Indian constitution is as wide as it can be analysed.The Indian constitution is the world’s longest for a sovereign nation At the time of its enactment, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules.It is the second-longest active constitution after the Constitution of Alabama in the world.The latest amendment was performed on January 2019 and now the constitution has a preamble and 470 articles,which are grouped into 25 parts.With 12 schedules and five appendices. 104 times it has been amended
Now let us understand the front articles , get the information of article 1 to 15th :
PART I – The Union And Its Territory
India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.The territory of India shall comprise, the territories of the States , the Union territories specified in the First Schedule;such other territories as may be acquired.
- Name and territory of the Union.
- Admission or establishment of new States.
- Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.
- Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.
PART II – CITIZENSHIP
- Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
- Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
- Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
- Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.
- Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
PART III – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
- Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Right to Equality
- Equality before law.
- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 15 :
Clause 1 : Says that the Govt. (State) shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, date of birth.
Clause 2 : States that no private organisation or individual shall discriminate against any citizen on the same grounds as well or deny their entry to public spaces, tanks, etc.
Clause 3 : The third clause puts a qualifier wherein the State can make protective legislation for women and children.
Clause 4 : The fourth clause states that “Nothing in this Article or in Article 29(2) shall prevent the State from making special provisions for socially/educationally backwards classes and SC / ST.
Article 29 :
Clause 1 : Minority section of society to practise and conserve their culture through means of educational and religious institutions.
Clause 2 : The second clause says that no citizen shall be denied entry/admission into any State maintained or funded educational institution.
Now, the source of these Articles is The Right to Equality that is explained Article 14. However, where Article 15 provides a broad ambit within which it is made clear that everyone is equal and it is illegal to discriminate on the basis of caste, sex, etc. here article 29 actually puts a small and specific filter on article 15 that states, the smaller and socially backward people can promote their own culture by means of educational institutions. Therefore, it mandates the running of Madrassas / Amadhiya Movements etc. Along with this, 29(2) states that nobody will be denied entry into a state run educational institution because of their religion, race, etc
The Difference Between Article 15 and 29 is :
Article 15 protects all citizens nation wide whereas Article 29 clause 2 cover specific protection against a state run institution .Artice 15 protects all citizens against all discrimination while Article 29 clause 2 protects only when admission into an educational institution is denied or discrimination is faced by any citizen in entry of any educational institution
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