As we know that the constitution is the supreme law of any country, therefore the Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any country on earth. It imparts constitutional supremacy (not parliamentary supremacy, since it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament) and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. Parliament cannot override the constitution.

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The Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly for India was put forward by MN Roy in 1934. After this idea there were many conversations taken place and finally, a Cabinet Mission was sent to India and lastly, the Constituent Assembly was constituted in November 1946 under the scheme formulated by the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Setting up of the Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly, which had been elected for undivided India and held its first sitting on 9th December 1946, reassembled on August 14, 1947, as the sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominion of India. It was elected by indirect election by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assembly (Lower House only), according to the scheme recommended by the Cabinet Delegation.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 6 February, 2021

The features of the scheme were:

1. The Provinces elected 292 members while the Indian States were allotted a maximum of 93 seats,

2. The seats in each province were distributed among the three main committees Muslim, Sikh, and General, in proportion to their respective population.

3. Members of each community in the Provincial Legislative Assembly elected their own representatives by the method of proportional representation with a single transferable vote.

4. The representatives of princely states were to be nominated by the heads of the princely states.

The Constituent Assembly formally began its task of framing the Constitution of India on the 13th of December, 1946 with Jawaharlal Nehru moving the Objectives Resolution. The purpose of the resolution was to “… proclaim India as the Independent Sovereign Republic and to draw up for her future governance a Constitution…” The resolution put forth broad principles that would inform the working of the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly adopted the resolution on 22 January 1947.

The representatives of the princely states gradually joined it. On 28th April 1947, representatives of the six states were part of the Assembly. After the acceptance of the Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947 for a partition of the country, the representatives of the most of the other princely states took their seats in the Assembly.

Other Functions of the Constituent Assembly

In addition to the making of the Constitution and enacting of the ordinary laws, the Constituent Assembly also performed the following functions:

1. It rectified the membership enrolment in the commonwealth in May 1949.

2. It adopted the national flag on July 22, 1947.

3. It adopted the national anthem on January 24, 1950.

4. It adopted the national song on January 24, 1950.

5. It elected Dr Rajendra Prasad as the first President of India on January 24, 1950.

In all, the Constituent Assembly had 11 sessions over two years, 11 months and 18 days. The Constitution-makes had gone through the constitutions of about 60 countries, and the Draft Constitution was considered for 114 days. The total expenditure incurred on making the Constitution amounted to Rs 64 lakh. On January 24, 1950, the Constituent Assembly held its final session. It, however, did not end and continued as the provisional parliament of India from January 26, 1950, till the formation of new Parliament after the first general elections in 1951-52.

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Committees of the Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly appointed a number of committees to deal with different tasks of constitution-making. Out of these, eight were major committees and the others were minor committees. The Constituent Assembly selected 22 committees to deal with diverse tasks of Constitution-making. Out of these, 10 were on procedural affairs and 12 on substantive affairs.

The names of these committees and their chairmen are given below:

Major Committees Chairmen

 

Drafting Committee Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

 

Steering Committee, Ad hoc Committee on the National flag, Committee on the Rules of Procedure, Finance and Staff Committee Rajendra Prasad
Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Committee on Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas, Provincial Constitution Committee Vallabhbhai Patel
Committee on the Functions of the Constituent Assembly G.V. Mavalankar
Special Committee to Examine the Draft Constitution Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar

 

Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas  Sub-Committee A.V. Thakkar

 

Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee J.B. Kripalani

 

House Committee B. Pattabhi Sitaramayya

 

Minorities Sub-Committee H.C. Mukherjee

 

North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam, Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee Gopinath Bardoloi

 

Order of Business Committee K.M. Munshi

 

Union Constitution Committee, Union Powers Committee, States Committee Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Enactment of the Constitution of India

Dr. BR Ambedkar introduced the final draft of the Constitution in the Assembly on November 4, 1948. The motion on Draft Constitution as passed on November 26, 1949 and received the signatures of the members and the president. This date is mentioned in the Preamble as the date on which the people of India in the Constituent Assembly adopted, enacted and gave to themselves this Constitution. The Constitution as adopted on November 26, 1949, contained a Preamble, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. The Preamble was enacted after the entire Constitution was already enacted. The remaining provisions of the Constitution came into enforce on January 26, 1950. This day is referred to in the Constitution as the date of its commencement and celebrated as Republic Day.

Sources of the Constitution at a Glance

United Kingdom Parliamentary government

Concept of single citizenship

Rule of law

The legislative speaker and their role

Legislative procedure

 

United States Bill of Rights

The federal structure of government

Electoral College

Independent judiciary and separation of powers

Judicial review

President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces

Equal protection under the law

 

Ireland Directive Principles of State Policy

The nomination of a member to Rajya Sabha

Method of election of President

 

Australia Freedom of trade between states

National legislative power to implement treaties, even on matters outside normal federal jurisdiction

Concurrent List

Preamble terminology

 

France Idea of liberty, equality, fraternity in the Preamble
Canada Quasi-federal government-a federal system with a strong central government

Distribution of powers between the central and state governments

Residual powers, retained by the central government

 

Soviet Union Soviet Union Fundamental Duties under article 51-A

Mandated planning commission to oversee economic development

 

Germany Weimar Republic The emergency provision under article 356

 

South Africa Amending the Constitution

 

Japan Procedure established by Law

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 105, 6 February

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Daily news will speed up the preparation for the Civil Services Examination and it also plays a crucial role to grasp the current affairs topic comprehensively. Here we have covered most of the topics related to various categories including National, International, Sports, Science and Technology, and so on.

1. 1st India-EU High-Level Dialogue on Trade and Investment

Why in news?

The 1st High-Level Dialogue (HLD), co-chaired by the Minister of Commerce and Industry Piyush Goyal and the European Union Executive Vice-President & Trade Commissioner Mr. Valdis Dombrovskis, was held on 5th February 2021.

Key points are:

Commitment to the establishment of this Dialogue was a major outcome of the 15th India-EU Leader’s Summit held in July 2020, with an objective for Ministerial level guidance towards the bilateral trade and investment relations.

– During the discussions, in the HLD, the Ministers emphasized the importance of global cooperation and solidarity in a post-COVID-19 era and agreed for further deepening of bilateral trade and investment relationship through a series of regular engagements, aiming at quick deliverable for the businesses in these tough times.

– The Ministers also agreed to meet within the next three months, with an objective for reaching consensus on a host of bilateral trade & investment cooperation issues viz. a bilateral Regulatory Dialogue; an India-EU Multilateral Dialogue to explore further possibilities of cooperation; etc.

– In a significant step forward, regular interactions for re-initiation of bilateral trade and investment agreements, with an interim agreement, to start with, were also discussed.

– The Ministers concluded with the confidence and commitment towards a renewed India-EU commercial and economic partnership reflecting the full potential of bilateral commercial relations.

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2. Skill Development fund and employment opportunities

Why in news?

The information about NSDF was given by the Minister of State for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Raj Kumar Singh in a written reply in Rajya Sabha on 5 February, 2020.

Key points are:

– The National Skill Development Fund (NSDF), has been helpful in increasing skilling of youth, enabling increased employment opportunities for them.

NSDF meets its objectives through National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), which is an industry-led ‘Not For Profit Company’ set up for building skill development capacity and forging strong linkages with the market.

– NSDC acts as a catalyst in skill development by providing funding to enterprises, companies and organizations that provide skill training.

– It also develops appropriate models to enhance, support and coordinate private sector initiatives.

– NSDC promotes the establishment of a model and aspirational skill centres known as Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra (PMKK) for imparting skill training in every district throughout the country.

– A financial assistance of Rs. 231 Crore has been provided by NSDF to NSDC for setting up of PMKKs. 738 PMKKs have been established till date.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 5 February, 2021

3. Subrahmanyan appointed Chairman of National Safety Council

Why in news?

