”UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.
In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.
Alluri Sitarama Raju
Prime Minister Narendra Modi plans to be in Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh on July 4. He will launch the year-long celebrations on the 125th birth anniversary of Alluri, enabling a new generation to be aware of the heroics of Alluri and the sacrifices he made for the tribal community.#
What Alluri Sitarama Raju did?
- Hundred years ago, in August 1922, the forests of the Godavari Agency in the Madras Presidency witnessed attacks on three police stations over three continuous days.
- Alluri Sitarama Raju, along with 500 tribal people, attacked the police stations of Chintapalli, Krishnadevipeta and Rajavommangi and walked away with 26 police carbine rifles and 2,500 rounds of ammunition.
- Sitarama Raju did not belong to the tribal community, but understood the restrictions that the British colonial administration placed on the tribal way of life.
- Forced labour, embargoes on collecting minor forest produce and bans on tribal agriculture practices led to severe distress among the Koyas of the Godavari Agency area.
- Known as the “Rampa Rebellion” or “Manyam Rebellion”, between August 1922 and May 1924, Alluri led a protracted battle against the British in support of the tribal community. Legend has it that Alluri himself would forewarn the British officers of an imminent attack and would challenge them to stop him with the superior resources that they had at hand.
Know about Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav
- It is the structured efforts of identifying and curating episodes in our past that we have lacked so far.
- On March 12, 2021, India began a 75-week countdown to the 75th anniversary of Independence.
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav from Sabarmati Ashram and unveiled one of the world’s largest programmes of this nature in terms of scope and participation.
- Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav gives us the opportunity to celebrate the unsung, the unknown and the underappreciated.
- It is a unique opportunity for the governments at all levels to come together with civil society, NGOs, spiritual organisations and passionate individuals to recognise the people and events that made us India.
- Now Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav has been extended for one additional year till August 15, 2023.
- This give us several such opportunities to pay tributes to our heroes and recognise their contributions in building Ek Bharat, Shresht Bharat.
National Investigation Agency
The National Investigation Agency (NIA) has taken over the probe into the June 28 killing of tailor Kanhaiyya Lal (48) in Rajasthan’s Udaipur.
- It is a central agency mandated to investigate all the offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, and the offences under the statutory laws enacted to implement international treaties, agreements, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations, its agencies and other international organisations.
- Headquartered in Delhi, the NIA has its branches in Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kochi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Kolkata, Raipur, Jammu, Chandigarh, Ranchi, Chennai, Imphal, Bengaluru and Patna.
When did the NIA come into being?
- In the wake of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack in November 2008, which shocked the entire world, the then United Progressive Alliance government decided to establish the NIA.
- In December 2008, former Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram introduced the National Investigation Agency Bill.
- The Home Minister had then said the agency would deal with only eight laws mentioned in the schedule and that a balance had been struck between the right of the State and duties of the Central government to investigate the more important cases. The Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
- The agency came into existence on December 31, 2008, and started its functioning in 2009.
- Till date, the NIA has registered 447 cases.
What are the scheduled offences?
- The list includes the Explosive Substances Act, Atomic Energy Act, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, Anti-Hijacking Act, Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Civil Aviation Act, SAARC Convention (Suppression of Terrorism) Act, Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act, Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act and relevant offences under the Indian Penal Code, Arms Act and the Information Technology Act.
- In September 2020, the Centre empowered the NIA to also probe offences under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act that are connected to terror cases.
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has asked the Deputy Commissioner of Arunachal Pradesh’s Changlang district to submit an action-taken report (ATR) on a complaint alleging harassment and false prosecution of some Chakma villagers.
Who are Chakmas and Hajongs?
- The Chakmas and Hajongs are ethnic people who lived in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, most of which are located in Bangladesh.
- Chakmas are predominantly Buddhists, while Hajongs are Hindus. They are found in northeast India, West Bengal, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.
Why does Arunachal Pradesh have a problem with Chakmas?
