”UPSC Prelims Bits For Today” is every day published in the morning between 11:00 AM to 12:00 Noon and contains selective current affairs articles. ”UPSC Prelims Bits For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Prelims Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.
In the ”UPSC Prelims Bits For Today” article, we focus on UPSC Preliminary exam-oriented current affairs covering various sections from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.
Perestroika and Glasnost
Why in news?
- Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, has died at the age 91.
- Two words “perestroika” and “glasnost” are associated with Gorbachev and his legacy.
Know About Perestroika & Glasnost
- Perestroika means restructuring and glasnost means openness.
- In his book “Perestroika: New thinking for our country and the world”, he explained why USSR needed “perestroika”
- The lack of transparency was at the heart of Gorbachev’s second mantras for reform: Glasnost — meaning openness.
- While it meant greater transparency in the functioning of the government and the economy, much like perestroika, Gorbachev’s hope was that this would also reorder the way people lived their everyday life in the USSR.
Note: Gorbachev’s desire to pull the USSR out of economic and social stagnation not only led to the collapse of the USSR but also ended the old war.
Oncolytic Viruses (OVs)
Why in news?
A new study published in the journal Cancer Cell suggests that the body’s immune capacity against cancer — to recognise and destroy cancer cells — can be boosted by using oncolytic viruses.
Points to remember
- Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are viruses that selectively target and kill cancer cells while sparing normal ones. These viruses also enhance the immune system’s ability to recognise and terminate cancer cells.
- Although long theorised, the research into oncolytic virotherapy picked up only in the 1960s. Of late, there have been several trials looking at different viruses for cancer treatment.
- The latest research claims to “uncover an unexpected synergy between T-cells and MYXV (myxoma virus) to bolster solid tumor cell autosis that reinforces tumor clearance”.
- Autosis is a form of cell destruction that is useful against solid tumors, which are seen as treatment-resistant.
- Myxoma can target and kill cancer cells directly, but using myxoma-equipped T-cells works well as cancerous cells in the vicinity of those targeted are also destroyed. This process is called bystander killing.
- The study makes the case that immunotherapy combined with virotherapy holds potential to seek and destroy ‘cold tumors’ that fly under the immune system’s radar.
Eklavya Model Residential School
Why in news?
Eklavya Model Residential School teacher Shri Sidharth Yonzone conferred National Teachers Award – 2022 by the President of India.
Know about Eklavya Model Residential School
- EMRS started in the year 1997-98 to impart quality education to ST children in remote areas.
- Each school has a capacity of 480 students, catering to students from Class VI to XII.
- Hitherto, grants were given for construction of schools and recurring expenses to the State Governments under Grants under Article 275 (1) of the Constitution.
- In order to give further impetus to EMRS, it has been decided that by the year 2022, every block with more than 50% ST population and at least 20,000 tribal persons, will have an EMRS.
- Eklavya schools will be on par with Navodaya Vidyalaya and will have special facilities for preserving local art and culture besides providing training in sports and skill development.