– S. N. Subrahmanyan has been appointed Chairman of the National Safety Council for a period of three years.

His experience is likely to guide the National Safety Council which has a major role to play to ensure safety in workplaces under new Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020

Key points are:

The National Safety Council will assist DGFASLI in re-writing the regulations governing OSH in the country which have not been updated for over 50 years.

– The NSC will also be involved in framing the scheme for third party audit and certification under the OSH Code.

– The NSC is already working on the safety rating of establishments based on their OSH readiness and performance which can be extended through the country and linked to the inspection system.

– The CEO and Managing Director of L&T Ltd, Shri Subrahmanyan is an eminent engineer who has spearheaded the infrastructure business of L&T for several years making it the country’s largest construction organization and 14th in the world. L&T is also one of the largest engineering companies in the country with interest in heavy engineering, defence, shipbuilding, etc.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 4 February, 2021

4. 8th Meeting of ASEAN-India Tourism Ministers’

Why in news?

The Union Minister of State for Culture & Tourism, Shri Prahlad Singh Patel co-chaired the 8th Meeting of ASEAN-India Tourism Ministers meeting with Minister of Tourism of CambodiaH.E. Dr. Thong Khon through video conferencing on 5 February, 2020. he Meeting was in conjunction with the 24th Meeting of ASEAN Tourism Ministers (M-ATM).

Key points are:

– At the outset, the Ministers expressed their sympathy for the loss of lives and livelihood for people in the region as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic.

–  The Ministers reiterated the need for cooperative efforts in mitigating the impact of the pandemic on the tourism sector.

– Prahlad Singh Patel appreciated the efforts of the Prime Minister for not only containing COVID-19 pandemic but also lending a helping hand to other countries by supplying of medicines and medical equipment.

– Shri Patel highlighted India’s historical and cultural links with ASEAN countries and reiterated that ASEAN is a key market for Buddhist Tourism in India which generates major tourist traffic for the Buddhist Circuit and Ministry of Tourism has invested in a major way to upgrade infrastructure in the circuit.

– The Ministry of Tourism, organises the International Buddhist Conclave (IBC) to create awareness about India’s Buddhist Heritage and to increase foreign tourist traffic to Buddhist sites and invited the ASEAN member countries to participate in the same as and when held.

– Minister also touched upon the Ministry’s road map to revive tourism activities post-Covid by highlighting initiatives such as SAATHI (System for Assessment, Awareness & Training for Hospitality Industry) and the Incredible India Tourist Facilitator (IITF) Certification Programme, an Online learning platform with the objective of creating a pool of well trained and professional Tourist Facilitators across the country.

– The initiative by Ministry of Tourism to organize a series of webinars under the theme Dekho Apna Desh to showcase the diverse culture, heritage, undiscovered destinations and unusual facets of popular tourist spots has become very popular.

– Minister expressed satisfaction over the deliberations and look forward to strengthening ASEAN-India partnership and cooperation in tourism.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 30 January, 2021

5. Taxing Interest Incomes on EPF

Why in news?

The Union Budget 2021-22 proposed to tax the interest income on Provident Fund (PF) contributions by employees exceeding Rs. 2.5 lakh a year.

Key points are:

– The Ministry of Finance expressed concerns over investments as much as Rs. 1 crore each month into PF and suggested it was unfair that they get tax concessions as well as an assured return.

– The Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) Scheme is managed under the aegis of the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).

– EPFO is a government organization that manages the provident fund and pension accounts for the workforce engaged in the organized sector in India.

About the Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) Scheme

The Employee Provident Fund is open for employees of both the Public and Private Sectors. Additionally, any organisation that employs at least 20 individuals is mandatorily liable to extend benefits of EPF to its employees.

– Both employer and employee contribute 12% of an employee’s monthly salary (basic wages plus dearness allowance) to the Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) scheme.

– Of the employer’s share of 12%, 8.33% is diverted towards the Employees Pension Scheme (EPS).

– EPF scheme is mandatory for employees who draw a basic wage of Rs. 15,000 per month.

– The EPF interest rate is declared every year by the EPFO.

– EPFO implements the Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952.

– This savings scheme offers tax exemption under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act.

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6. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana ( PMMVY)

Why in news?

– The scheme has crossed 1.75 crores, eligible women, till the financial year 2020.

Key points are:

 PMMVY is a Maternity Benefit Programme that is implemented in all the districts of the country in accordance with the provision of the National Food Security Act, 2013.

– Under PMMVY, pregnant women and lactating mothers (PW&LM) receive ₹5,000 on the birth of their first child in three instalments, after fulfilling certain conditionalities.

– It excludes those PW&LM who are in regular employment with the Central Government or the State Governments or PSUs or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force.

– The direct benefit cash transfer is to help expectant mothers meet enhanced nutritional requirements as well as to partially compensate them for wage loss during their pregnancy.

– The scheme was announced on December 31, 2016.

– The eligible beneficiaries would receive the incentive given under the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) for Institutional delivery and the incentive received under JSY would be accounted towards maternity benefits so that on an average a woman gets Rs 6000 /-.

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 105, 6 February

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To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. Consider the following statements regarding Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana.
1. It is a Poor women Benefit Programme that is implemented in all the districts of the country.
2. The scheme was announced on 31 December, 2015.
Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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2. What is the composition and voting power of the International Criminal Court (ICC)?
1. The Court’s management oversight and legislative body, the Assembly of States Parties, consists of one representative from each state party.
2. Each state party has one vote and “every effort” has to be made to reach decisions by consensus. If consensus cannot be reached, decisions are made by vote.
3. The Assembly is presided over by a president and two vice-presidents, who are elected by the members to three-year terms.
Choose the correct answer
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 104, 5 February
3. What is VPF?
1. It is a voluntary scheme which allows employees to voluntarily contribute to their PF account after contributing 11% as per the EPF guideline.
2. The interest rate with VPF is not similar to EPF.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 103, 4 February
4. Which of the following is/are the salient features of a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)?
1. An LLP is a body corporate and legal entity separate from its partners. It has perpetual succession.
2. Every Limited Liability Partnership shall use the words “Limited Liability Partnership” or its acronym “LLP” as the last words of its name.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 102, 30 January
5. What is the Square Kilometre Array?
(a) It is an NGO.
(b) It is an Observatory Council
(c) It is a Radio
(d) None of the above
6. Monpa handmade paper is an art of which of the following state?
(a) Himachal Pradesh
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Arunachal Pradesh
(d) Kerala

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 101, 29 January
7. Which of the following is/are the objectives of KAPILA?
1. The scheme includes creating awareness regarding Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).
2. Development of Credit Course on IPR and training program.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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8. In which of the following state Kudumbashree scheme was launched?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Kerala
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Uttar Pradesh

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9. Consider the following statements regarding the Smart Walls For Borders.
1. Recently, an alternative Smart Wall has been proposed to replace the physical and armed patrolling with advanced surveillance technology at the USA-Mexico border.
2. It is a collection of discrete technologies that work together to prevent illegal entry, smuggling, etc.
Which of the following statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 100, 28 January
10. Where the Aero India 2021 began?
(a) New Delhi
(b) Mumbai
(c) Bengaluru
(d) None of the above
Ans: 1(d), 2(d), 3(d), 4(c), 5(b), 6(c), 7(c), 8(b), 9(c), 10(c)

