UPSC Exam   »   Convention on Biological Diversity

Convention on Biological Diversity

 

Relevance

  • GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

 

What is Convention on Biological Diversity?

  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the international legal instrument for
    • “the conservation of biological diversity,
    • the sustainable use of its components and
    • the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources”.
  • It has been ratified by 196 nations.
  • The CBD’s governing body is the Conference of the Parties (COP). This ultimate authority of all governments (or Parties) that have ratified the treaty meets every two years to review progress, set priorities and commit to work plans.
  • The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) is based in Montreal, Canada.

 

Convention on Biological Diversity_40.1

 

Aichi Biodiversity Targets

  • The new plan in CBP consists of five strategic goals, including twenty Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
  • The twenty headline Aichi Biodiversity Targets for 2015 or 2020 are organized under the five strategic goals.
  • The goals and targets comprise both aspirations for achievement at the global level, and a flexible framework for the establishment of national or regional targets.

 

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

  • The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
  • It was adopted in 2000 and entered into force in 2003.

 

Convention on Biological Diversity_50.1

 

Nagoya Protocol

  • The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS) to the Convention on Biological Diversity is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
  • The Nagoya Protocol on ABS was adopted in 2010 in Nagoya, Japan and entered into force in 2014.
  • Its objective is the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
  • The Nagoya Protocol applies to genetic resources that are covered by the CBD, and to the benefits arising from their utilization. The Nagoya Protocol also covers traditional knowledge (TK) associated with genetic resources that are covered by the CBD and the benefits arising from its utilization.

 

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