In the 1960s, the Chakma refugees were accommodated in the relief camps constructed in the “vacant lands” of Tirap, Lohit and Subansiri districts of the erstwhile North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA), a political division governed by the Union government. In 1972, NEFA was renamed Arunachal Pradesh and made a Union Territory, and subsequently, it attained statehood. The locals and regional political parties opposed re-settling refugees in their land fearing that it may change the demography of the State and that they may have to share the limited resources available for them.
Status of granting citizenship to Chakma People
In 2015, the Supreme Court directed the Centre to grant citizenship to Chakma and Hajongs who had migrated from Bangladesh in 1964-69. The order was passed while hearing a plea by the Committee for Citizenship Rights of the Chakmas. Following this, the Centre introduced amendments to the Citizenship Act, 1955. The Bill is yet to be passed, as the opposition says the Bill makes illegal migrants eligible for citizenship on the basis of religion, which is a violation of Article 14 of the Constitution.
Financial Services Institutions Bureau
FSIB UPSC: Relevance
- GS 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
FSIB India: Context
- Recently, the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) headed by the Prime Minister has decided to set up Financial Services Institutions Bureau (FSIB) as a replacement body of Bank Board Bureau.
Financial Services Institutions Bureau: Key points
- FSIB has been established as a single entity for making recommendations for appointments of Directors in public sector banks (PSBs), public sector insurers (PSIs) and financial institutions (FIs).
- FSIB will be headed by former Banks Board Bureau Chairman Bhanu Pratap Sharma for two years.
- The new entity will also make recommendations for selection of General Managers and Directors in non-life PSIs.
- After getting approval from ACC, the Department of Financial Services (DFS) in the Ministry of Finance is expected modify certain provision in the Nationalised Banks (Management and Miscellaneous Provisions) Scheme of 1980.
- FSIB would be a professional body with autonomy in its affairs and shall have its own secretariat.
Financial Services Institutions Bureau: Responsibilities
- The FSIB will also advise the government on a suitable performance appraisal system for whole-time directors and non-executive chairmen of the state-run financial services institutions.
- The body will build a data bank relating to the performance of public-sector banks (PSBs), FIs and insurance companies.
- It will advise the government on “formulation and enforcement of a code of conduct and ethics for whole-time directors” in these institutions.
- The FSIB will even help these state-run banks, FIs and insurers in developing business strategies and capital raising plans, etc.
- The FSIB will comprise
- a chairperson nominated by the central government;
- the secretaries of the departments of financial services and public enterprises;
- the chairman of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India; and
- a deputy governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
- Apart from them, there will be three members with knowledge of banks and other financial institutions, and three more with knowledge of insurance.
- In future, the FSIB chairman and the three members handling affairs relating to banking and financial institutions will be selected by a search committee that will comprise the RBI governor and the secretaries of the departments of financial services and personnel and training.
What’s next for BBB?
- The establishment of FSIB would mean the end for the Banks Board Bureau (BBB), which was formed in 2016 as an autonomous body.
- The body was mandated to search and select personages for the Board of Public Sector Banks, Public Sector Financial Institutions and Public Sector Insurance Companies and recommend measures to improve corporate governance in these institutions.
Read current affairs for UPSC
The Editorial Analysis- Wake-up Call
Landslides- Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper 1: Salient features of world’s physical geography- Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.
Landslides in Manipur in news
- Recently, more than 40 people have died in the landslide, which hit a railway construction site in Manipur.
- Rescue teams in the north-eastern Indian state of Manipur are searching for 20 missing people, days after a massive landslide.
Updated List of Geographical Indication Tags in India
Landslides in Manipur
- Cause of the Landslide: The tragic disaster has been compounded by the debris of the landslide blocking the Ijei river, creating a significant welling up of water which could inundate low-lying areas if the “dam”-like structure is breached.
- While the administration has sought to ease the water outflow from the stored water, inclement weather has hampered the pace of the efforts.
- Steps to be taken: the government and disaster management officials must now take precautions to ensure that the consequences of the disaster do not snowball even further.