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 5 February, 2021

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To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. Consider the following statements regarding the Military Coup in Myanmar.
1. In the November 2020 parliamentary election, Suu Kyi’s party National League for Democracy (NLD) secured the majority of the seats.
2. ‘Coup’ is generally described as a non-violent, and legal seizure of power from a government.
Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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2. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the current laws related to marriage in India?
1. For Hindus, The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, sets 16 years as the minimum age of marriage for the bride and 18 years as the minimum age for the groom.
2. The Special Marriage Act, 1954 and the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 also prescribe 16 and 18 years as the minimum age of consent for marriage for women and men respectively.
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 103, 4 February
3. Consider the following statements regarding the “One District One Product (ODOP)” scheme.
1. The scheme supports the production of horticulture items.
2. The scheme provides better nutrition to school children.
Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 102, 30 January
4. What is Sunahri Kand?
(a) Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes
(b) Hot-cooked food scheme of Anganwadis
(c) The mid-day meal scheme in primary schools
(d) All the above
Ans. (d)

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 101, 29 January
5. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about Atal Beemit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana?
1. It is a welfare measure being implemented by the Employee’s State Insurance (ESI) Corporation.
2. It offers cash compensation to insured persons when they are rendered unemployed.
3. The Scheme was introduced in 2016.
Choose the correct statement
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

To know more about Fundamental Rights – V: Click Here
6. Which of the following is/are the properties of Lithium?
1. It is a good conductor of electricity.
2. It is flammable and can even explode when exposed to air and water.
Choose the correct statement
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 100, 28 January
7. Which of the following is/are the objectives of the National Rail Plan?
1. Forecast growth of traffic in both freight and passenger year on year up to 2025.
2. To increase the modal share of Railways from 27% currently to 45% in freight by 2030.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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8. What is ethanol?
1. In India, ethanol is mainly produced from wheat.
2. It can be mixed with the gasoline to form different blends.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 99, 25 January
9. What is the theme of World Wetlands Day 2021?
(a) Wetlands and Water
(b) Wetlands and Climate Change
(c) Wetlands for a sustainable urban future
(d) Wetlands for Disaster Risk Reduction

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 98, 23 January
10. Which of the following is/are the objectives of Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban)?
1. To provide 2.64 crore sewer connections/septage in 600 AMRUT cities.
2. To create green spaces and sponge cities.
Choose the correct answer
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: 1(a), 2(d), 3(c), 4(d), 5(a), 6(c), 7(b), 8(b), 9(a), 10(b)

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 5 February, 2021

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Daily news will speed up the preparation for the Civil Services Examination and it also plays a crucial role to grasp the current affairs topic comprehensively. Here we have covered most of the topics related to various categories including National, International, Sports, Science and Technology, and so on.

1. 1st India-Bahrain Joint Working Group meeting

Why in news?

The 1st meeting of the Joint Working Group in the field of Renewable Energy between India and the Kingdom of Bahrain held on 4 February, 2021 in a virtual format.

Key points are:

– H.E. Dr. Abdul Hussain bin Ali Mirza, President of Sustainable Energy Authority led the Bahraini delegation.

– The Indian delegation was led by H.E. Mr. Dinesh Dayanand Jagdale, Joint Secretary, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy. H.E. Sh. Piyush Srivastava, Ambassador of India to the Kingdom of Bahrain also participated in the meeting.

– A Memorandum of Understanding between India and Bahrain was signed in July 2018 for promoting bilateral cooperation in the field of Renewable Energy.

– It was a very productive meeting, in which both sides underscored the importance of renewable energy to meet climate change goals, and presented the initiatives taken, progress made and future targets set by their respective governments as well as opportunities available in this sector.

– They agreed on sharing experience, expertise and best practices.

– Both sides agreed to forging deeper engagement in capacity building and focused cooperation between concerned agencies as well as the private sector of the two countries in this sector, particularly in the field of solar, wind and clean hydrogen.

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2. HAL signs MoU with MIDHANI

Why in news?

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for development and production of composite raw materials during the Aero India 2021 in Bengaluru on 4 February, 2021.

Key points are:

– This is the first time that such an MoU has been signed for composite raw materials.

– The MoU was signed by Chairman and Managing Director, HAL Shri R Madhavan and Chairman and Managing Director, MIDHANI Dr S K Jha in the presence of other senior officials.

– Mr R Madhavan said composites are one area where HAL will collaborate. Composites raw materials, mainly in the form of prepregs used in platforms like Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) and Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) are currently imported.

– The CMD of MIDHANI Shri S K Jha said, this is the major step forward in the area of composite materials. The HAL is not only taking care of frontline aircraft production but also raw materials.

– There is no equivalent proven Indian approved/qualified supplier for various types of prepregs (carbon, aramid, glass types, etc) for the aircraft applications.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 4 February, 2021

– This creates a dependency on foreign Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Aligned with “Atmanirbhar Bharat” initiative, efforts need to be made to develop and manufacture such prepregs in India through collaboration, he added.

– The usage of composites in the aerospace is going to exist and increase, particularly for fighter aircraft/helicopter because of its inherent advantages over metallic raw materials.

– In addition, the similar requirement exists for other aerospace and defence programmes, including those of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) and National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL).

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 30 January, 2021

3. MOHUA Joins Hands with Zomato

Why in news?

As a part of Prime Minister Street Vendor’s AtmaNibhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme, MoHUA entered into MoU with Zomato, one of the largest online platforms for ordering and delivery of food in India, to onboard street food vendors on its food-tech platform.

Key points are:

– This will give street food vendors online access to thousands of consumers and help these vendors grow their businesses.

– Further, MoHUA launched the Mobile Application for PMSVANidhi se Samriddhi- Socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to link them to various Central Government Schemes.

– The MoU with Zomato was exchanged between Shri Sanjay Kumar, Joint Secretary, MoHUA and Shri Mohit Sardana, Chief Operating Officer, Zomato, in the presence of Shri Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, MoHUA, and officials of Zomato and Ministry.

– State Mission Directors of DAY-NULM from Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Punjab and Municipal Commissioners of Bhopal, Ludhiana, Nagpur, Patna, Raipur, Vadodra also participated in the ceremony through video conferencing facility.

– Covid-19 pandemic has restricted consumers from stepping out and forced them to follow physical distancing norms.

– In the given scenario it is important to connect Street Food Vendors with technology-enabled platforms to help them grow their business, thus helping them gain financially.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 29 January, 2021

– In a first of its kind initiative, MoHUA entered into an MoU with Swiggy on 5 October, 2020 and it is now joining hands with Zomato to empower Street Food Vendors with digital technology and facilitate greater income-earning opportunities by being present on popular food-tech platforms.

– MoHUA has coordinated with the key stakeholders including Municipal Corporations, fssai, Zomato and GST officials to ensure that street food vendors are facilitated in completing the necessary prerequisites for this initiative.

– Under the MoU, initially, MoHUA and Zomato will run a pilot program by on-boarding 300 vendors across six cities namely – Bhopal, Ludhiana, Nagpur, Patna, Raipur, Vadodara.

– The street vendors will be helped with PAN and fssai registration, training on technology/ partner app usage, menu digitization and pricing, hygiene and packaging best practices.

– Upon the successful completion of the pilot, MoHUA and Zomato plan to expand this initiative across the country in phases.

– A mobile application under PMSVANidhi se Samriddhi was launched today to assist city officials to conduct door to door data collection. MoHUA launched the program PMSVANidhi se Samriddhi – socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families in 125 select cities, on 4th January 2021, as an additional component of PMSVANidhi Scheme.

– This mobile application is available on Google Play store.

– The application will enable ULB field functionaries to conduct the socio-economic profiling activity even without any internet connection as well. Quality Council of India- implementing partner for this program, partnered with MoHUA to develop this mobile application.

– The program aims to map the socio-economic profile of the PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families, assess their potential eligibility for various Central welfare schemes and facilitate the linkages to these schemes, for their holistic development and socio-economic upliftment.

– As on February 4th, 2021, data collection of over 95,000 PMSVANidhi beneficiaries along with their 50, 000 family members is done. The first batch of Camps is ongoing in the select cities (1st to 6th February 2021) to facilitate linkages of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to eligible Central Schemes.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 28 January, 2021

Background

– The Ministry is implementing PM SVANidhi Scheme, since June 01, 2020, for providing affordable working capital loan to street vendors to resume their livelihoods that have been adversely affected due to Covid-19 lockdown.

