Impact of Pollution on India’s GDP- Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper 3: Environment- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.
Impact of Pollution on India’s GDP in News
- A latest Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health says that economic losses due to modern forms of pollution have increased as a proportion of GDP between 2000 and 2019 in India, China, and Nigeria.
Key Findings of Lancet Commission Report
- Rise in Death due to Pollution: The Lancet Report notes that increases in deaths due to modern forms of pollution were particularly evident in south Asia, east Asia and southeast Asia.
- Causes for Increased Death: The factors responsible for this include-
- Rising ambient air pollution,
- Rising chemical pollution,
- Ageing populations and
- Increased numbers of people exposed to pollution.
- Premature Deaths due to Pollution: Overall, as a result of pollution, 9 million people die prematurely per year, which corresponds to one in six deaths worldwide.
- Air pollution remains responsible for causing most deaths in the world, causing about 6.7 million deaths in 2019.
- Water pollution was responsible for about 1.4 million deaths.
- Economic cost of Pollution: The Lancet Report estimated the present value of future output lost when a person dies prematurely due to pollution in six regions, including India, China, Ethiopia, Nigeria, the US and EU15.
- The global cost of fossil fuel air pollution is estimated to be about US $8 billion per day.
Impact of Pollution on India’s GDP- Lancet Report on India
- Pollution: The Lancet report says that in 93 per cent of India, the amount of pollution remains well above the WHO guidelines.
- It says that in 2019, India had the largest estimated number of pollution-related death.
- Premature Deaths: World Air Quality Report 2021, finds that PM 2.5, one of the principal pollutants in Northern Indian cities including Delhi, is estimated to cause over 3,000,000 premature deaths in India.
- Health & Life Cost: Premature deaths lead to the loss of 62,700,000 years of life, 2,700,000 emergency room visits due to asthma, 2,000,000 preterm births and 1,755,200,000 work absences.
- Economic Cost of Pollution: The Lancet Report said that in the year 2000, India lost output equivalent to 3.2 per cent of its GDP as a result of pollution.
- The study finds out that economic losses due to pollution are now conservatively estimated to amount to approximately 1 per cent of GDP in India.