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UPSC News Diary For Today 25 June 2022 | Simplest Compilation Of Today’s Current Affairs Articles For UPSC

UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

Sickle cell disease (SCD)

 

What is SCD?

  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders.
  • Healthy red blood cells are round and they move through small blood vessels carrying oxygen to all parts of the body.
  • In SCD, the red blood cells become hard and sticky and look like a C-shaped farm tool called a “sickle”.
  • Sickle cells die early, which causes a constant shortage of red blood cells.

What causes SCD?

  • Point mutation in beta globulin gene changing Glu→Val at position 6 in the Beta Globin chain of hemoglobin, results in Hb S.

Who is affected by sickle cell disease?

  • SCD affects millions of people throughout the world and is particularly common among those whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; regions in the Western Hemisphere; Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy.

What health problems does sickle cell disease cause?

  • Sickle cells can get stuck in small blood vessels and block the flow of blood and oxygen to organs in the body. These blockages cause repeated episodes of severe pain, organ damage, serious infections, or even stroke.
  • Following are some of the most common complications of SCD:
    • “Pain Episode” or “Crisis”: Sickle cells don’t move easily through small blood vessels and can get stuck and clog blood flow. This causes pain that can start suddenly, be mild to severe, and last for any length of time.
    • “Infection”: People with SCD, especially infants and children, are more likely to experience severe symptoms of infections such as flu, meningitis, and hepatitis.
    • “Hand-Foot Syndrome”: Swelling in the hands and feet, often along with a fever, is caused by the sickle cells getting stuck in the blood vessels and blocking the blood from flowing freely through the hands and feet.
    • “Eye Disease”: SCD can affect the blood vessels in the eye and lead to long term damage.
    • “Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS)”: Blockage of the flow of blood to the lungs can cause acute chest syndrome. ACS is similar to pneumonia; symptoms include chest pain, coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be life threatening and should be treated in a hospital.
    • “Stroke”: Sickle cells can clog blood flow to the brain and cause a stroke. A stroke can result in lifelong disabilities and learning problems.

How to investigate for sickle cell disease?

  • Complete Blood Picture: Low hemoglobin
  • HPLC/ Hb electrophoresis: Diagnostic test which quantifies different types of hemoglobin.
  • Genetic testing: To detect the defective gene.

 

G7 Summit

 

In News

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will visit Schloss Elmau, Germany tomorrow for the G7 Summit at the invitation of Chancellor of Germany Olaf Scholz.
  • Besides India, Germany has also invited Argentina, Indonesia, Senegal and South Africa to the summit.
  • The Prime Minister is scheduled to participate in two sessions at the G-7 Summit on Monday.
  • The first session relates to Climate, Energy and Health and the second session is on Food Security and Gender Equality.

What is the G7?

  • The G7 consists of seven of the world’s richest countries, which meet annually to typically discuss global security, economic, and climate concerns.
  • The G7 chair can invite other nations, and the leaders of Argentina, India, Indonesia, Senegal, and South Africa are expected to attend.
  • Although Russia joined the group in 1998—and the name changed to G8—the country has been excluded since 2014 after annexing Crimea.
  • The G7, as it is now known, was first formed in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, which had led to a deep recession and rising inflation. France, Italy, Japan, the U.K., the U.S., and West Germany formed the initial Group of Six in 1975 to discuss the ensuing economic concerns. Canada joined the group in 1976.
  • This year, U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, French President Emmanuel Macron, Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga, and U.S. President Joe Biden are expected to be in attendance.

 

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

 

Know  about NTCA

  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has been constituted under section 38 L (1) of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Further, as per the section 38 L, sub section 2 of the said Act, the authority consists of the Minister in charge of the Ministry of Environment and Forests ( as Chairperson), the Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment and Forests (as Vice-Chairperson), three members of Parliament, Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests and other members.
  • The authority derives its power from section 38 O (1) of WLPA, 1972 and functions under the guidance of Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and members.

What is the NTCAs mandate?

