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National Language of India, List of 22 Languages in India

National Language of India: India is known for its rich cultural diversity, which is evident in the various cultures found across the nation. With 28 states and 8 Union Territories, each region showcases its unique cultural heritage and language. The Indian constitution’s eighth schedule recognizes a total of 22 scheduled languages, widely spoken in different states. The presence of numerous languages within the country has made it challenging to identify a single national language for India. Consequently, it is important to understand the official language and the concept of a national language in India.

The Official Language of India

The official language of India is Hindi. According to Article 343 of the Indian Constitution, Hindi in the Devanagari script is the official language for the central government’s communication and legislative purposes. However, it is important to note that English is also recognized as an associate official language. English continues to be used extensively in government affairs, including in the courts, parliament, and official communication with states where Hindi is not widely spoken. This bilingual approach allows for effective communication and administration in a country as linguistically diverse as India.

List of 22 Official Languages of India

In the Indian Constitution, Articles 343 to 351 of Part XVII shed light on the official languages of the country, while the eighth schedule specifically acknowledges 22 different languages. Initially, only 14 languages were mentioned, but over time, additional languages were included through various amendments. To explore the comprehensive list of all 22 languages recognized by the Indian Constitution, kindly refer to the following information.

List of 22 Official Languages of India
Sr. No Language Recognition in state
1 Assamese Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
2 Bengali West Bengal, Tripura
3 Bodo Assam
4 Dogri The official language of Jammu and Kashmir
5 Gujarati Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Gujarat
6 Hindi Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal
7 Kannada  Karnataka
8 Kashmiri Jammu and Kashmir
9 Konkani  Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala (The Konkan Coast)
10 Maithili Bihar, Jharkhand
11 Malayalam  Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry
12 Manipuri Manipur
13 Marathi Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu
14 Nepali Sikkim and West Bengal
15 Odia The official language of Orissa
16 Punjabi The official language of Punjab and Chandigarh, 2nd official language of Delhi and Haryana
17 Sanskrit Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
18 Santali Spoken by Santhal people mainly in the state of Jharkhand as well as in the states of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal
19 Sindhi Gujarat and Maharashtra, especially Ulhasnagar
20 Tamil Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
21 Telugu Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Puducherry
22 Urdu Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Jharkhand, Delhi, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

What is the National Language of India?

In our Constitution, no language has been designated as the national language. While Hindi was initially declared as the national language, it poses a challenge as it is spoken by only 40% of the Indian population. Requiring everyone to learn Hindi would be impractical for the majority of the population. Instead, the Constitution of India specifies that Hindi and English are the two official languages for communication in the national government. Additionally, the Constitution includes a list of 22 official languages, including Hindi and English. These languages are represented in the Official Language Commission, and candidates appearing for national government service examinations can choose to take the exam in any of these languages.

National Vs Official Language of India

A national language is a language commonly spoken by a significant portion of a country’s population, serving political, cultural, and social purposes. On the other hand, an official language is the designated language used for government affairs, such as in national courts, parliaments, or business interactions. Typically, it is officially recognized and adopted by the government or legislative body.

According to Article 343 of the Indian Constitution, Hindi is employed by the Central Government when communicating with Hindi-speaking states. English, on the other hand, serves as an associate official language and is used for communication with the states. Therefore, as per the Constitution of India, it is important to note that Hindi and English are recognized as the official languages, while the concept of a national language is not specified.

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What is the official national language?

The official language of India is English and Hindi. There is no national language of India.

What is the Official Language of India?

The eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution recognizes 22 different languages. Articles 343 to 351 of Part XVII of the Indian Constitution address the country's official tongues.

What are the 22 national languages of India?

Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu are only a few of the 22 languages spoken.

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