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Today’s Current Affairs Diary 19-05-2022|A Compilation of Today’s CA Related Articles


National Register of Citizens (NRC)


In News: The Assam state coordinator for the National Register of Citizens (NRC) has written to the members of foreigners’ tribunals (FT) across the state that the NRC list published by the state government in 2019 is not final and instructed them not to consider that list (or its supplementary list) as evidence to dispose of cases.

About NRC

  • The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a register containing names of all genuine Indian citizens. At present, only Assam has such a register.
  • The exercise may be extended to other states as well. Nagaland is already creating a similar database known as the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants.
  • The Centre is planning to create a National Population Register (NPR), which will contain demographic and biometric details of citizens.

NRC in Assam

  • The NRC in Assam is basically a list of Indian citizens living in the state. The citizens’ register sets out to identify foreign nationals in the state that borders Bangladesh.
  • The process to update the register began following a Supreme Court order in 2013, with the state’s nearly 33 million people having to prove that they were Indian nationals prior to March 24, 1971.
  • The updated final NRC was released on August 31, 2019. This draft excluded 19.06-lakh out of the 3.3 crore  people who had applied for inclusion.
What happens with the excluded individuals?
  • Non-inclusion of a person’s name in the NRC does not by itself amount to him/her being declared a foreigner. Such individuals will have the option to present their case before foreigners’ tribunals.
  • If one loses the case in the tribunal, the person can move the high court and, then, the Supreme Court.
  • In the case of Assam, the state government has clarified it will not detain any individual until he/she is declared a foreigner by the foreigners’ tribunal.

 Drought in Numbers report


In News: World at crossroads in the drought management as the Drought in Numbers 2022 report suggests.

Key Points

  • The Drought in Numbers report is a collection of data on the effects of droughts on our ecosystem and how they can be mitigated through efficient planning for the future.
  • The report also helps inform negotiations surrounding key decisions by the UNCCD’s 197 member parties at the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15), currently underway in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Drought, land restoration, and related aspects such as land rights, gender equality and youth empowerment are among the top considerations at COP15.
  • The number and duration of droughts around the world has increased by an alarming 29% since 2000.

What is COP15?

  • UNCCD’s COP15 focuses on desertification, land degradation, and drought, with the theme for the conference being “Land. Life. Legacy: From scarcity to prosperity.”
  • The conference has brought together government representatives, private sector members, and civil society stakeholders to ensure that land continues to benefit present and future generations.

Clemency powers under Articles 72 and 161


In News: The Supreme Court on Wednesday invoked its extraordinary powers to do complete justice under Article 142 of the Constitution and ordered the release of A.G. Perarivalan in former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.

A brief history Of Perarivalan Case

  • The apex court had, in May 1999, upheld the TADA court’s verdict of death for Perarivalan. The court had also quickly dismissed his review petition five months later. The Tamil Nadu Governor had dismissed the mercy petitions of the convicts the same October. The Governor repeated the act of rejection of mercy in April 2000.
  • The President took 11 whole years to reject his mercy plea on August 12, 2011.
  • On February 18, 2014, when a three-judge Bench of the Supreme Court led by then Chief Justice of India P. Sathasivam commuted the death penalty of his and two others to life sentence and made a strong observation in the verdict that “apex constitutional authorities” like the President and the Governor must exercise their clemency powers under Articles 72 and 161, respectively, within the “bounds of constitutional discipline” and in an “expeditious manner”.

What is Article 142 of the Constitution?

Subsection 1 of Article 142 (“Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.”) says “the Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or order so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe.”

Pardoning Power of President(Art 72)

(1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence –

a)in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial;
b)in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;
c)in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death.

Thus, Article 72 empowers the President to grant pardons etc. and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.

Pardoning Power of Governor(Art. 161)

The Article deals with the power of the Governor to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.

The Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends.

What is the difference between the pardoning power of the president and the governor?