– This Scheme targets to benefit over 50 lakh Street Vendors who had been vending on or before 24 March, 2020 in urban areas, including surrounding peri-urban/ rural areas.

– Under the Scheme, the vendors can avail a collateral-free working capital loan of up to Rs. 10,000, of one year tenure.

– On timely/ early repayment of the loan, an interest subsidy @ 7% per annum will be credited to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) on a quarterly basis.

– There will be no penalty on early repayment of a loan. The Scheme promotes digital transactions through cash-back incentives up to an amount of Rs. 1,200 per annum.

–  Street Vendors can fulfil their aspiration of climbing up the economic ladder by availing the facility of the enhanced credit limit on timely/ early repayment of the loan.

– As on February 4, 2020, over 36.40 lakh loan applications have been received under the PM SVANidhi Scheme. Out of these, over 18.80 lakh loans have been sanctioned and over 14.04 lakh loans disbursed.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 25 January, 2021

4. Ganga Amantran Abhiyan

Why in news?

The information about Ganga Aamantran  Abhiyan, Namami Gange Programme, etc. was given by the Minister of State for Jal Shakti & Social Justice and Empowerment Rattan Lal Kataria in Lok Sabha on 4 February, 2021.

Key points are:

Ganga Aamantran  Abhiyan, a rafting and kayaking expedition on the Ganga River from Devprayag to Ganga Sagar, was organised between 10th October 2019 to 12th November 2019.

– The expedition encompassed five Ganga basin States, i.e. Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal with stops at 34 locations including Rishikesh, Haridwar, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, Sonepur and Kolkata.

– The expedition was undertaken through an adventure sporting activity to connect people to the river and to spread the message of river rejuvenation & water conservation on a massive scale.

– During the expedition, public awareness campaigns were organised and interactions with people, in particular, youth and students of the village/city made on the various locations to spread the message of river conservation.

– With the aim to integrate people’s participation and economic development for Ganga rejuvenation with various stakeholders who have a key role to play in this initiative including Agriculture, Power, Tourism, Energy, Water, AYUSH, Environment, Forest & Climate Change etc., NMCG is working in an integrated manner with concerned Ministries/Departments and Government agencies to boost economic activities and tourism in the river Ganga.

– Documentation of intangible cultural heritage in the Ganga basin is also being carried out by INTACH, which includes inventorization of heritage culture, spirituality, yoga/Ayurveda/wellness, eco-tourism, cuisine, fairs & festivals, interpretation/ heritage walks as a part of the project.

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– Namami Gange Programme is conceptualised not only as a sewerage infrastructure development programme but also includes components of Communication and Public Outreach which are important for its sustainability.

– For this purpose, dedicated voluntary groups like Ganga Vichar Manch, Ganga Doots, Ganga Prahari, Ganga Mitra including NCC, NSS, NYKS etc. at the grassroots level have been formed and their resources are channelized for engagement of the community and public at large.

– Under the Namami Gange Programme, a number of public campaigns and events are organised like Swachhta Pakhwada, Swachhta Hi Sewa, Ganga Yatra, Rafting Expedition, Ganga Utsav, Plantation Drives, Ganga Run etc.

– Mass Congregation of devotees on the occasion of Kumbh Mela, Magh Mela & Chhath Pooja etc. gives an opportunity to demonstrate and describe activities being undertaken in the project for awareness generation and public participation.

– Online Quiz competition is also organised to enhance the knowledge and involvement of the youth and students regarding Ganga and its ecosystem.

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5. Military Coup in Myanmar

Why in news?

Recently, the Myanmar military has grabbed power in a coup – the third time in the nation’s history since its independence from British rule in 1948.

Key points are:

– A one-year state of emergency has been imposed and democratically elected leader Aung San Suu Kyi has been detained.‘Coup’ is generally described as a sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government.

– In the November 2020 parliamentary election, Suu Kyi’s party National League for Democracy (NLD) secured the majority of the seats.

– In the Myanmars’ Parliament, the military holds 25% of the total seats according to the 2008 military-drafted constitution and several key ministerial positions are also reserved for military appointees.

– When the newly elected Myanmar lawmakers were to hold the first session of Parliament in 2021, the military imposed a state of emergency for one year citing massive voting fraud in the parliamentary elections.

– The USA President threatened to reimpose sanctions on Myanmar following a coup by the country’s military leaders and called for a concerted international response to press them to relinquish power.

– China: ‘All parties in Myanmar will properly handle their differences under the constitution and legal framework to maintain political and social stability’.

– ASEAN Countries: ASEAN’s current chair, Brunei, called for ‘dialogue among parties, reconciliation and the return to normalcy’.

– India supports the process of democratic transition in Myanmar. Though India has expressed deep concern over recent developments in Myanmar, cutting off from the Myanmar military is not a viable option as India has significant economic and strategic interests in Myanmar and its neighbourhood.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 23 January, 20212.

6. Uniform Minimum Age for Marriage

Why in news?

– The Supreme Court (SC) decided to examine a plea to transfer to itself cases pending in the Delhi and Rajasthan High Courts to declare a “uniform minimum age” for marriage recently.

Key points are:

– The Union government has also set up a committee to reconsider the minimum age of marriage for women, which is currently 18.

– A Bench led by Chief Justice of India (CJI) issued notice to the government on a plea, which was filed to “secure gender justice, gender equality, and dignity of women”.

– The plea sought a direction to the Union government to remove the anomalies in the minimum age of marriage and make it ‘gender-neutral, religion-neutral and uniform for all citizens’. Various laws state that the minimum age to get married should be 18 for women and 21 for men.

– The SC has the power under Article 139A to transfer to itself, cases involving the same or substantially the same questions of law pending before two or more high courts.

– It has been argued that the different ages for marriage violated the fundamental rights of equality (Article 14), protection against discrimination (Article 15), and dignity of life (Article 21) of citizens and went against India’s commitment under the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW).

– Socio-economic Fronts: Increasing the legal age for the marriage of women has enormous benefits on social and economic fronts including:

Lowering the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR).

Improvement of nutrition levels.

– On the financial front, opportunities will be opened up for women to pursue higher education and careers and become financially empowered, thus resulting in a more egalitarian society.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 22 January, 2021

7. Atal Beemit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana

Why in news?

Employee’s State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) has decided that in cases where the employer has shown “Zero” contribution in respect of an employee for some months before exiting him from the system, the relief under ABVKY for such period of “Zero” contribution, shall also be allowed.

Key points are:

– It was brought to the notice of ESIC that in some cases employers have struck off their employees from the rolls a few months after actually terminating them from service.

– During this period, ESI contribution was also not filed by the employers for these employees in the system.

– As the relief under Atal Beemit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana is available only in case of unemployment of the Insured Persons, such employees though terminated from service became ineligible for relief under this scheme.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 21 January, 2021

About the scheme:

– It is a welfare measure being implemented by the Employee’s State Insurance (ESI) Corporation.

– It offers cash compensation to insured persons when they are rendered unemployed. The Scheme was introduced in 2018.

In 2020, eligibility criteria for availing the relief were relaxed, as under:

– The payment of relief has been enhanced to 50% of the average of wages from earlier 25% of average wages payable up to maximum 90 days of unemployment.

– Instead of the relief becoming payable 90 days after unemployment, it shall become due for payment after 30 days.

– The Insured Person can submit the claim directly to ESIC Branch Office instead of the claim being forwarded by the last employer and the payment shall be made directly in the bank account of IP.

