (84) and Gujarat (83).
- During 2014-15 to 2020-21, on average, 59 Universities have been added annually. This was about 50 during 2007-08 to 2014-15.
- 17 Universities (of which 14 are State Public) and 4,375 Colleges are exclusively for women.
- The College Density, the number of colleges per lakh eligible population (population in the age-group 18-23 years) has been 31. This was 27 in 2014-15.
- States with Highest college density: Karnataka (62), Telangana (53), Kerala (50), Himachal Pradesh (50), Andhra Pradesh (49),Uttarakhand (40), Rajasthan (40), Tamilnadu (40).
- Top 8 Districts with Highest number of Colleges: Bangalore Urban (1058), Jaipur (671), Hyderabad (488), Pune (466), Prayagraj (374), Rangareddy (345), Bhopal (327) and Nagpur (318).
- Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat are top 8 States in terms of number of colleges.
- 43% universities and 61.4% colleges are located in Rural Areas.
AISHE Report 2020-21 on Faculty
- The total number of faculty/teachers are 15,51,070 of which about 57.1% are male and 42.9% are female.
- The female per 100 male faculty has improved to 75 in 2020-21 from 74 in 2019-20 and 63 in 2014-15.
AISHE Report 2020-21 FAQs
Q.1 Which state has uploaded 100% information on AISHE?
Ans. Gujarat is the only state that captured and upload the data 100% .
Q2. What is All India Survey on Higher Education?
Ans. AISHE Report 2022 covers all higher educational institutions located in Indian Territory and imparting higher education in the country.
Q3. When did AISHE start?
Ans. The Education Ministry has been conducting All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) since 2011.
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