UPSC Exam   »   Seoul Forest Declaration   »   Forest Landscape Restoration

Forest Landscape Restoration ||Explained||


Forest Landscape Restoration: Relevance

  • GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.


Forest conservation: Context

  • Recently, in a glaring example of community effort, about 100 women, employed under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), working with 50 young people from a local club, and district administration planted trees during the World Environment Day.


Tress restoration: About Van Mahotsav

  • Van Mahotsav literally means “celebrate the forest”.
  • The history of Van Mahotsav Day goes back to July 1947, when it was first organised by the Punjabi botanist, M.S. Randhawa.
  • Subsequently, in 1950, M. Munshi, an environmentalist and Union Minister of Agriculture and Food, expanded its reach and national scope.
  • According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), deforestation and forest degradation contribute around 12% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The total area occupied by primary forests in India has decreased by 3.6%.
  • Therefore, more forests need to be created and restored. However, there is much debate about the efforts around tree planting.


Forest Landscape Restoration_40.1


What is Forest landscape restoration?

  • Nearly two billion hectares of degraded land in the world (and 140 million hectares in India) have scope for potential restoration as forest land.
  • Earlier, the governments have relied on afforestation and reforestation as a means of establishing trees on non-treed land.
  • These strategies, however, have been evolving in recent days.
  • Forest Land Restoration means the process of regaining ecological functionality and improving human welfare across deforested or degraded forest landscapes.
  • This approach keeps in mind multiple lands uses and people’s needs in the short and long terms.
  • Forest landscape restoration is an attempt to involve communities in the process of designing and executing mutually advantageous interventions for the upgradation of landscapes.
  • While implementing forest land landscape, ensuring diversity while planting trees are imperative.
  • Natural forests with diverse native tree species are more efficient in sequestering carbon than monoculture tree plantations.
  • Planting diverse species is also healthier for local communities and their livelihoods.


Benefits of Forest Landscape Restoration

  • Environmental benefits: Forests regulates ecosystems. It influences the carbon cycle and mitigates the effects of climate change.
    • Annually, forests absorb roughly 2.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide. This absorption includes nearly 33% of the carbon dioxide released from burning fossil fuels.
  • Benefits for human: Millions of lives and livelihoods are intertwined with our forests. Forests are a boon for local communities and their livelihoods by functioning as a resource base for goods and services.
  • Multi-dimensional benefits: According to World Resources Institute, forest ecosystems enrich soil fertility and water availability, enhancing agricultural productivity, and in turn the rural economy.
  • Tree planting prevents erosion and stems flooding.
  • Women empowerment: Sustainable Forest crops reduce food insecurity and empower women, allowing them to gain access to more nutritional diets and new income streams.
  • Reduces migration: Agroforestry lessens rural-to-urban migration and contributes to an increase in resources and household income.


Forest Landscape Restoration_50.1


Indian programmes for forest restoration

International efforts

  • The span 2021-2030 is the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, emphasising efforts to restore degraded terrestrial ecosystems including forests.
  • India joined the Bonn Challenge in 2015, pledging to restore 26 million hectares of degraded and deforested land by 2030.
    • In 2011, the Bonn Challenge was launched with a global goal to restore 150 million hectares of degraded and deforested landscapes by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030.
  • An additional carbon sink of 2.5 billion-3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through forest and tree cover is to be created by 2030.


National efforts

  • Various schemes like Compensatory Afforestation, the National Afforestation Programme, the National Mission for a Green India (Green India Mission), the Nagar Van scheme and the Forest Fire Prevention and Management Scheme was launched for trees restoration.
  • Focus on youth via the Green Skill Development Programme who aspire to attain employment in the environment and forest sectors.


Read current affairs for UPSC

CIET (NCERT) wins UNESCO’s King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize World Mental Health Report 2022 National Conference on Cyber Safety and National Security Single-use Plastic Ban to Effective from 1st July
MoHUA Launches NIPUN Scheme under DAY NULM Pragati Maidan Integrated Transit Corridor Critical Information Infrastructure (CII): Definition, Need and Protection UNHCR Report on Forced Displacement in 2021
Payment Vision 2025 Parliamentary Panel Report on Promotion and Regulation of E-commerce in India Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF) Key Takeaways of WTO 12th Ministerial Conference
India-EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA): Negotiations Re-launched Desertification and Drought Day Criminal cases in Parliament: 40% Newly Elected RS MPs have Criminal Cases AGNIPATH Scheme: Age Relaxation and Anti-Agnipath Protests

Sharing is caring!

Thank You, Your details have been submitted we will get back to you.