The scope of the pardoning power of the President under Article 72 is wider than the pardoning power of the Governor under Article 161. The power differs in the following two ways:

  • The power of the President to grant pardon extends in cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial but Article 161 does not provide any such power to the Governor.
  • The President can grant pardon in all cases where the sentence given is a sentence of death but the pardoning power of the Governor does not extend to death sentence cases.


National Policy on Biofuels



  • GS 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

National Policy on Biofuels 2018: Context

  • Recently, the cabinet has approved the Amendments to the National Policy on Biofuels -2018, to increase biofuel production and reduce the dependence on imports of petroleum products.


National Policy on Biofuels: Major amendments

  • to allow more feedstocks for production of biofuels,
  • to advance the ethanol blending target of 20% blending of ethanol in petrol to ESY 2025-26 from 2030.
  • to promote the production of biofuels in the country, under the Make in India program, by units located in Special Economic Zones (SEZ)/ Export Oriented Units (EoUs),
  • to add new members to the NBCC (National Biofuel Coordination Committee).
  • to grant permission for export of biofuels in specific cases, and
  • to delete/amend certain phrases in the Policy in line with decisions taken during the meetings of National Biofuel Coordination Committee.


National Policy on Biofuels 2018: Expected benefits

  • The amendments will attract and foster developments of indigenous technologies which will pave the way for Make in India drive and thereby generate more employment.
  • The amendment proposal will pave the way for Make in India drive thereby leading to reduction in import of petroleum products by generation of more and more biofuels.
  • Since many more feedstocks are being allowed for production of biofuels, this will promote the Atmanirbhar Bharat and give an impetus to the vision of India becoming ‘energy independent’ by 2047.


What is National Policy on Biofuels 2018?

  • The National Policy on Biofuels – 2018 builds on the achievements of the earlier National Policy on Biofuels and sets the new agenda consistent with the redefined role of emerging developments in the Renewable Sector.


Features of National Policy on Biofuels 2018

  • The Policy categorises biofuels as “Basic Biofuels” viz. First Generation (1G) bioethanol & biodiesel and “Advanced Biofuels” – Second Generation (2G) ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to drop-in fuels, Third Generation (3G) biofuels, bio-CNG etc. to enable extension of appropriate financial and fiscal incentives under each category.
  • The Policy expands the scope of raw material for ethanol production by allowing use of Sugarcane Juice, Sugar containing materials like Sugar Beet, Sweet Sorghum, Starch containing materials like Corn, Cassava, Damaged food grains like wheat, broken rice, Rotten Potatoes, unfit for human consumption for ethanol production.
  • Farmers are at a risk of not getting appropriate price for their produce during the surplus production phase. Taking this into account, the Policy allows use of surplus food grains for production of ethanol for blending with petrol with the approval of National Biofuel Coordination Committee.
  • With a thrust on Advanced Biofuels, the Policy indicates a viability gap funding scheme for 2G ethanol Bio refineries of Rs.5000 crore in 6 years in addition to additional tax incentives, higher purchase price as compared to 1G biofuels.
  • The Policy encourages setting up of supply chain mechanisms for biodiesel production from non-edible oilseeds, Used Cooking Oil, short gestation crops.


Expected benefits of National Policy on Biofuels 2018

  • Reduce Import Dependency: The ethanol supply year 2017-18 is likely to see a supply of around 150 crore litres of ethanol which will result in savings of over Rs.4000 crore of forex.
  • Cleaner Environment: By reducing crop burning & conversion of agricultural residues/wastes to biofuels there will be further reduction in Green House Gas emissions.
  • Health benefits: Prolonged reuse of Cooking Oil for preparing food, particularly in deep-frying is a potential health hazard and can lead to many diseases. Used Cooking Oil is a potential feedstock for biodiesel and its use for making biodiesel will prevent diversion of used cooking oil in the food industry.
  • MSW Management: There are technologies available which can convert waste/plastic, MSW to drop in fuels. One ton of such waste has the potential to provide around 20% of drop in fuels.
  • Infrastructural Investment in Rural Areas: At present Oil Marketing Companies are in the process of setting up twelve 2G bio refineries with an investment of around Rs.10,000 crore. Further addition of 2G bio refineries across the Country will spur infrastructural investment in the rural areas.
  • Employment Generation: One 100klpd 2G bio refinery can contribute 1200 jobs in Plant Operations, Village Level Entrepreneurs and Supply Chain Management.
  • Additional Income to Farmers: By adopting 2G technologies, agricultural residues/waste which otherwise are burnt by the farmers can be converted to ethanol and can fetch a price for these wastes if a market is developed for the same. Also, farmers are at a risk of not getting appropriate price for their produce during the surplus production phase. Thus, conversion of surplus grains and agricultural biomass can help in price stabilization.