  1. Providing statutory authority to Project Tiger so that compliance of its directives become legal.
  2. Fostering accountability of Center-State in management of Tiger Reserves, by providing a basis for MoU with States within our federal structure.
  3. Providing for an oversight by Parliament.
  4. Addressing livelihood interests of local people in areas surrounding Tiger Reserves.

 

Wildlife Institute of India (WII)

 

  • Established in 1982, the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) is an internationally acclaimed Institution, which offers a training program, academic courses and advisory in wildlife research and management.
  • The Institute is actively engaged in research across the breadth of the country on biodiversity-related issues.
  • The Institute’s idyllic campus that has been carefully developed to create state-of-the-art infrastructure encourages scholarly work.

 

Bharat NCAP

 

In News

  • Road Transport and Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari has approved the Draft GSR Notification to introduce Bharat NCAP (New Car Assessment Program).

What is NCAP & its Possible Benefits?

  • With NCAP, automobiles in India shall be accorded Star Ratings based upon their performance in Crash Tests.
  • Bharat-NCAP will serve as a consumer-centric platform allowing customers to opt for safer cars based upon their star-ratings, while promoting a healthy competition among OEMs in India to manufacture safer vehicles.
  • Star Rating of Indian Cars based on Crash Tests is extremely crucial not only to ensure structural and passenger safety in cars, but to also increase the export-worthiness of Indian automobiles.
  • The testing protocol of Bharat NCAP shall be aligned with Global Crash Test Protocols factoring in the existing Indian regulations, allowing OEMs to get their vehicles tested at India’s own  in-house testing facilities.
  • Bharat NCAP will prove to be a critical instrument in making our automobile industry Aatmanirbhar with the mission of making India the Number one automobile hub in the world.

 

Power Crisis in India

 

Relevance for UPSC Exam

Power Crisis in India: Thermal power is very important for the Indian Economy. Recent thermal power shortages have proved mismanagement in the cola production in India. It is important part of UPSC Mains GS Paper 3 (Indian Economy- Issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment).

 

Power Crisis in India in News

  • On June 10, India’s power demand touched a record high of 211 MW even as the coal shortage continued with coal stocks available only for eight days.

 

Background of Power Crisis in India

  • The power demand breached the 200 MW level on several occasions as in the last two months, temperatures soared and the economy recovered.
  • To bridge the gap between shortage in domestic supply and increasing demand, power-generating companies or ‘gencos’ were directed to use imported coal for 10% of their requirement, failing which their domestic supplies would be cut.
  • Apart from providing power at cheaper rates, some State governments do not revise tariffs periodically. Further, the delay in getting compensation from the government also compounds the woes of cash-strapped discoms.

Governor Powers to Dissolve Legislative Assembly Explained

 

Causes of Coal Supply Shortages

  • Despite India being the second largest producer of coal, with reserves that could last up to 100 years, year after year, the shortage of coal supplies continues to be an issue.
  • Stagnation in Domestic Coal Production: the domestic production of coal stagnated between FY18 and FY21, but revived in FY22.
    • This resulted in poor availability of coal to thermal power plants.
  • Rise in Demand: In the recent months, the power demand surged owing to economic recovery and hotter weather conditions, leading to need for more coal.
  • Reduced Import: Until FY20, domestic sources contributed to about 90% of the power sector’s coal receipts; the remaining was filled by imports.
    • But by FY22, the reliance on imports dwindled to 3.8% which built pressure on domestic supplies.
    • The coal imported by power plants declined to 27 MT in FY22 from 66.06 MT in FY17.
    • Coal imported for blending purposes by power plants that run on indigenous coal declined to 8 MT in the last financial year, from 19.7 MT in FY17.
  • Causes for Reduced Coal Imports: This dip in imports can be attributed to the skyrocketing prices of coal in the international markets.
    • The price of imported coal is nearly 5-6 times higher than domestic supply.