- Frequency: the number of such incidents in Manipur are very high.
- However, Himalayan States in northern India and other States with hill/ghat terrain such as Kerala have registered the bulk of landslides in the last decade or so according to government data.
- Concerns: Environment Ministry has itself acknowledged that the disasters were “anthropogenically” induced are a matter of serious concern for the State. The Ministry identified the causes of landslides in Manipur as a result of-
- Modification of slopes for construction,
- Widening of road,
- Quarrying for construction materials,
- Fragile lithography,
- Complex geological structures and
- Heavy rainfall
- About: Landslides occur when masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope. Debris flows, also known as mudslides, are a common type of fast-moving landslide that tends to flow in channels.
- Causes: Landslides are caused by disturbances in the natural stability of a slope.
- They can accompany heavy rains or follow droughts, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.
- Mudslides develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground and results in a surge of water-saturated rock, earth, and debris.
- Mudslides usually start on steep slopes and can be activated by natural disasters.
- Areas where wildfires or human modification of the land have destroyed vegetation on slopes are particularly vulnerable to landslides during and after heavy rains.
- Landslide prone Areas: Some areas are more likely to experience landslides or mudflows, including:
- Areas where wildfires or human modification of the land have destroyed vegetation;
- Areas where landslides have occurred before;
- Steep slopes and areas at the bottom of slopes or canyons;
- Slopes that have been altered for construction of buildings and roads;
- Channels along a stream or river; and
- Areas where surface runoff is directed.
- As a post-facto exercise, the State government must look at whether sufficient soil and stability tests were done before choosing the site for railway construction work in the Tupul area.
- Researchers have corroborated the fact that the areas in western Manipur abutting the national highways fall under very high, high or moderate hazard zones.
- The severe landslide occurred in the Tupul area despite the government identifying susceptible areas in the State through the National Landslide Susceptibility Mapping project.
- The uncertain nature of rains, with the monsoon being more intense this year compared to predictions, has added to the problem.
- An early warning system for landslides is still being developed and refined by the Geological Survey of India and this could help reduce the scale of such disasters, once deployed across vulnerable States.
- While it is understandable that States in the Northeast are keen on accelerating connectivity projects to uplift a relatively economically backward region, disasters such as the landslide in Tupul point to the dangers of not taking ecological challenges related to deforestation seriously enough.
Disaster Management: Understanding the basics
National Investigation Agency: NIA takes Over Udaipur Killing
National Investigation Agency (NIA): Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper 2: Indian Constitution- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
National Investigation Agency (NIA) in news
- Recently, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) has taken over the probe into the June 28 killing of tailor Kanhaiyya Lal (48) in Rajasthan’s Udaipur over a social media post supporting suspended Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader Nupur Sharma.
- The Union Home Ministry has also handed over to NIA the investigation of a similarly executed murder of pharmacist Umesh Kolhe (54) at Amravati in Maharashtra on June 21.
National Investigation Agency (NIA)
- Background: The NIA was constituted in the wake of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack in November 2008.
- The NIA came into existence on December 31, 2008, and started its functioning in 2009.
- About: The NIA is a central agency which investigates all offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, and the offences under the statutory laws enacted to implement international treaties.
- Parent Legislation: National Investigation Agency (NIA) was created as a statutory body under National Investigation Agency Act, 2008.
- It tries to strike a balance between the right of the State and duties of the Central government to investigate the more important cases.
- Crime and NIA Powers: Various crimes under NIA’s jurisdiction include terror acts and their possible links with crimes like smuggling of arms, drugs and fake Indian currency and infiltration from across the borders.
- The National Investigation Agency (NIA) has the power to search, seize, arrest and prosecute those involved in such offences.
National Investigation Agency Jurisdiction
- Territorial Jurisdiction: The law (NIA Act 2008) under which the agency operates extends to the whole of India and also applies to-
- Indian citizens outside the country;
- Persons in the service of the government wherever they are posted;
- Persons on ships and aircraft registered in India wherever they may be;
- Persons who commit a scheduled offence beyond India against the Indian citizen or affecting the interest of India.