    Mahaparinirvana Temple


    • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

    Mahaparinirvana Temple in news

    • Recently, the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, offered prayers at the Mahaprinirvana Stupa at Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, on the occasion of Buddha Purnima.


    Mahaparinirvana Temple- More on News

    • He also performed the shilanyaas ceremony for construction of the India International Centre for Buddhist Culture and Heritage in the Lumbini Monastic Zone.
    • Shri Modi also attended the 2566thBuddha Jayanti Celebrations at International Convention Center and Meditation Hall at Lumbini along with the Prime Minister of Nepal.

    Mahaparinirvana Diwas: Death Anniversary of BR Ambedkar


    Key Points about Mahaparinirvana Temple

    • About: Mahaparinirvana Temple is said to be theplace of death of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.
      • Location: Mahaparinirvana Stupa is a Buddhist temple in Kushinagar, India.
    • Discovery: Alexander Cunningham conclusively proved that Gautama Buddha had died in the Kushinagar area.
    • Construction: Indian Government built the present Mahaparinirvana Temple in 1956.
      • Mahaparinirvana Temple was built as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th year of the Mahaparinivana or 2500 BE (Buddhist Era).


    Features of Mahaparinirvana Temple

    • The Mahaparinirvana statue is 6.1 m long and rests on a stone couch. The monolithic statue of Buddha is built out of a single piece of red sandstone of Chunar.
    • Mahaparinirvana statue shows him reclining on his right side with his face facing the west.
      • It was considered the right posture for Mahaparinirvana.
    • There is an inscription on the platform stating that it was built by Swami Haribala, a disciple of the Buddha in 5th century AD.
      • Both the temple and the vihar were a gift of a grateful disciple to his august teacher.


    Buddhist Monuments in Kushinagar

    • Attainment of Mahaparinirvana: Buddha ordained his last disciple and uttered his last words to the sangha and attained Parinirvana in 487 BCE.
      • After 45 years of missionary activities, the Buddha, severely stricken with illness, finally reached to Kushinagar where he died in 487 BCE.
    • Buddhist Monuments:
      • Maurayan Empire: In 260 BCE, Maurya king Ashoka reportedly visited Kushinagar where he built several caityas, stupas to honor the Buddha’s place of Nirvana.
      • Kushan Empire: Buddhist sites in Kushinagar were steadily expanded during the Kushan empire (c. 50-241 CE)
      • Gupta Age: Kushinagar witnessed a golden age during the Gupta empire(c. 320-647 CE). The Parinirvana Stupa was largely expanded and Parinirvana Temple was reconstructed along with a huge reclining Buddha statue.

    Buddhism: Origin and Teachings of Buddha

    New museums on Gautam Buddha, J&K and freedom struggle



Inequality in India 


  • GS 2: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.


State of inequality in India: Context

  • Recently, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM) presented a report on State of Inequality in India, which has a holistic analysis of the depth and nature of inequality in India.


About State of Inequality in India Report

  • The report consists of two parts—Economic Facets and Socio-Economic Manifestations.
  • Five key areas: income distribution and labour market dynamics, health, education and household characteristics.
  • The report stretches the narrative on inequality by presenting a comprehensive analysis that shapes the ecosystem of various deprivation in the country, which directly impacts the well-being of the population and overall growth.