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 103, 4 February

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To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. Consider the following statements.
1. President Ram Nath Kovind on January 30, 2021, launched the countrywide Pulse Polio Programme for 2021 by administering polio drops to children less than five years old at the Rashtrapati Bhawan.
2. The Polio National Immunization Day (NID), also known as the “Polio Ravivar”, will be observed on January 31.
Choose the correct answer by using the given options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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2. Consider the following statements.
1. ISRO Chief K. Sivan inaugurated a private satellite, developed by a group of 12 students of Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology in Coimbatore at the cost of Rs 2.5 crore.
2. The academic satellite will be launched on February 28 from Sriharikota Range by PSLV C-15. The satellite will study the Internet of Things (IoT) among other subjects.
Choose the correct answer by using the given options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 102, 30 January
3. Which among the following Indian monuments was chosen to observe the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day on January 30?
(a) Golden Temple
(b) Taj Mahal
(c) India Gate
(d) Qutub Minar

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 101, 29 January
4. ‘Adopt a Heritage’ is a scheme implemented by the Ministry of Tourism in association with which Union Ministry?
(a) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
(b) Ministry of Culture
(c) Ministry of Home Affairs
(d) Ministry of Tribal Affairs

To know more about Fundamental Rights – V: Click Here
5. Consider the following statements.
1. Russian President Vladimir Putin on January 29, 2021, signed a bill into law ratifying a five-year extension of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with the US.
2. The validity period of the New START will be extended by two years to February 5, 2023.
Choose the correct answer by using the given options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 100, 28 January
6. Consider the following statements.
1. R. S. Sharma has been appointed as the new Chief Executive Officer of the Ayushman Bharat scheme or the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana which is an insurance scheme by the National Health Authority’s (NHA).
2. The newly appointed chief executive, RS Sharma, will replace Indu Bhushan.
3. He was appointed after Indu Bhushan has completed the 3-year tenure as the CEO of Ayushman Bharat.
Choose the correct answer by using the given options:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None of the above

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 99, 25 January
7. Which of the following statements is not correct?
(a) UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations specialized agency.
(b) The agency is involved in the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
(c) It promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth. The agency serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues.
(d) It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

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8. India’s highest meteorological centre has been inaugurated in which among the following states/UTs?
(a) Ladakh
(b) Sikkim
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Jammu and Kashmir

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 98, 23 January
9. Consider the following statements.
1. The ministry of corporate affairs (MCA) has amended definition of the small companies by amending the Companies Rules.
2. The new amendment allows the non-resident Indians (NRIs) to incorporate one-person companies (OPCs) in India.
3. The changes were announced by finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman during the presentation of Union Budget.
Choose the correct answer by using the given options:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None of the above

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 96, 21 January
10. Consider the following statements regarding manufacturing zones under Atmanirbhar Bharat Package.
1. This scheme was announced in the Union Budget.
2. It would set up the three manufacturing zones per year.
3. The three zones are divided into three categories: coastal, land-locked and hilly states.
4. All of the three selected zones would get Rs 500 crore each in order to develop the manufacturing hubs.
Choose the correct answer by using the given options:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans. 1(c), 2(c), 3(d), 4(b), 5(a), 6(c), 7(d), 8(a), 9(c), 10(d)

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Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 4 February, 2021

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Daily news will speed up the preparation for the Civil Services Examination and it also plays a crucial role to grasp the current affairs topic comprehensively. Here we have covered most of the topics related to various categories including National, International, Sports, Science and Technology, and so on.

1. Rehabilitation Schemes for Ex-Servicemen

Why in news?

Following Resettlement, schemes are run by Directorate General Resettlement (DGR) to provide resettlement opportunities to Ex-Servicemen (ESM) of three Armed Forces Services.

Key points are:

Placement Assistance through on-line registration at DGR

– DGR Sponsored Security Agency Scheme

– Management of CNG Station by ESM in NCR

– Allotment of BPCL/IOCL COCO Outlets Pan India

– Allotment of Mother Dairy Milk Booths and Fruit & Vegetable (Safal) Shops in NCR

– Allotment of Regular LPG Distributorship

– LPG Agency under Rajiv Gandhi Gramin LPG Vitrak (RGGLV) Scheme

– Retail Outlet Dealership (Petrol/Diesel)

– DGR ESM Employment Seminars/Job Fairs, etc.

– As many as 2,21,180 Ex-Servicemen, Widows/Disabled ESM have benefitted under different schemes of resettlement since 2015.

– Director General Resettlement (DGR) Schemes are based on vacancies in PSUs, subsidiaries of Coal India Limited, Indraprastha Gas Limited/MNGL & Mother Dairy.  Once the vacancies are released to DGR by the concerned agencies, they are utilised fully.

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2. Aero India 2021

Why in news?

The Chiefs of Air Staff Conclave began at Aero India 2021 at Air Force Station, Yelahanka on February 03, 2021. Chiefs of Air Staff (CAS) of more than 24 countries are attending the conclave physically and 16 virtually.

Key points are:

– The theme of the two-day event is “Leveraging Aerospace Power for Security and Stability”.

– Raksha Mantri Rajnath Singh in his address, said that Aero India 2021 is intended to showcase India’s intent to be among the top countries in defence and aerospace industries citing the example of the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) that has been successfully operationalised and inducted into the Indian Air Force (IAF) with state-of-the-art weaponry.

– He said that the LCA Mk-1A will be indigenously designed, developed and manufactured and would bolster the “Make in India” initiative of the nation.

– He added that close to 500 indigenous design and production agencies are involved in the manufacture of the LCA.

– The IAF has launched a major indigenisation drive for the sustenance of all aircraft fleets and maintenance aspects and expressed a belief that this will prove to be the growth engine for Indian’s domestic aerospace manufacturing capability.

– The country has reached an inflection point in domestic defence manufacturing and the trajectory from here on would only be upwards.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 30 January, 2021

3. Budget 2021: Infrastructure Highlights

Why in news?

The Minister of Finance recently presented the Union Budget 2021-22. This was the first digital budget. Here we are covering proposals related to Infrastructure.

Key points are:

Production Linked Incentive scheme (PLI):

– Rs. 1.97 lakh crore in the next 5 years for PLI schemes in 13 Sectors to create and nurture manufacturing global champions for an AatmaNirbhar Bharat.

Textiles:

– Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) scheme to be introduced.

Infrastructure:

– National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) expanded to 7,400 projects.

– Measures in three thrust areas to increase funding for NIP:

Creation of institutional structures:

– Set up and capitalise a Development Financial Institution (DFI).

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 29 January, 2021

Big thrust on monetizing assets.

– Enhancing the share of capital expenditure.

Roads and Highways Infrastructure:

– Rs. 1,18,101 lakh crore, highest ever outlay, for Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.

New Economic corridors and Expressways being planned.

– Advanced Traffic management system in all-new 4 and 6-lane highways.

Railway Infrastructure:

– National Rail Plan for India (2030) to create a “future-ready‟ Railway system by 2030.

– 100% electrification of Broad-Gauge routes to be completed by December, 2023.

– Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) and Eastern DFC to be commissioned by June 2022.

– Measures for passenger convenience and safety:

– Aesthetically designed Vista Dome Linke Hofmann Busch (LHB) coach on tourist routes for better travel.

– High-density network and highly utilized network routes to have an indigenously developed automatic train protection system, eliminating train collision due to human error.

Urban Infrastructure:

– Expansion of metro rail network and augmentation of city bus service.

– ‘MetroLite’ and ‘MetroNeo’ technologies will be used to provide metro rail systems at much lesser cost with similar experience.

Power Infrastructure:

– A comprehensive National Hydrogen Energy Mission 2021-22 to be launched.

– Rs. 3,05,984 crore over 5 years for a revamped, reforms-based and result-linked new power distribution sector scheme.

Ports, Shipping, Waterways:

– Rs. 2,000 crore worth 7 projects to be offered in Public-Private Partnership (PPP)-mode in Financial Year (FY) 2021-22 for the operation of major ports.

