”UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.
In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.
Why Gig Economy is in News?
A major shift in the employment trends has been the rise of the gig economy globally.
About Gig Economy
- The “gig economy involves the exchange of labour for money between individuals or companies via digital platforms that actively facilitate matching between providers and customers, on a short-term and payment-by-task basis. Examples include ride-hailing apps, food delivery apps, and holiday rental apps.
- The gig economy is also a kind of labour market characterised by the prevalence of short-term contracts or freelance work as opposed to permanent jobs.
- According to the Code on Social Security, 2020, “A gig worker is a person who performs work or participates in work arrangements and earns from such activities, outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship.”
- So, Gig economy is a free market system in which organisations hire or contract workers for a short span of time.
Indian Economy is turning into a Gig Economy?
- According to a report by Boston Consulting Group, India’s gig workforce comprises 15 million workers employed across industries such as software, shared services and professional services.
- An estimated 56% of new employment in India is being generated by the gig economy companies across both the blue-collar and white-collar workforce.
- Another study indicates that Gig economy is gaining a foothold in Tier 2 and Tier 3 markets.
UN Ocean Conference
Key Points about the UN Ocean Conference
- United Nations Ocean Conference is set to take place in Lisbon, Portugal from June 27-July 1 and will be co-hosted by the Governments of Kenya and Portugal.
- It aimed at starting a new chapter of global ocean action.
- Solutions for a sustainably managed ocean involve green technology and innovative uses of marine resources.
- They also include addressing the threats to health, ecology, economy and governance of the ocean – acidification, marine litter and pollution, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, and the loss of habitats and biodiversity.
Key Facts about Oceans
- The ocean covers 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, is the planet’s largest biosphere, and is home to up to 80 percent of all life in the world.
- It generates 50 percent of the oxygen we need, absorbs 25 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions and captures 90 percent of the additional heat generated from those emissions.
- It is not just ‘the lungs of the planet’ but also its largest carbon sink – a vital buffer against the impacts of climate change.
- It nurtures unimaginable biodiversity and produces food, jobs, mineral and energy resources needed for life on the planet to survive and thrive.
- There is a great deal we still do not know about the ocean but there are many reasons why we need to manage it sustainably – as set out in the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 14: Life Below Water.
- The science is clear – the ocean is facing unprecedented threats as a result of human activities.
- Its health and ability to sustain life will only get worse as the world population grows and human activities increase.
- If we want to address some of the most defining issues of our time such as climate change, food insecurity, diseases and pandemics, diminishing biodiversity, economic inequality and even conflicts and strife, we must act now to protect the state of our ocean.
Sustainable Development Goal 14: Life Below Water
- Adopted in 2015 as an integral aspect of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its set of 17 transformative goals.
- Goal 14 stresses the need to conserve and sustainably use the world’s oceans, seas and marine resources.
- Advancement of Goal 14 is guided by specific targets that focus on an array of ocean issues, including reducing marine pollution, protecting marine and coastal ecosystems, minimizing acidification, ending illegal and over-fishing, increasing investment in scientific knowledge and marine technology, and respecting international law that calls for the safe and sustainable use of the ocean and its resources.
- Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0, being implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), has launched the Revised Swachh Certification Protocols for ODF, ODF+, ODF++, and Water+ certifications.
- The revamped revised protocol is aligned with SBM-2.0 objectives and is designed to ensure:
- No untreated used water or faecal sludge is discharged into the environment and all used water (including sewerage and septage, grey water and black water) is safely contained, transported, and treated, along with maximum reuse of treated used water, in all cities with less than 1 lakh population.
- To sustain open defecation free status in all statutory towns.
- It contains provisions to encourage cities to have robust infrastructure with reliable Operation &Maintenance (O&M) mechanisms to achieve the goal ofclean urban India.Key interventions against each certification are:
- ODF – Robust monitoring mechanism ensured by increasing the number of survey sample size and location types.
- ODF+ – Focus on functionality of CT/PT and innovative O&M business model for their sustainability in long run.
- ODF++ – Emphasis on mechanized cleaning of septic tanks and sewers. Safe collection & treatment of used water as well as safe management of faecal sludge.