State of Inequality in India Report: Key findings

Income distribution

  • The report emphasises that wealth concentration as a measure of inequality does not reveal the changes in the purchasing capacity of households.
  • Extrapolation of the income data from PLFS 2019-20 has shown that a monthly salary of Rs 25,000 is already amongst the top 10% of total incomes earned, pointing towards some levels of income disparity.
  • The share of the top 1% accounts for 6-7% of the total incomes earned, while the top 10% accounts for one-third of all incomes earned.


Labour market dynamics

  • In 2019-20, among different employment categories, the highest percentage was of self-employed workers (45.78%), followed by regular salaried workers (33.5%) and casual workers (20.71%).
    • The share of self-employed workers also happens to be the highest in the lowest income categories.
  • The country’s unemployment rate is 4.8% (2019-20), and the worker population ratio is 46.8%.



  • In the area of health infrastructure, there has been a considerable improvement in increasing the infrastructural capacity with a targeted focus on rural areas.
  • From around 1.72 lakh total health centres in India in 2005, total health centres in 2020 stand at more than 1.85 lakhs.
  • States and Union Territories like Rajasthan, Gujrat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh have significantly increased health centres (comprising of Sub-Centres, Primary Health Centres, and Community Health Centres) between 2005 and 2020.
  • The results of NFHS-4 (2015-16) and NFHS-5 (2019-21) have shown that 58.6% of women received antenatal check-ups in the first trimester in 2015-16, which increased to 70% by 2019-21.
  • 78% of women received postnatal care from a doctor or auxiliary nurse within two days of delivery, and 79.1% of children received postnatal care within two days of delivery.
  • However, nutritional deprivation in terms of overweight, underweight, and prevalence of anaemia remains areas of huge concern requiring urgent attention, as the report states.
  • Additionally, low health coverage, leading to high out-of-pocket expenditure, directly affects poverty incidences.



  • It is emphasised that education and cognitive development from the foundational years is a long-term corrective measure for inequality.
  • By 2019-20, 95% of schools have functional toilet facilities on the school premises.
  • 16% of schools have functional electricity connections with States and Union Territories like Goa, Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Delhi, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep and Puducherry have achieved universal (100%) coverage of functional electricity connections.
  • The Gross Enrolment Ratio has also increased between 2018-19 and 2019-20 at the primary, upper primary, secondary and higher secondary.


Household characteristics

  • According to the report, household conditions have improved enormously due to targeted efforts through several social protection schemes, especially in the area of water availability and sanitation that have increased the standard of living.
  • In terms of improvement in household conditions, emphasis on providing access to sanitation and safe drinking water has meant leading a dignified life for most households.
  • According to NFHS-5 (2019-21), 97% of households have electricity access, 70% have improved access to sanitation, and 96% have access to safe drinking water.




  • GS Paper 3: Security- Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security; Challenges to internal security through communication networks.


HANSA-NG in News

  • Recently, HANSA-NG Aircraft has successfully completed in-flight engine relight test at DRDO’s Aeronautical Test Range (ATR) facility, Challakere on 17th May, 2022.
    • The in-flight engine relight test of HANSA-NG is most critical and important milestone towards certification of the aircraft by DGCA.
  • Earlier, India’s first indigenous Flying Trainer HANSA-NG has successfully completed the sea level trials at Puducherry.
  • The objectives of sea level trials were to evaluate handling qualities, climb / cruise performance, balked landing, structural performance including positive & negative G, power plant and other systems performance.


Key Facts about HANSA-NG

  • About: HANSA-NG is India’s first indigenous and one of the most advanced flying trainer powered by Rotax Digital Control Engine.
  • Design and Development: HANSA-NG has been designed and developed by CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
  • Unique Features of the HANSA-NG: It has unique features like Just-In-Time Prepreg (JIPREG) Composite lightweight Airframe, Glass Cockpit, Bubble Canopy with wide panoramic view, electrically operated flaps etc.
  • Importance: HANSA-NG is designed to meet the Indian flying club needs and it is an ideal aircraft for Commercial Pilot Licensing (CPL) due to its low cost and low fuel consumption.
    • NAL has already received more than 80 nos. of LoIs (Letter of Intents) from various flying clubs.
  • Manufacturing: Certification of HANSA-NG is likely to be completed by April, 2022 and thereafter the manufacturing will be initiated with Public / Private Industry.
    • This will enhance the aerospace ecosystem under Atmanirbhar Bharat.