Petroleum & Natural Gas:

– Extension of Ujjwala Scheme to cover 1 crore more beneficiaries.

– A new gas pipeline project in Jammu & Kashmir.

– An independent Gas Transport System Operator to be set up for facilitation and coordination of booking of common carrier capacity in all-natural gas pipelines on a non-discriminatory open access basis.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 28 January, 2021

4. 15th Finance Commission Recommendations on Resource Allocation

Why in news?

The government accepted the 15th Finance Commission’s recommendation recently to maintain the States’ share in the divisible pool of taxes to 41% for the five-year period starting 2021-22.

Key points are:

– The Commission’s Report was tabled in the Parliament.

Horizontal Devolution (Allocation Between the States):

– For horizontal devolution, it has suggested 12.5% weightage to demographic performance, 45% to income, 15% each to population and area, 10% to forest and ecology and 2.5% to tax and fiscal efforts.

Vertical Devolution (Devolution of Taxes of the Union to States):

– It has recommended maintaining the vertical devolution at 41% – the same as in its interim report for 2020-21.

– It is at the same level of 42% of the divisible pool as recommended by the 14th Finance Commission.

– It has made the required adjustment of about 1% due to the changed status of the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir into the new Union Territories of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir.

Revenue Deficit Grants to States:

– Revenue deficit grants emanate from the requirement to meet the fiscal needs of the States on their revenue accounts that remain to be met, even after considering their own tax and non-tax resources and tax devolution to them.

– Revenue Deficit is defined as the difference between revenue or current expenditure and revenue receipts, that includes tax and non-tax.

– It has recommended post-devolution revenue deficit grants amounting to about Rs. 3 trillion over the five-year period ending FY26.

– The number of states qualifying for the revenue deficit grants decreases from 17 in FY22, the first year of the award period to 6 in FY26, the last year.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 25 January, 2021

Performance-Based Incentives and Grants to States:

– These grants revolve around four main themes.

– The first is the social sector, where it has focused on health and education.

– Second is the rural economy, where it has focused on agriculture and the maintenance of rural roads.

– The rural economy plays a significant role in the country as it encompasses two-thirds of the country’s population, 70% of the total workforce and 46% of national income.

– Third, governance and administrative reforms under which it has recommended grants for judiciary, statistics and aspirational districts and blocks.

– Fourth, it has developed a performance-based incentive system for the power sector, which is not linked to grants but provides an important, additional borrowing window for States.

Grants to Local Governments:

– Along with grants for municipal services and local government bodies, it includes performance-based grants for incubation of new cities and health grants to local governments.

– In grants for Urban local bodies, basic grants are proposed only for cities/towns having a population of less than a million. For Million-Plus cities, 100% of the grants are performance-linked through the Million-Plus Cities Challenge Fund (MCF).

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5. Military seizes power in Myanmar coup

Why in news?

Myanmar’s military has seized power in a coup against the democratically elected government of Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi.

Key points are:

– The Army said it had carried out the detentions in response to “election fraud”.

– For India, the return to military rule by Myanmar’s Tatmadaw (Army) and the detention of Aung San Suu Kyi and the political leadership of the National League of Democracy (NLD) are a repeat of events 30 years ago.

About Myanmar’s military Constitution

– It was the military that drafted the 2008 Constitution and put it to a questionable referendum in April that year.

– The Constitution was the military’s “roadmap to democracy”, which it had been forced to adopt under increasing pressure from the west.

– It was also due to its own realisation that opening up Myanmar to the outside world was now no longer an option but a dire economic necessity.

– But the military made sure to safeguard in the Constitution its own role and supremacy in national affairs.

– Under its provisions, the military reserves for itself 25 per cent of seats in both Houses of Parliament, to which it appoints serving military officials.

– Also, a political party which is a proxy for the military contests elections.

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6. Stardust 1.0

Why in news?

Stardust 1.0, the first rocket to run on biofuel was launched on Jan 31st from Loring Commerce Centre in Maine, US.

Key points are:

– It has become the first commercial space launch powered by biofuel, which is non-toxic for the environment as opposed to traditionally used rocket fuels.

– Stardust 1.0 is a launch vehicle suited for student and budget payloads.

About Biofuels

– Any hydrocarbon fuel that is produced from an organic matter (living or once living material) in a short period of time (days, weeks, or even months) is considered a biofuel.

– Biofuels may be solid, liquid or gaseous in nature. Examples are:

Solid: Wood, dried plant material, and manure.

Liquid: Bioethanol and Biodiesel.

Gaseous: Biogas.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 23 January, 20212.

7. UK Visa Scheme For Hong Kong Residents

Why in news?

– Recently, the UK has launched a special visa scheme that will allow the Hong Kong residents a chance to migrate and eventually apply for British citizenship.

Key points are:

– The move came months after China imposed a national security law over Hong Kong enabling it to curb 2019 pro-democracy like protests in future and also to override the powers of the government in Hong Kong.

– The move is considered the UK’s most generous welcoming of foreign workers since the entry of new European Union (EU) citizens in 2004 – when 10 countries were added to the bloc – at a time when the UK was also a member. The UK officially left the EU on 31st January 2020.

Background

– Since July 2020, after the national security law was implemented, the British government has already allowed around 7,000 people from Hong Kong to move to its shores.

– These were allowed permission to migrate not through the visa scheme, but through government action on compassionate grounds.

– In response to the Law, Australia, Britain and Canada have also suspended their extradition treaties with Hong Kong.

– The visas will be issued to those in Hong Kong holding a British National (Overseas) passport and their immediate dependents and will offer a fast track to UK citizenship.

– Applicants who get the visa can live and work in the UK for 5 years, after which they apply for settlement. Twelve months after this, they can apply for citizenship.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 22 January, 2021

8. Ageing Dams of India

Why in news?

– As per the United Nations (UN) report “Ageing water infrastructure: An emerging global risk”, over 1,000 large dams in India will be roughly 50 years old in 2025 and such ageing embankments across the world pose a growing threat.

Key points are:

– he report, compiled by Canada-based Institute for Water, Environment and Health, says the world is unlikely to witness another large dam-building revolution as in the mid-20th century, but dams constructed then will inevitably be showing their age.

– The analysis includes dam decommissioning or ageing case studies from the USA, France, Canada, India, Japan, and Zambia and Zimbabwe.

– Most of the 58,700 large dams worldwide were constructed between 1930 and 1970 with a design life of 50 to 100 years.

– By 2050, most people on Earth will live downstream of tens of thousands of large dams built in the 20th century, many of them already operating at or beyond their design life.

– At 50 years, a large concrete dam “would most probably begin to express signs of ageing.”

– 32,716 large dams (55% of the world’s total) are found in just four Asian countries: China, India, Japan, and South Korea – a majority of which will reach the 50-year threshold relatively soon.

– Ageing signs include increasing cases of dam failures, progressively increasing costs of dam repair and maintenance, increasing reservoir sedimentation, and loss of a dam’s functionality and effectiveness – “strongly interconnected” manifestations.

– India is ranked third in the world in terms of building large dams.

– Of the over 5,200 large dams built so far, about 1,100 large dams have already reached 50 years of age and some are older than 120 years. The number of such dams will increase to 4,400 by 2050.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 21 January, 2021

9. Vaghai-Bilimora Heritage Line

Why in news?

The Western Railway has decided to not stop the services of three trains, including the 107-year-old narrow gauge heritage train between Vaghai and Bilimora, in Gujarat permanently.

Key points are:

– Other two narrow gauge trains run between Miyagam, Choranda and Malsar, and Choranda junction and Moti Karal.

– In rail transport, track gauge or track gauge is the spacing of the rails on a railway track.