- Laws Covered: NIA deals with the offences under only eight laws mentioned in the scheduled of the NIA Act. These laws are-
- The Explosive Substances Act,
- Atomic Energy Act,
- Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act,
- Anti-Hijacking Act,
- Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Civil Aviation Act,
- SAARC Convention (Suppression of Terrorism) Act,
- Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act,
- Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act and
- Relevant offences under the Indian Penal Code, Arms Act and the Information Technology Act.
- NIA (amendment) 2022 Act: the Centre empowered the NIA to also probe offences under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act that are connected to terror cases.
Who assigns cases to NIA?
- Reference by State Governments: As provided under Section 6 of the Act, State governments can refer the cases pertaining to the scheduled offences registered at any police station to the Central government (Union Home Ministry) for NIA investigation.
- After assessing the details made available, the Centre can then direct the agency to take over the case.
- State governments are required to extend all assistance to the NIA.
- Direction by Union Government: Even when the Central government is of the opinion that a scheduled offence has been committed which is required to be investigated under the Act, it may, suo motu, direct the agency to take up/over the probe.
- For Offences Committed on Foreign Land: Where the Central government finds that a scheduled offence has been committed at any place outside India to which this Act extends, it can also direct the NIA to register the case and take up investigation.
- Related Offences: While investigating any scheduled offence, the agency can also investigate any other offence which the accused is alleged to have committed if the offence is connected to the scheduled offence.
Multi-Agency Centre (MAC) of Intelligence Bureau (IB)
One country two systems
One country two systems UPSC: Relevance
- GS 2: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
One country two systems: Context
- Recently, Chinese President has defended the One Country, Two System Policy by saying that Hong Kong can’t afford to be destabilised.
One country two systems policy: Key points
- The President has also asserted that Hong Kong’s “true democracy” started after the city’s handover to China from colonial Britain 25 years ago.
- He also said that there was no reason to change the “one country, two systems” principle, which was gives Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy after the 1997 handover.
- 01 July 2022 marks the halfway point of the 50-year governance model agreed by Britain and China under which Hong Kong would keep autonomy and key freedoms.
Hong Kong independence
- Hong Kong has undergone significant change since Xi’s last visit in 2017, when he warned against any challenge to Chinese sovereignty.
- Two years later, the city was convulsed by months of pro-democracy protests that sometimes turned violent, with some protesters calling for Hong Kong independence.
- Beijing responded by imposing the national security law, saying it was necessary to restore order.
- Since then, almost 200 people have been arrested on charges of subversion, secession, terrorism or collusion with foreign forces, including journalists and many of Hong Kong’s most prominent pro-democracy figures.
What is one country two systems Taiwan?
- The one country two system policy means that the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions, both former colonies, can have different economic and political systems from that of mainland China, while being part of the People’s Republic of China.
- The British had taken control of Hong Kong in 1842 after the First Opium War.
- The One Country Two Systems policy was originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping shortly after he took over as the president of China in the late 1970s.
- Deng’s plan was to unify China and Taiwan under the One Country Two Systems policy. He promised high autonomy to Taiwan.
- China’s nationalist government, which was defeated in a civil war by the communists in 1949, had been exiled to Taiwan.
- Under Deng’s plan, the island could follow its capitalist economic system, run a separate administration and keep its own army but under Chinese sovereignty.
- Taiwan, however, rejected the Communist Party’s offer.
- The island has since been run as a separate entity from the mainland China, though Beijing never gave up its claim over Taiwan.
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Vritika Research Internship
Vritika Research Internship: Relevance
- GS 3: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors
Accelerate Vigyan scheme: Context
- Recently, the one month Vritika Research Internship sponsored by the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt of India, under Accelerate Vigyan Vritika scheme was concluded.
About Vritika research internship
- ‘VRITIKA’ is the call for initiation and practice in science through Training and Skill Internship.