Exercise Lamitiye 2022 | India- Seychelles Joint Military Exercise



Russia Ukraine war 

  • GS 2: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.


Russia Ukraine conflict: Context

  • Recently, the surrender of an estimated 1,000 defensive forces who were holed up in Mariupol likely marks the end of fighting in the eastern Ukrainian city that has been under a long Russian siege.


Fall of Mariupol: Key points

  • Earlier, Russia had announced a few weeks ago of having taken over the city. But hundreds of Ukrainian fighters remained in the steel mill of Mariupol.
  • With many of them ending the fight and allowing themselves to be evacuated to the Russia-controlled territories of Donbas, the whole city is now in the hands of the Russians.


About Mariupol

  • Mariupol, before the war began, had a population of half a million, most of them Russian-speaking.
  • In 2014, the region was taken over by pro-Russian separatists in 2014, immediately after Russia annexed Crimea.
  • However, Ukrainian nationalist forces, including the neo-Nazi Azov Battalion, took the city back and drove the separatists further towards east.
  • Ever since then, the city has become a flashpoint in Ukraine’s civil conflict — for Ukrainian nationalists, a symbol of resistance, but for Russia-backed Donbas militias, a part of their claimed territories.
  • It took almost three months for Russia’s better-equipped military to take Mariupol that speaks a lot about Ukraine’s resistance.


Setback for Russia

  • Russia started a three-front war but was met with fierce Ukrainian resistance in the north and east.
  • Later, Russia gave up its attempts to envelope Kyiv in the northern front and, at least for now, retreated from Kharkiv, the northeastern city.
  • Its battleground focus is now almost entirely on the Donbas region where Russian troops are making incremental advances.
  • The invasion has already prompted Finland and Sweden, which have historically stayed out of military alliances, to formally seek NATO membership.


Setback for Ukraine

  • The tragedy of Ukraine is that it has got stuck in a larger power rivalry between the West and Russia.
  • Despite the West’s massive financial and military support, Ukraine keeps losing territories.


Russia Ukraine war: Conclusion

  • So, in less than three months since the invasion began, there are no clear winners.
  • While Ukraine is losing territories, Russia is witnessing another round of NATO’s enlargement.
  • Due to the ongoing war, coupled with inflation and an energy crisis, Europe is likely to be facing prolonged instability and conflicts.


41st Hunar Haat


  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.


41st Hunar Haat in news

  • Recently, Union Minister for Minority Affairs will formally inaugurate 41st “Hunar Haat”, the “Kumbh of Kaushal Kuber” on May19, 2022.


About 41st Hunar Haat

  • About: The 41stedition of Hunar Haat, an effective campaign of “Acclamation to Art” and “Splendour to Skill”, is being organised in Agra, Uttar Pradesh from May18 to 29,2022.
    • 41st Hunar Haat Venue: 41st Hunar Haat is being organised at Shilpgram, Tajganj in Agra.
  • Participation: More than 800 artisans and craftsmen from 32 States and Union Territories (UTs) of the country are participating in this 12-day “Hunar Haat.
  • Significance:
    • “Hunar Haat” has become a “credible and consummate” platform to strengthen Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi’s call for “Vocal for Local” and “Self-reliant India”.
    • “Hunar Haat” has also been playing a pivotal role in “Preservation, Protection, Promotion” of centuries old rich legacy of art and craft of the country.


Major Attractions at 41st Hunar Haat

  • The visitors at Agra “Hunar Haat” will enjoy musical and cultural programmes every evening.
  • Fabulous handmade products ranging from pottery to wooden works to sandalwood works, clay work to glass work, brass work to iron work, handloom to handicrafts and other products are available at the “HunarHaat”.
  • Visitors will also enjoy traditional foods from different regions of the country at “Mera Ganv, Mera Desh” (food court).
  • “Vishwakarma Vatika”, traditional circus, laser shows, musical and spectacular cultural programmes of renowned and emerging artists, selfie points etc. are major attraction of this “Hunar Haat”.