– The Ministry of Railways, previously issued a letter to the Western Railway ordering permanent closure of 11 “uneconomic branch lines” and narrow gauge sections of the Western Railway, including three from Gujarat.

About the Vaghai-Billimora Train

– It started in 1913, was a remnant of Gaekwad dynasty who ruled the princely state of Baroda. Tribal people from the interior commute by this train regularly. The train covers a distance of 63 kilometres.

– At the instance of Gaekwad rulers, the British laid railway tracks and it was operated by Gaekwad Baroda State Railway (GBSR) owned by Sayajirao Gaekwad III.

– The Gaekwad jurisdiction was spread across parts of Saurashtra, Mehsana in north Gujarat, and Bilimora in South Gujarat.

– The founder of the dynasty was Damaji I who had risen to power by 1740. The last Gaekwar, Sayaji Rao III, died in 1939.

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 102, 30 January

Join UPSC & State PSC ChannelClick Here

To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. The words “secular” and “socialist” were added to the preamble in 1976 during:
(a) The Emergency
(b) The General Election of 1976
(c) The 42nd Constitutional Amendment
(d) The 44th Constitutional Amendment

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2. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Constitution of India?
(a) It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949.
(b) It became effective on 26 January 1950 and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India.
(c) The Constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document.
(d) All of the above

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 101, 29 January
3. Consider the following statements regarding drought in India and choose the correct option.
1. A seasonal deficiency during the South-West monsoon season in the country as a whole should be 10% or more.
2. A drought year is called ‘All India Severe Drought Year’ if its spatial coverage is more than 40% of the total area.
3. IMD declares a year to be a drought year, in case the area is affected by moderate and severe drought, either individually or together and for 20-40% of the total area of the country.

Options:
(a) 1and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 100, 28 January
4. Consider the following statements regarding India and Bangladesh relationship.
1. Commemorating 50 years of the 1971 India-Pakistan war that led to the liberation of Bangladesh.
2. A 122-member contingent of the Bangladesh Armed Forces has recently participated in the 72nd Republic Day parade.
3. The India-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) came into force following the exchange of instruments of ratification in June 2015.
4. India and Bangladesh share 4096.7 km. of the border, which is the longest land boundary that India shares with any of its neighbours.
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 99, 25 January
5. Consider the following statements about the Congress-Khilafat Swarajya Party:
1. The party was formed by C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru.
2. It won 42 out of 104 seats to the Central Legislature in 1923.
3. The party merged with the Congress in 1930.
Which of the given statement(s) is/are INCORRECT?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c)None of the above
(d) All of the above

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6. Consider the following statements regarding the Bal Kalyan Puraskar.
1. This award was instituted in 1979 as “National Child Welfare Awards”.
2. This is given to individuals only.
3. The scheme is under the Ministry of Education.
Which of the given statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) None of the above

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 98, 23 January
7. Consider the following statements with respect to PRAGATI and choose the correct answer through the given options.
1. It is an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform that reviews and monitors various Government Projects across the country.
2. It is a three-tier system that comprises the Prime Minister’s Office, Union Government Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries of the States.
Options:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) None of the above

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 96, 21 January
8. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding the Minimum Support Prices (MSPs)?
(a) The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) chaired by Nirmala Sitharaman has approved the Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) for milling copra and ball copra.
(b) The government has increased the MSP of copra by ₹375 from 2020. Thus, the Copra would cost ₹10,335 per quintal and contributes to boosting the farmers’ income.
(c) This hike in MSP for copra will be impacting the farmers of 12 coastal states. MSP of both milling and ball copra has been increased.
(d) Cost of production for both the variants of copra is Rs. 6,800. The government will be giving 52% and 55% more than the cost of production.

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9. Which of the following statements is correct about the Boat Library?
(a) The boat library will cruise on the Hooghly River.
(b) The library will provide the options for Children to choose from a selection of 500 titles in English and Bengali.
(c) The boat library will provide people with a three-hour-long trip.
(d) All of the above

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 97, 22 January
10. Consider the following statements with respect to the Montreal Protocol:
1. It is a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer.
2. It is a treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
3. The Kigali amendment is the first amendment to this protocol.
Which of the given statement/s is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. 1(c), 2(d), 3(d), 4(d), 5(c), 6(a), 7(c), 8(a), 9(d), 10(b).

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Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 30 January, 2021

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Daily news will speed up the preparation for the Civil Services Examination and it also plays a crucial role to grasp the current affairs topic comprehensively. Here we have covered most of the topics related to various categories including National, International, Sports, Science and Technology, and so on.

1. Bharat Parv-2021

Why in news?

– Due to pandemic situation, this year the Bharat Parv has been organized on a Virtual platform from 26th Jan to 31st Jan 2021.

Key Points:

DC, Handicrafts, Ministry of Textiles is participating in first-ever Virtual Bharat Parv-2021 being organized by the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India in conjunction with Republic Day celebrations.

– DC, Handicrafts participates in Bharat Parv every year and this year artifacts of 11 master Crafts persons including 6 Awardee artisans are being displayed showcasing stone craft,  art metal ware, sikki grass craft, tikuli craft, wood carving, gulabimeenakari, toy craft, glass flamework, dhokra craft, doll making and craft of papier-machie along with one stall solely dedicated to  Vocal for Local initiatives.

– The virtual Bharat Parv-2021 was inaugurated by the Speaker, Lok Sabha, Sh. Om Birla in the presence of Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Tourism and Culture Sh. Prahlad Singh Patel on 26th January 2021.

– Ministry of Tourism organizes Bharat Parv every year since 2016 in front of the ramparts of the Red Fort on the occasion of Republic Day Celebrations.

– The event envisages generating patriotic fervour and showcases the rich and varied cultural diversity of the country.

– In Bharat Parv 2021 many pavilions of Central Ministries, State Theme Pavilions, Food Festival / Studio Kitchen from various states and UTs, Handicrafts, Handlooms, Folk performances, Performances by cultural troupes from various States and UTs etc. are being showcased to exhibit the spirit of ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’.

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2. 14th BSM conducted by Spices Board in FY 2020-21

Why in news?

– India is the world’s largest exporter of chili and turmeric, the exports of which have recorded steady progress, over the years.

Key points are:

– During 2019-20, India exported 4,84,000 tonnes of chilli and chilli products valued at Rs.6211.70 crores which contributed to more than 40 per cent in volume and 29 per cent in value of India’s total spice exports

–  Turmeric held a share of 11 per cent in volume and 6 per cent in value of the export basket, with the export of 1,36,000 tonnes valued at Rs.1216.40 crores.

– During the pandemic situation, the export of turmeric from India, a spice with immunity-boosting properties, has recorded an impressive growth of 42 per cent in terms of volume during the first half of 2020-21.

– Spices Board conducted the Virtual Buyer Seller Meet(BSM) for Chili and Turmeric, with a focus on Andhra Pradesh, which saw participation from 245 stakeholders. This was the 14th BSM conducted by the Board in FY 2020-21.

– Highlighting the success of the BSMs in terms of better price discoveries by the remote areas and giving accessibility to farmers and farmer producer groups, Shri D Sathiyan, Chairman and Secretary, Spices Board stated that spices items in 225 categories were exported to 185 countries in the last year.

– Spices Board and state Agri/Horti Departments have been putting in increasing efforts through various schemes and programmes in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana region which is a production hub of spices like chilli, turmeric and pepper.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 29 January, 2021

3. Urban Local Bodies (ULB) reforms

Why in news?

– Rajasthan has become the 5thState in the country to successfully undertake Urban Local Bodies (ULB) reforms.

Key points are:

– Rajasthan has joined four other States namely, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur and Telangana, who have completed ULB reforms. These reforms have been stipulated by the Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance.

– Rajasthan has thus become eligible for additional reform linked borrowing.

