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UPSC News Diary For Today 16 June 2022

Table of Contents

UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

 

5G Spectrum Auction

In News

The Union Cabinet has approved the auction of airwaves capable of offering fifth generation, or 5G, telecom services, including ultra-high-speed Internet, and gave its nod for setting up of captive 5G networks by big tech firms.

Key Points about 5G Spectrum Auction

  • The auction of over 72 GHz of the spectrum will be held by July end.
  • The spectrum auction will start on July 26, 2022.
  • Cabinet has approved 5G auctions at reserve prices recommended by the sector regulator, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).
  • TRAI had earlier recommended about a 39% reduction in the reserve or floor price for the sale of 5G spectrum for mobile services.
  • The 5G spectrum in nine frequency bands will be auctioned to telecom operators such as Bharti Airtel and Reliance Jio.
  • Big tech firms for the time being will be allowed to take the 5G spectrum for their captive non-public network, on lease from the telecom companies.

About 5G Spectrum

  • Spectrum is an integral and necessary part of the entire 5G eco-system.
  • The upcoming 5G services have the potential to create new age businesses, generate additional revenue for enterprises and provide employment arising from the deployment of innovative use-cases and technologies.
  • A total of 72097.85 MHz of spectrum with a validity period of 20 years will be put to auction to be held by the end of July, 2022.
  • The auction will be held for spectrum in various Low (600 MHz, 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz, 2300 MHz), Mid (3300 MHz) and High (26 GHz) frequency bands.

 

Northern Ireland Protocol (NIP)

In News

 The Northern Ireland Protocol (NIP) has been a lingering issue for the U.K. almost from the day Brexit was signed.

What is the Issue?

  • Northern Ireland is the only part of the U.K. that shares a land border with the EU, as the Republic of Ireland (or Ireland) is an EU member-state.
  • As long as the U.K. was part of the EU, things were fine. But with Brexit, the U.K. exited the EU’s customs union.
  • This created a problem whose solution needed two seemingly contradictory outcomes: preserving the sanctity of the EU’s single market, as well as that of the U.K.’s domestic market.
  • The NIP’s solution was to avoid a customs check at the actual customs border — on the island of Ireland, between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland — as this would have violated the 1998 Good Friday Agreement and risked instability in a region with a volatile past.
  • It instead shifted the customs border to that between Northern Ireland and Britain, effectively at the former’s ports.
  • As per the NIP, goods flowing into Northern Ireland would be checked at this ‘sea border’ before entering the island, and Northern Ireland would continue to follow EU rules in product standards.

 

Prithvi-II

In News

A successful training launch of a Short-Range Ballistic Missile, Prithvi-II was carried out on June 15, 2022, from the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, Odisha.

Key Points

  • The missile is a proven system and is capable of striking targets with a very high degree of precision.
  • It is an indigenously developed, nuclear-capable missile.
  • The user training launch successfully validated all operational and technical parameters of the missile.
  • The Prithvi-II missile is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads and is thrusted by liquid propulsion twin engines.
  • It uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory to hit its target with precision and accuracy.

When was it introduced?

  • Inducted into the Indian armed forces in 2003, the nine-metre tall, single-stage liquid-fuelled Prithvi II is the first missile to have been developed by the DRDO under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.

 

Ultrathin Heteroprotein Film

In News

Scientists have developed ultra-thin hetero protein films with excellent thermal, mechanical and pH stability which can pave the way for expanding applications of thin films in biomedical and food packaging industries.

Key Benefits of Ultrathin Heteroprotein Film

  • Ultrathin Heteroprotein Film are much thinner as compared to the other protein or plastic films.
  • They are soft and thin and have the advantage of being more flexible than the other films.
  • In the recent past, several modifications of these protein films with the help of suitable heteroprotein complexes were reported by different research groups. These complexes were usually developed from bulk solutions.
  • Ultrathin monolayer protein films consist of two globular proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lys).
  • Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique gives the film thickness in the order of nanometer.

 

BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Facility (TTF)

Relevance for UPSC Exam

BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Facility (TTF): BIMSTEC is an important regional grouping which have India as a member. BIMSTEC Agreement and various related activities will come under International Relations of UPSC Mains GS Paper 2.

 

BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Facility (TTF) in news

  • Recently, the Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved a Memorandum of Association (MoA) by India for establishment of BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Facility (TTF).

 

BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Facility (TTF)

  • About: BIMSTEC TFF was signed by the BIMSTEC member countries at the 5th BIMSTEC Summit held at Colombo, Sri Lanka on 30th March, 2022.
  • Key Objective: The main objective of BIMSTEC TTF is to coordinate, facilitate and strengthen cooperation in technology transfer among the BIMSTEC Member States by promoting the transfer of technologies, sharing of experiences and capacity building.
  • Key Role: BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Facility (TTF) will facilitate transfer of technologies among the BIMSTEC Member States, amongst other things, in the following priority areas-
    • Biotechnology,
    • Nanotechnology,
    • Information and Communication Technology,
    • Space technology applications,
    • Agricultural technology,
    • Food processing technology,
    • Pharmaceutical technology automation,
    • New and renewable energy technology automation,
    • New and Renewable energy technology,
    • Oceanography,
    • Nuclear Technology Applications,
    • E-waste and solid waste management technology,
    • Health Technologies,
    • Technologies pertinent to Disaster Risk Reduction and
    • Climate Change Adaptation.
  • Governance Structure: The BIMSTEC TTF shall have a Governing Board and the overall control of activities of the TTF shall be vested in the Governing Board.
    • The BIMSTEC TFF Governing Board shall consist of one nominee from each Member State.
  • Expected Outcomes of the BIMSTEC TTF: It is expected to result in-
    • Databank of technologies available in BIMSTEC Countries,
    • Repository of information on good practices in the areas of technology transfer management, standards, accreditation, metrology, testing and calibration facilities,
    • Capacity building, sharing of experiences and good practices in development, and
    • Transfer and use of technologies among BIMSTEC countries.