Hunar Haat Scheme- Key Points 

  • About Hunar Haat: Hunar Haat is an event organized in different parts of the country for the exhibition of handicrafts and traditional products made by artisans from minority communities.
  • Parent Ministry: Hunar Haats are organized by the Ministry of Minority Affairs under USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills & Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development) scheme.
  • Key Objectives:
    • To provide market exposure and employment opportunities to artisans, craftsmen and traditional culinary experts.
    • To promote skill development of craftsmen, weavers and artisans who are already engaged in the traditional ancestral work.
  • Digital Hunar Haat: “Hunar Haat” is also available at virtual and online platform http://hunarhaat.org and Government-e-Marketplace (GeM) portal of Commerce Ministry, Government of India.
    • People of the country and abroad can buy “Hunar Haat” products digital and online also.
    • Artisans and craftsmen are receiving online orders on large scale.


Hunar Haat Scheme- Associated Benefits

  • Hunar Haat has become a “credible platform” to strengthen the initiative of “Swadeshi-Swavlamban” and “Vocal for Local”.
  • Hunar Haat also helps in providing market to indigenous products of traditional artisans and craftsmen.
  • By removing the barriers of caste, community, region and religion, “Hunar Haat” has given employment and self-employment opportunities to about 10 lakh 50 thousand artisans and craftsmen from all sections of the society in the last 6 years.
    • More than 50 per cent beneficiaries are women artisans from all sections.

Hunar Haat Scheme



5G Testbed


  • GS 3: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.


5G in India: Context

  • Recently, the Prime Minister has inaugurated the country’s first 5G testbed to enable startups and industry players to test and validate their products locally and reduce dependence on foreign facilities.


5G Testbed: Key points

  • The testbed has been set up at a cost of around ₹220 crore.
  • 5G testbed is an important step for self-reliance in the direction of critical and modern technologies.


What is 5G testbed?

  • The 5G testbed has been developed as a multi-institute collaborative project by eight institutes led by IIT Madras.
  • Other institutes: IIT Delhi, IIT Hyderabad, IIT Bombay, IIT Kanpur, IISc Bangalore, Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering & Research (SAMEER) and Centre of Excellence in Wireless Technology (CEWiT).
  • The testbed facility will be available at 5 different locations.
  • 5G testbed importance: In the absence of a 5G testbed, startups and other industry players were required to go abroad to test and validate their products for installation in a 5G network.


6G in India

  • Apart from 5G testing facility, India is also targeting the rollout of a 6G telecom network, which will provide ultra-high-speed internet connectivity, by the end of the decade.
  • It will also boost growth in agriculture, health, education, infrastructure, and logistics.
  • Technologies like 5G and 6G are not just increasing internet speed but also the pace of development and creating jobs.
  • These technologies will bring positive change in the governance of the country, ease of living, and ease of doing business.



  • 1G
    • 1G is the first generation of wireless cellular technology, which began in 1980s. 1G supports voice only calls.
    • The maximum speed of 1G technology is 2.4 Kbps.


  • 2G
    • Cell phones received their first major upgrade—from analog to digital communications—when their technology went from 1G to 2G.
    • 2G introduced call and text encryption, besides data services such as SMS, picture messages, and MMS.
    • The maximum speed offered by 2G with General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is 50 Kbps.


  • 3G
    • The urge for faster data-transmission gave birth to 3G technology. Here, people could use their cell phones for video calling and mobile internet access.
    • The term “mobile broadband” was first applied in this technology.
    • The maximum speed of 3G is around 2 Mbps for non-moving devices and 384 Kbps for moving vehicles.


  • 4G
    • Besides providing all the services like 3G, it also provides gaming services, video conferencing, 3D TV, HD mobile and other features that demand high speeds.
    • The max speed of a 4G network in a moving vehicle is 100 Mbps but the speed is 1 Gbps for low-mobility communication such as when the caller is standing or walking.


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