– Accordingly, the State has been granted permission by the Department of Expenditure to mobilise additional financial resources of Rs.2,731crore through Open Market Borrowings.

The State will notify:

– Floor rates of property tax in ULBs which are in consonance with the prevailing circle rates (i.e. guideline rates for property transactions) and;

– Floor rates of user charges in respect of the provision of water supply, drainage and sewerage which reflect current costs/past inflation.

– The State will put in place a system of periodic increase in floor rates of property tax/ user charges in line with price increases.

Besides, the centre had identified four citizen centric areas for reforms. They are:

– Implementation of One Nation One Ration Card System

– Ease of doing business reform

– Urban Local body/ utility reforms

– Power Sector reforms.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 28 January, 2021

4. COVID-19 performance ranking

Why in news?

– The COVID-19 “performance index” has been put together by the Lowy Institute, an Australian think tank.

Key points are:

– The index seeks “to gauge the relative performance of countries”.

– The index is based on six different indicators, including confirmed cases and deaths per million people and the scale of testing.

– Publicly available and comparable data on Covid-19 response was used for this index.

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– Countries were sorted into broad categories on the basis of regions, political systems, population size, and economic development.

– This was done to determine the variations that may have existed in the way different nations handled the pandemic.

– China was excluded from the list due to lack of publicly available data.

– New Zealand, Vietnam and Taiwan have been ranked the top three spots, respectively.

– India has ranked 86th.

– Sri Lanka was the best faring nation in South Asia, ranking 10.

– Maldives was at 25, Pakistan at 69, Nepal at 70, and Bangladesh at 84.

– The lowest score was given to Brazil.

– Mexico, Colombia, Iran and the United States too featured among the bottom five countries in terms of performance.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 25 January, 2021

5. Chinese Incursions in Taiwan

Why in news?

– The USA has reaffirmed its support for Taiwan following China’s warplanes entering Taiwan’s air defence identification zone.

Key points are:

– These overflights were part of a long-standing pattern of incursions by China aimed at pressuring the present democratically elected government of Taiwan to accept China’s demand to recognise Taiwan as a part of Chinese territory.

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– China and Taiwan separated amid civil war in 1949 and China considers Taiwan part of its territory to be taken control of by force if necessary.

– But Taiwan’s leaders say that Taiwan is a sovereign state.

– After decades of hostile intentions and angry rhetoric, relations between China and Taiwan started improving in the 1980s. China put forward a formula, known as “one country, two systems”, under which Taiwan would be given significant autonomy if it accepted Chinese reunification.

– In Taiwan, the offer was rejected, but the government did relax rules on visits to and investment in China.

– There were also limited talks between the two sides’ unofficial representatives, though Beijing’s insistence that Taiwan’s Republic of China (ROC) government is illegitimate prevented government-to-government contact.

– China’s implementation of national security law in Hong Kong in 2020 was seen by many as a yet another sign that Beijing was becoming significantly more assertive in the region.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 23 January, 20212.

6. GI Tag for Pakistani Basmati

Why in news?

– Recently, Pakistan received the Geographical Indication (GI) tag for its Basmati rice under its Geographical Indications Act 2020.

Key points are:

– Pakistan is fighting a case in the European Union (EU) against India’s move to get Basmati Rice as its product.

– The issue of protecting Basmati rice as a product of Pakistan came to the forefront after India submitted an application to the European Union (EU) claiming sole ownership of the commodity in September 2019.

– India also claimed that the region producing basmati is a part of northern India, below the foothills of the Himalayas forming part of the Indo-Gangetic plain.

– The Indian claim to the EU was challenged in December 2019 and the main argument by Pakistan was that Basmati rice was a joint product of India and Pakistan.

– Pakistan enacted the Geographical Indications (Registration and Protection) Act in March 2020, which gives it the right to oppose Indian application for registration of Basmati rice exclusive rights.

– A GI tag would strengthen Pakistan’s case in the EU. Pakistan exported 5,00,000-7,00,000 tonnes of Basmati rice annually to different parts of the world out of which 2,00,000 tonnes to 2,50,000 tonnes is being shipped to EU countries.

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 101, 29 January

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To clear the UPSC CSE 2021 exam, aspirants must be very strong in their fundamentals along with the current affairs. Adda247 has taken an important step to help all CSE aspirants by providing them daily quizzes on App. Now aspirants will get free quizzes to practice along with analysis of The Hindu, PIB, etc.

1. Which of the following is the correct explanation of ‘SPICe+’?
(a) Promotion of export of spices from India.
(b) The long-endurance UAV developed by DRDO.
(c) Electronic form for incorporation of companies.
(d) Platform for global co-operation on vaccine development.

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2. Which of the following is the name of the recently concluded India-France air exercise?
(a) Desert Knight
(b) Desert Storm
(c) Red Army
(d) Dark Knight

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 100, 28 January
3. “Operation Trident” and “Operation Python” were a part of which of the following events?
(a) Sino-Indian War of 1962
(b) Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
(c) Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
(d) Kargil War of 1999

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 99, 25 January
4. Consider the following statements regarding Green Bonds.
1. A green bond is a debt instrument with which capital is being raised to fund ‘green’ projects, which typically include those relating to renewable energy, clean transportation, sustainable water management etc.
2. A bond is a fixed income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental). Bonds traditionally paid a fixed interest rate (coupon) to investors.
Choose the correct answer from given options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 98, 23 January
5. Consider the following statements.
1. The Company Law Committee (CLC) has recommended that 12 offences under the Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) Act 2010 be decriminalised.
2. The Company Law Committee (CLC) was set up by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs in September, 2019 to promote Ease of Living in the country by providing Ease of Doing Business to law-abiding corporate and fostering improved corporate compliance for stakeholders at large.
Choose the correct answer from given options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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6. Which of the following statements is incorrect? Choose the correct answer from given options.
(a) The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme has recently completed 7 years of its launch in 2014.
(b) On the occasion of National Girl Child Day (24th January), the performance of BBBP scheme was discussed.
(c) The National Girl Child Day was started by the Ministry of Women and Child Development in 2008.
(d) BBBP is a national campaign and focussed multi-sectoral action in 100 selected districts low in Child Sex Ratio (CSR), covering all States and UTs.

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 96, 21 January
7. Consider the following regarding the “ShramShakti”.
1. Ministry of Tribal Affairs has launched “ShramShakti”- a National Migration Support Portal.
2. It aims to smooth the formulation of state and national level programs for migrant workers.
3. It has been launched to collect data related to tribal migrant workers and link them with the existing welfare schemes.
Choose the correct answer from given options:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

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8. Consider the following statements about Mohiniyattam.
1. It is the classical solo dance form of Kerala.
2. Vyavaharamala written by Mazhamangalam Narayanan Namputiri has references of the art form.
3. In this the dancer usually stands on a brass plate locking the feet and moves the plate rhythmically with great dexterity.
Which of the given statement(s) is/are incorrect?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

IAS Prelims Mock-Test 2021 – Set 97, 22 January
9. Which of the following statements with respect to Charminar is not true?
(a) Charminar was built by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of the Qutb Shahi dynasty.
(b) Each of the four minarets stands on a lotus-leaf base.
(c) It was used as a madrassa during the Qutb Shahi period.
(d) It was built in 1490 to commemorate the end of the plague in the city.

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10. Consider the following statements regarding the removal of Speaker.
1. Article 179(c) of Constitution of India provides that a member holding office as a Speaker or Deputy Speaker of an Assembly may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Assembly passed by a majority of all the then Members of the Assembly.
2. Doing so there is a provision that no resolution for the purpose shall be moved unless at least fourteen days’ notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution.
Choose the correct answer from given options:
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans. 1(c), 2(a), 3(c), 4(c), 5(b), 6(a), 7(d), 8(b), 9(d), 10(c)

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 29 January, 2021

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