- Water+ – The focus is on collection, transportation, treatment, and reuse of both used water and faecal sludge to prevent environmental pollution. (1) For towns having population more than 20,000, a minimum of 25% households to be connected to sewerage network. (2) Striving to achieve sustainability. (3) No untreated used water is let out intheenvironment.
National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI)
- National Mission on “National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI)” developed by the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bengaluru with the support from the Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser (O/o PSA) to the Government of India.
- The framework will provide an all-inclusive guide to collecting air quality data, studying its impact and implementing science-based solutions.
- The NARFI is an information mechanism to help decision-makers in government, municipalities, start-ups and in the private sectors to address air pollution issues in different climatic zones of India.
The NARFI will evolve around the following five modules:
- THEME-1: Emission Inventory, Air Shed, and Mitigation
- THEME-2: Impacts on Human Health and Agriculture
- THEME-3: Integrated Monitoring, Forecasting and Advisory Framework
- THEME-4: Outreach, Social Dimension, Transition Strategy and Policy
- THEME-5: Solutions, Public-Industry Partnership, Stubble Burning & New Technologies.
NCPCR Releases Child Protection Guidelines for OTT Platforms
Children safeguarding in OTT platforms: Relevance
- GS 2: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.
OTT platforms in India: Context
- Recently, National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has published the draft guidelines to regulate child protection within the entertainment industry, including the OTT platforms.
Child Protection Guidelines: Key points
- The recent draft increases the scope of the guidelines to cover social media and OTT platforms for the first time.
- The commission has included stringent penal provisions for violating the guidelines, including imprisonment.
- The commission also mandated that child artists and children being used in entertainment need to be registered with District Magistrates.
- Acts covered: Juvenile Justice Act, 2015, Child Labour Amendment Act, 2016, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021.
Child protection guidelines NCPCR: Significance
- Increased use of children in videos across social media and in content on OTT platforms which had not been covered by the existing guidelines and this increasing influence and scope of the internet needed to be covered.
- In the absence of any monitoring mechanism, the children in the industry are at grave risk of exploitation because they lack the legal right to the earnings they generate, or safe working conditions and adequate protections via labour laws, etc.
- Participating in an adult-oriented industry, children are often exposed to unsuitable, anxiety inducing, and at times, dangerous operational hazards and situations.
- Apart from the industry-specific risks, the children are also susceptible to a plethora of other crimes against children such as sexual exploitation, child trafficking, bonded labour, etc.
Child Protection Guidelines: Key guidelines
- Any producer of any audio-visual media production involving the participation of a child will now need to obtain the permission of the District Magistrate where the activity is to be performed.
- Also, producers will also have to run a disclaimer saying measures were taken to ensure there has been no abuse, neglect or exploitation of children during the entire process of the shooting.
- A child shall only participate in one shift per day, with a break after every three hours.
- The guidelines further prohibit children being cast in roles or situations that are inappropriate.
- Also, consideration has to be given to the child’s age, maturity, emotional or psychological development and sensitivity.
- Also, a child cannot be exposed to ridicule, insult or discouragement, harsh comments or any behaviour that could affect his/her emotional health and children cannot be shown imbibing alcohol, smoking or using any other substance or shown to be indulging in any sort of antisocial activity and delinquent behaviour.
- Anyone who may come in contact with children will have to submit a medical fitness certificate ensuring that they are not carrying obvious contagious disease and police verification of the staff also needs to be carried out.
- Further, no child can be engaged in any situation involving nudity.
Other important directives
- Minor: A minor, especially below the age of six years, shall not be exposed to harmful lighting, irritating or contaminated cosmetics.
- Guardian: Moreover, at least one parent or legal guardian or a known person has to be present during a shoot, and for infants a registered nurse needs to be present along with the parent or legal guardian.
- Education: The producer also needs to ensure the child’s education under the RTE Act, to ensure no discontinuity from school or lessons as well as adequate and nutritious food, water to the children during the process of production and medical facilities.