- This program aims to provide opportunities to promising PG students from universities and colleges to get exposure and hands-on research skill development experience.
- These internships will primarily be facilitated by organizations / institutions / laboratories of national importance such as IITs, IISc, IISERs, NITs, CSIR, ICAR, ICMR etc.
Vritika Research Internship: Objective
- To groom students (primarily from Universities, Colleges, Private Academic Institutions, and newly established Institutes) in their scientific career pursuits by developing dedicated research skills in through Training and Skill Internship.
- This program would facilitate the young talent to choose a career path in Science and Technology, at a later stage.
- The scheme is meant to support regular PG level students who are pursuing their degree from University / Institution within India in the fields of Science and Engineering and having an interest in scientific research.
Vritika Research Internship: Support
- The internship will be given for meeting daily necessary expenses such as stationery, consumables, accommodation, food, etc., and will not contain any stipend for them.
- The support amount will be of Rs. 30000/- per intern for the whole internship period.
Vritika Research Internship: Duration and certification
- The period of the Training and Skill Internship shall be at least 4 weeks but not exceeding 2 months.
- The supervisor to whom the interns are attached would be assigning them tasks/assignments, on which, the intern should work and prepare a report to be submitted.
- A certificate regarding successful completion of internship shall be issued to the intern by the supervisor and head of the concern department on satisfactory completion of the internship and on submission of the assignment report.
- Interns not completing the requisite period will not be issued any certificate.
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Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra 2022
Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra 2022- Relevance for UPSC Exam
Puri Rath Yatra 2022: Rath Yatra 2022 has begun with devotion and traditions all over Odisha. Jagannath Rath Yatra is part of UPSC Mains GS Paper 1 (Indian History: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.)
Puri Rath Yatra 2022 in News
- The famous Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra, also known as the Festival of Chariots commenced on July 1 in Puri, Odisha and will end on July 12.
Key Facts about Puri Rath Yatra 2022
- About: The Rath Yatra is unique for its three Hindu gods who are brought out of their temples in a colourful procession to meet their devotees.
- Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra is believed to be the oldest and largest chariot procession in the world.
- Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra is observed every year as per the Hindu calendar.
- Locations: Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra is organised at different locations in India including Puri, Ahmedabad.
- Historical Legend: Documented in Hindu sacred texts – Brahma Purana, Padma Purana, Skanda Purana and Kapila Samhita – it is believed that Subhadra, sister of Lord Jagannath, desired to travel to Puri.
- To fulfil her wish, Lord Jagannath, along with his elder brother Lord Balabhadra, left for Puri in a chariot with Devi Subhadra.
- Since then, this festival marks theannual ceremonial journey of Lord Jagannath, brother Balabhadra and younger sister Subhadra, from their home temple to another temple which is considered to be their aunt’s home.
- Name of Chariots: All three chariots have their own name.
- While Lord Jagannath‘s chariot is named Nandighosh, Lord Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra’s chariots are called Taladhwaja and Darpadalana respectively.
- Significance: The Jagannath Yatra is the only festival whose rituals allow Hindu deities to travel from the Jagannath Temple to Gundicha Temple, where they stay for a couple of days.
- Chariots are pulled by devotees and it is believed that touching the rope of Lord Jagannath’s chariotwill cleanse all the sins committed, knowingly or unknowingly.
Puri Rath Yatra 2022- Key Events
- July 1, 2022: The Jagannath Rath Yatra begins from Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri towards the Gundicha temple.
- July 5 2022: Hera Panchami (The first five days during which deities reside in the Gundicha temple.
- July 8, 2022: Sandhya Darshan or Navami Darshan is when the devotees can see and offer prayers to all the deities.
- July 8, 2022: Bahuda Yatra is the period during which the deities begin returning back to their home.
- July 10, 2022: Sunabesa is when all the three deities reside back in the Jagannath temple.
- July 11, 2022: Aadhar Pana is a ritual during which a special drink is offered to the holy chariots.
- July 12, 2022: Niladri Bije marks the end of the Jagannath Yatra.