Nipah Virus in India_00.1
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Nipah Virus in India

Nipah Virus in India- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, and Human Resources.

Nipah Virus in India_50.1

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Nipah Virus- Context

  • Recently, after a gap of over three years, a case of the zoonotic Nipah virus infection was reported in the Kozhikode district of Kerala.
  • A team from the National Centre for Disease Control reached the State to provide support. Kozhikode is reporting the deadly infection for the second time in three years.

Malaria Disease

 

Nipah Virus- Key Points

  • Origin: Nipah Virus first appeared in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999.
    • It first appeared in domestic pigs and has been found among several species of domestic animals including dogs, cats, goats, horses, and sheep.
  • About Nipah Virus:
    • Zoonotic Disease: it is transmitted from animals to humans.
    • Nipah Virus is caused by an RNA (Ribonucleic acid) virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus.
    • Closely related to Hendra virus: Hendra Virus is a rare emerging zoonosis that causes severe and often fatal disease in both infected horses and humans).
  • Mode of Transmission: It spreads through fruit bats or ‘flying foxes,’ of the genus Pteropus (natural hosts of the virus). Infected bats shed the virus through excreta and secretions.
    • Nipah Virus is generally transmitted from animals to human beings, mainly from bats and pigs.
    • Human-to-human transmission and transmission through contaminated food is also possible.
  • Symptoms of Nipah Virus:
    • Common symptoms include- drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, fever, headache and mental issues such as confusion.
    • Severe Fever for several days: leads to inflammation of the brain causing a state of confusion, disorientation and even persistent drowsiness.
    • Neurological, respiratory and pulmonary signs also emerge in an infected individual.
  • Treatment: No vaccine has been developed yet for curing the infection in both humans and animals.
    • The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care and supportive medicines.

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Nipah Virus in India

  • India till now has witnessed five (including the present one) Nipah Virus outbreak with Case Fatality Rate (CFR)ranging from 65-100%.
    1. 2001: It was the first outbreak of the Nipah Virus in Siliguri, India
    2. 2007: This outbreak happened in Nadia of West Bengal.
    3. 2018: The 2018 outbreak of Kerela was declared over soon after it was localized in Kozhikode and Malappuram districts of Kerala.
    4. 2019: This outbreak again happened in Kozhikode, Kerala.
    5. 2021: Again, it is spreading in Kozhikode, Kerala.

Geriatric Care in India

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