- Income: At least 20 per cent of the income earned by the child from the production shall be directly deposited in a fixed deposit account in a nationalised bank in the name of the child which may be credited to the child on attaining majority.
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UNGA Launches Action Agenda on Internal Displacement
Internal displacement in world: Relevance
- GS 2: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
Internal displacement: Context
- Recently, United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has launched the Action Agenda on Internal Displacement to better resolve, prevent and address internal displacement crises.
Action Agenda on Internal Displacement: Key points
- The Action Agenda sets out 31 commitments by the UN system and includes calls to member states, international financial institutions, the private sector and other actors.
- Internal migration requires an integrated approach combining development, peace building, human rights, climate action and disaster risk reduction efforts.
Action Agenda on Internal Displacement: Why needed?
- With conflicts and disasters increasing, the number of IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons) have more than doubled over the last 10 years, with women, children and marginalised groups often facing the greatest impacts.
- According to a World Bank report, more than 200 million people could be forced to move internally by 2050 in just six regions due to climate change if immediate action is not taken.
- Russian Ukraine war has driven 13 million people out of their homes and communities, nearly two-thirds of whom remain in Ukraine.
- The plight of this increasingly vulnerable group of people has become more than a humanitarian issue.
Action Agenda on Internal Displacement: The agenda goals
The Action Agenda on Internal Displacement has broadly three goals. The below given three goals are interlinked and no solution can be effective if any of them is looming.
- To help internally displaced persons find durable solutions
- To better prevent future displacement crises
- To ensure stronger protection and assistance for those currently facing displacement.
Action Agenda on Internal Displacement: Recommendations
- The first goal can only be achieved if the rights and agency of IDPs of all ages, genders and diversities are recognised.
- IDPs should be given right to choose what is best for them and should be allowed to participate in decisions that would affect them.
- The primary responsibility of facilitating sustainable solutions to suitable displacement rested with states.
- Greater action is needed from and support to local and city authorities because IDPs are increasingly settling and residing in urban areas worldwide.
- To prevent future crises, mobilise rapid action to support de-escalation, political negotiation and conflict resolution when there are early signs of conflict, renewed violence or threats to civilians.
Internal displacement meaning
- Internal displacement refers to forced movement of people within the country they live in.
- As of the end of 2019, 50.8 million people were living in internal displacement because of conflict, violence and disasters.
Internal displacement in India
- According to Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre 2021, India witnessed around 5 million internal displacements last year.
- India ranked third in terms of most internal displacements due to disasters after China and the Philippines.
- IDP instances in India
- Adivasis, who bore the brunt of major developmental projects such as big dams
- Coastline dwellers such as those in Satabhaya in Odisha, where seven villages were being swallowed by the sea
- Thousands of tribals in Chhattisgarh who had been forced to migrate to Khammam in Telangana due to the conflict between Maoists and the Salwa Judum.
- India has a policy in place for dam-displaced people. But it does not have one for those displaced by political conflict or environmental reasons.
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Post Covid-19 Revamp Of Tourism Sector
- Much like the rest of the world, the Covid 19 Pandemic has disrupted all aspects of tourism – a human-centric Industry with a decline in International arrivals of close to 70 % (UNWTO).
- According to the Ministry of Tourism, Foreign tourist arrivals in March 2020 were almost 66 percent lower as compared to the tourist arrivals in March 2019.
How Covid-19 Impacted the Contribution Of the Tourism Sector to World GDP?
- The massive drop in tourism owing to partial/complete lockdowns worldwide led to cascading effects on governments, businesses and local communities leading to a loss of about USD 1.3 trillion in export revenues globally(World Bank).
- The estimated GDP loss in 2020 was about USD 3,435 billion in the baseline scenario, with Asia being the worst affected region.
What is the ”RESPOND Approach” to Revamp the Post Pandemic Tourism Sector?
- RESPOND Approach is an acronym for Restart Travel, Establish Protocols, Stimulate Demand, Promote Coordination, Operationalise the New Normal, Nurturing New Options, and Develop Digital Solutions – to combat and mitigate the impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic and take concrete steps toward sustainable recovery.
