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Anglo-Nepalese War | Treaty of Sugauli

Anglo-Nepalese War- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

Anglo-Nepalese War | Treaty of Sugauli_3.1


Background of Anglo-Nepalese War

  • Gorkhas established their control in the Nepal region in 1760 and from 1767 they started expanding their sphere of dominance to surrounding areas as well.
  • It was easy for them to expand their territorial control in the southern part of Nepal (that is Indian Territories) as the northern parts were controlled by the Chinese.
  • In this context, the British Aspirations to enhance their territorial might in the north, bringing them face to face with the Gorkhas of Nepal.

Anglo-Nepalese War | Treaty of Sugauli_4.1


Causes of the Anglo-Nepalese War

  • Economic Aspirations of the British: They wanted trade relations with the Tibet region. For this, the Rulers of the Kingdom of Nepal had to grant passage for the British which was declined by Gorkhas.
    • Gorkhas were against the idea of opening their country for foreigners.
  • Immediate Cause: The border dispute between India and Nepal provided the spark for the Anglo-Nepalese war 1814-16.
    • The British Annexed the Gorakhpur region in 1801 and also acquired lands from the Nawab of Oudh which brought English face to Face with the Kingdom of Nepal.
    • As the India-Nepal border was not clearly defined, a conflict between them was inevitable.

Third Anglo-Maratha War

आंग्ल-नेपाल युद्ध | सुगौली की संधि

Course of the Anglo-Nepalese War 1814-16

  • Bhimsen Thapa, the Ruler of the Kingdom of Nepal captured the Terai of Butwal and Sheoraj, angering then British Governor-General Lord Hastings (1813-23).
  • In 1814, Governor-General Lord Hastings sent the British Army to invade Nepal, marking the beginning of the Anglo-Nepalese war of 1814-16.
  • The Anglo-Nepalese war continued for two years and many battles were fought in between. A few important battles of the Anglo-Nepalese war are listed below-
    • The Battle of Nalapani
    • The Battle of Jaithak
    • The Battle of Malaon
  • In the Battle of Malaon in 1816, the Nepali Military Commander in Chief Amar Singh Thapa who was leading the Gorkha Army died in the battle.
  • This led to the defeat of Gorkhas in the Anglo-Nepalese war which was concluded with the signing of the treaty of Sugauli in 1816.

First Anglo-Maratha War


Treaty of Sugauli 1816

  • Loss of Territory: Gurkhas lost Sikkim, the territories of Kumaon and Garhwal, and most of the lands of the Tarai to the British East India Company.
    • In return, the British East India Company promised to pay 200,000 rupees annually to compensate for the loss of income from the Tarai region.
  • Increased British Influence in Nepal:
    • Nepal accepted a British Resident in its Capital.
    • Nepal war barred from employing any European to its service without prior permission from the British.
  • Loyal Supporter: Gorkhas were allowed to get recruited in the British Army. With this Gorkhas became a loyal ally of the Britishers in India and helped them dominate over India.

First Anglo-Maratha War

Second Anglo-Maratha War

Third Anglo-Maratha War

Third Anglo-Maratha War

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