 

Impact of Rise in Coal Import

  • As union government directed DISCOMS to use imported coal for 10% of their requirement, States are wary of using imported coal as it would raise the cost of power substantially.
  • Rise in Cost: The shortfall in domestic supplies and the rising cost of imports have put power plants in a precarious situation.
    • The use of imported coal will also push up the price of power supply to the power distribution companies or ‘Discoms,’ often dubbed as the weakest link in the power sector chain.
    • Discoms are bleeding because the revenue they generate is much lower than their costs.
  • Financial Distress: Discoms owe long-standing dues to the tune of ₹16 lakh crore to the gencos. Delays in payments by discoms create a working capital crunch for generating companies which in turn inhibits them from procuring an adequate quantity of coal.
    • According to the 2019-20 report by the Power Finance Corporation, discoms had accumulated losses up to ₹07 lakh crore and were therefore unable to pay generators on time.
    • Discoms in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are the most financially stressed.

 

National Coal Gasification Mission: India Aims 100MT Coal Gasification by 2030

 

National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI)

 

Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 3: Environment- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

 

National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI) in News

  • Recently, Principal Scientific Adviser to Govt. of India, inaugurated a Brainstorming Workshop at India International Centre, New Delhi to kick start an ambitious National Mission on “National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI)”.

 

National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI)

  • About: National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI) is an information mechanism to help decision-makers in government, municipalities, start-ups and in the private sectors to address air pollution issues in different climatic zones of India.
    • Research-based audited Information and industry-oriented solutions will be shared in an easy-to-understand format.
  • NARFI Formulation: National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI) has been developed by the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bengaluru with the support from the Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser (O/o PSA) to the Government of India.
  • Mandate: NARFI framework will provide an all-inclusive guide to collecting air quality data, studying its impact and implementing science-based solutions.
    • NARFI, supported by O/o PSA and implemented by NIAS is expected to provide a science-based integrated air quality resource framework.
  • Training Modules: The short-term basic training modules tailored for different groups such as active ground level staff in government establishments, implementers, media and policymakers, would be an integral part of the framework.
  • Significance:
    • NARFI will help in evolving a close cooperation between researchers and industries in order to get faster solutions.
    • Linking reduction of air pollution in the health and agriculture sectors is important for citizens to understand the gravity of the situation and solutions for the same.
    • The NARFI will enable knowledge creation, developing infrastructure and industrial structures and studying its effects on human health in the country.

World Air Quality Report 2021

 

National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI) Themes

The NARFI will evolve around the following five modules:

  • THEME-1: Emission Inventory, Air Shed, and Mitigation
  • THEME-2: Impacts on Human Health and Agriculture
  • THEME-3: Integrated Monitoring, Forecasting and Advisory Framework
  • THEME-4: Outreach, Social Dimension, Transition Strategy and Policy
  • THEME-5: Solutions, Public-Industry Partnership, Stubble Burning & New Technologies.

 

International Day of Clean Air For Blue Skies

 

National Strategy for Sustainable Tourism

 

Introduction

  • Tourism Ministry has recently launched the National Strategy for Sustainable Tourism and Responsible Traveller Campaign.
  • The Ministry, in partnership with the United Nations Environment Program(UNEP) and Responsible Tourism Society of India (RTSOI) organized National Summit on Developing Sustainable and Responsible Tourist Destinations today in New Delhi.

 

Which are the Strategic Pillars for the development of sustainable tourism?

  • The strategy document has identified the strategic pillars for the development of sustainable tourism like promoting environmental sustainability, protecting biodiversity, promoting economic sustainability, promoting socio-cultural sustainability, scheme for certification of sustainable tourism, IEC, and capacity building and governance.

 

The Goals of the National Strategy for Sustainable Tourism

  • To accelerate tourism’s role in economic development – through a vibrant sustainable heritage tourism programme that creates decent jobs at community level, raise revenues, and helps make India a great place to live, visit, work and invest, while valuing and protecting its natural and cultural heritage.
  • To broaden tourism’s role in social inclusiveness – through enriching lives and building on special characteristics of the local people, culture, history, geography, environment, economic activities and institutions.
  • To boost tourism’s role in cultural values, environment, diversity and heritage management – through promoting a vibrant sustainable heritage tourism programme that will educate, delight, and entertain visitors, compel them to tell others, and motivate repeat visitors.