- Four important takeaways should be:
- Understand the New Market Trends;
- Rebuild a Safe, Resilient and Inclusive Tourism Ecosystem on the basis of prevailing consumer sentiments;
- Rethink tourism to leverage growing interests in areas such as eco-tourism;
- Focus on both domestic and international tourism.
New initiatives by GOI to revitalise the tourism industry in India
- In the Union Budget 2022-23, FM allocated Rs 2400 crore to tourism, which is 18.42 % higher than the allocation made in the previous budget.
- Rs 1881 crore is earmarked for ‘Swadesh Darshan’ to develop tourist circuits in the northeast region, Rs 1644 for tourism infrastructure development, and Rs 235 crore for Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual and Heritage Augmentation Drive(PRASHAD) to stimulate growth in niche tourism segments like religious, wellness, health adventure, MICE among others.
- An emergency credit line guarantee scheme(ECLGS) was extended up to March 2023 for Covid-19 affected sectors.
- The government has also geared up giving free visas to the first 5 lakh tourists.
- The e-visa facilities for travellers from 156 countries have also been extended.
Dekho Apna Desh
- The Dekho Apna Desh Pledge campaign was launched by the Union Ministry of Tourism in January 2021 under which tourists who visit at least 15 tourism hotspots will be awarded with an exciting prize.
- According to the Dekho Apna Desh Pledge campaign, avid travellers who are able to visit at least 15 tourist destinations spread across different parts of the country will be given an exciting prize which might include tour packages and tickets to exotic places.
Heal India Campaign
- The Union government is looking to promote India’s medical facilities and infrastructure under ‘heal in India‘ campaign.\
- A special visa category has also been created for those who want to travel to the country to avail of AYUSH therapies.
India has extensive potential in the fields of environment, spiritual, medical and education tourism. The country’s domestic and foreign policy efforts have facilitated an enabling environment for the promotion of the tourism industry. There is further scope for innovations and adaptations in this regard to leverage the new normal.
The Editorial Analysis: Bringing MSMEs into Global Value Chains
MSME in India: Relevance
- GS 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
MSMEs in India
- Micro-, Small and Medium enterprises (MSME) account for over 99% of businesses in India.
- MSMEs are the largest employer in India outside of agriculture, employing over 11.1 crore people, or 45% of all workers.
- The disruption of the pandemic severely impacted MSMEs, especially those in the services sector.
- Renewed war, supply shocks and soaring fuel, food and fertilizer prices presented a host of new threats for these privately owned enterprises.
- Climate crisis has been impacting the MSMEs adversely, making it the greatest disruption multiplier of all.
Issues with the MSME sector
- Most of the MSMEs do not meet today’s standards on productivity, environmental sustainability, and health and safety of workers.
- High degree of informality in the sector, with many enterprises unregistered, and both employers and workers are lacking awareness of and commitment to comply with labour and environmental laws.
- Informal enterprises cannot access formal MSME support and financing nor participate in global value chains that require full compliance with all applicable regulations.
- Digitalisation concerns the integration of digital technologies, such as big data, artificial intelligence and virtual reality, in business processes, also known as Industry 4.0.
Steps taken for the MSME sector
- India’s “Make in India” campaign aims to catapult the country up the manufacturing value chain to position itself as a global manufacturing hub.
- Initiatives such as the production linked incentives (PLI) schemes and the recently launched zero effect zero defect (ZED) certification are helping to promote and boost the sector.
- Government initiatives such as the Digital Saksham and the interlinking of the Udyam, e-Shram, National Career Service (NCS), and Atmanirbhar Skilled Employee-Employer Mapping (ASEEM) portals show the promise of targeted digitalisation schemes.
- UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) provided energy efficiency advisory services to 695 MSMEs in 23 clusters covering brass, ceramic, dairy, foundry and hand tool sectors.
- To increase the resilience of supply in response to recent shocks, production locations for global value chains are increasingly shifting and diversifying across countries and regions. To leverage this opportunity, UNIDO is spearheading the notion of manufacturing excellence.
- The Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) is also creating opportunities for self-employment and micro enterprises, with over 7 lakh micro enteprises assisted in becoming economically viable.
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