 

Relation between Tourism and Environment

  • Tourism and the environment share a special relationship. Their interaction with each other is a two-way process.
  • On the one hand, environmental resources constitute one of the basic ingredients of tourism. The natural and manmade setting form the tourism products which the tourist enjoys lives, and relaxes.
  • On the other hand, the close and direct relationship between visitors, host communities, and the local environment creates a sensitive situation, whereby tourism can be both very damaging and also very positive for sustainable development.

 

About Swadesh Darshan 2.0

  • Ministry of Tourism had launched Swadesh Darshan Scheme with the objective to provide experience to the tourists and has now sanctioned 76 Projects.
  • They have now revamped the Swadesh Darshan Scheme as Swadesh Darshan 2.0.
  • The idea of Swadesh Darshan 2.0 is to undertake holistic development with the vision to develop Sustainable and Responsible Tourist Destinations.
  • The Scheme will encourage the adoption of principles of sustainable tourism including environmental, socio-cultural and economic sustainability.

 

Way Forward

  • The COVID-19 pandemic has further forced the tourism sector to shift its focus to resiliency, sustainability, and interconnectedness among diverse stakeholders in the sector.
  • So, state tourism policies should recognize sustainability principles and the Sustainable Development Goals in their vision and strategic direction for tourism.
  • With the vision to create a sustainable future for tourism, the Scheme & strategy will encourage the adoption of principles of sustainable tourism including environmental, socio-cultural, and economic sustainability.

 

Bharat NCAP

 

Relevance for UPSC Exam

Bharat NCAP: Bharat NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) was recently in news. Bharat NCAP is a mechanism to enhance fuel and vehicle efficiency in India. Bharat NCAP will also help in reducing environmental pollution. Bharat NCAP is part of UPSC Mains GS Paper 3(Environment: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation).

 

Bharat NCAP in News

  • Recently, Union minister for Road Transport and Highways Shri Nitin Gadkari has approved the Draft GSR Notification to introduce Bharat NCAP (New Car Assessment Program).

 

What is Bharat NCAP?

  • About: Bharat NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) is a new car safety assessment programme which proposes a mechanism of awarding ‘Star Ratings’ to automobiles based upon their performance in crash tests.
    • Bharat NCAP standard is aligned with global benchmarks and it is beyond minimum regulatory requirements.
  • Bharat NCAP Rating: The proposed Bharat NCAP assessment will allocate Star Ratings from 1 to 5 stars.
    • The testing of vehicles for this programme will be carried out at testing agencies, with the necessary infrastructure.
  • Implementation: Bharat NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) will be rolled out from April 1, 2023.
  • Applicability: Bharat NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) will be applicable on type approved motor vehicles of category M1 with gross vehicle weight less than 3.5 tonnes, manufactured or imported in the country.
    • M1 category motor vehicles are used for the carriage of passengers, comprising eight seats, in addition to driver’s seat.
  • Global Examples: the USA was the first country to introduce a programme for testing the safety standards of a car through crash tests.
    • Presently there are several agencies like Australasian NCAP, ASEAN NCAP, China NCAP, Euro NCAP, Japan NCAP, Korean NCAP and Latin NCAP, doing a similar job for other regions.

Bharat Gaurav Scheme

 

Significance of Bharat NCAP

  • Bharat NCAP rating will provide consumers an indication of the level of protection offered to occupants by evaluating the vehicle in the areas of-
    • Adult occupant protection,
    • Child occupant protection and
    • Safety assist technologies.
  • Bharat New Car Assessment Programme (Bharat NCAP) will serve as a consumer-centric platform, allowing customers to opt for safer cars based upon their Star-Ratings.
  • Bharat NCAP will also promote a healthy competition among original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in India to manufacture safer vehicles.
  • Bharat NCAP will ensure structural and passenger safety in cars, along with increasing the export-worthiness of Indian automobiles.
  • Bharat NCAP will prove to be a critical instrument in making our automobile industry Aatmanirbhar with the mission of making India the top automobile hub in the world.

National Air Quality Resource Framework of India (NARFI)

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