BIMSTEC Agriculture Meet

 

Key Points about BIMSTEC Countries

  • About: The BIMSTEC was founded in 1997 to provide a unique link between South and South-East Asia with-
    • Five countries – Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka from South Asia and
    • Two countries – Myanmar and Thailand from South-East Asia.
  • Cooperative areas: The countries came together as one platform for cooperation in 14 key economic and social sectors of the economy.
    • Initially, six sectors- trade, technology, energy, transport, tourism and fisheries were included for sectoral cooperation which was later expanded to 14 areas of cooperation.
  • BIMSTEC Headquarter: BIMSTEC headquarters at Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • BIMSTEC New Secretary General: Tenzin Lekphell.
  • Objective: To pursue mutual trade, connectivity, and cultural, technical, and economic development in the region.
  • Last BIMSTEC Summit: The 5th BIMSTEC Summit was hosted in virtual mode by Sri Lanka, in March 2022.
    • The current chair of BIMSTEC is Sri Lanka.

5th BIMSTEC Summit

 

Migration in India

Relevance

  • GS 2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 

Migration in India: Context

  • According to a report named ‘Migration in India 2020-21 released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), 0.7 per cent of the total population was a ‘temporary visitor’ in households during July 2020-June 2021.

 

Migration in India 2021: Key points

  • The ‘Migration in India’ report is based on first-time collection of additional data during the annual round of Periodic Labour Force Survey for July 2020-June 2021.
  • The report separates the categories of ‘temporary visitors’ and ‘migrants’.

 

Difference between temporary visitors and migrants

  • Temporary visitors’: ones who arrived in households after March 2020 and stayed continuously for a period of 15 days or more but less than 6 months,
  • Migrants: One whose last usual place of residence, any time in the past, is different from the present place of enumeration.

 

Migration in India 2021: Key findings

  • Over 84 per cent of these ‘temporary visitors’ moved places for reasons linked to the pandemic.
  • The reasons ranged from meeting family/relatives/friends, loss of job/closure of unit/lack of employment opportunities, migration of earning member, closure of educational institutions and health related reasons.
  • Around half of the ‘temporary visitors’ moved to meet family/relatives/friends during July 2020-June 2021, while 15 per cent of such temporary visitors moved for health-related reasons and 12 per cent moved for loss of job/closure of unit/lack of employment opportunities.

 

Who are temporary visitors?

  • Temporary visitors are categorised as those who arrived after March 2020 and stayed in the household continuously for a period of 15 days or more but less than 6 months.

 

Migration in India

  • The all-India migration rate was around 30% in July-June 2020-21, with 26.5 per cent migration rate in rural areas and 34.9 per cent in urban areas.
  • Females recorded a higher share of migration rate of 48 per cent, with 48 per cent in rural areas and 47.8 per cent in urban areas.
  • The migration rate for males was seen at 10.7 per cent, with 5.9 per cent in rural areas and 22.5 per cent in urban areas.
  • Among women, the highest level of migration rate was seen at 8 per cent for marriage.
  • 50 per cent of the males migrated in search of employment.
  • During July-June 2020-21, 9.2 per cent persons migrated due to migration of parent/earning member of the family, with 17.5 per cent males and 7.3 per cent females migrating for this reason.

 

Bank Board Bureau

Relevance

  • GS 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

 

Bank Board Bureau: Context

  • Government of India is planning to introduce a new entity in place of the Banks Board Bureau (BBB) to recommend candidates for appointments to senior management-level posts in financial institutions.

 

Bank Board Bureau recommendations: Key points

  • The proposed body would have a wider and more legally tenable mandate to recommend candidates for appointments to senior management-level posts in state-run banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions.
  • The extended term of the BBB members ended on April 10 and the government was proposing a revamped mechanism in its place.
  • The new entity will consist of some of the current BBB members as well, given their experience in handling such appointments.

 

Replacing BBB: Why needed?

  • Last year, Delhi High Court directed that the BBB cannot select the general managers and directors of state-run general insurers, as it was not a competent body.
  • After this direction, at least half a dozen newly-appointed directors of non-life insurers had to vacate their positions.
  • This ruling came on a case filed by National Insurance Company general manager, who had complained that people junior to him were selected by the BBB for the position of directors in public-sector general insurers twice.
  • The court also set aside relevant circulars that enabled the BBB to make such selections.

What is bank board bureau?

  • In 2014, a committee to review the Governance of Boards of Banks in India chaired by P.J.Nayak recommended setting up of Bank Board Bureau.
  • In 2015, the finance minister announces creation of BBB in Budget speech 2015-16.
  • The government set up the BBB in 2016 with an aim to appoint the personnel for the boards of public-sector banks, financial institutions and insurance companies and “recommend measures to improve corporate governance in these institutions.
  • The body was also tasked with engaging with the directors of PSBs to prepare strategies for their growth and development.

 

Functions of bank board bureau

  • To be responsible for the selection and appointment of Board of Directors in PSBs and FIs (Whole-time Directors and Non-Executive Chairman);
  • To advise the Government on matters relating to appointments, confirmation or extension of tenure and termination of services of the Board of Directors of the above mentioned levels;
  • To advise the Government on the desired structure at the Board level, and, for senior management personnel, for each PSB and FI;
  • To help banks to develop a robust leadership succession plan for critical positions that would arise in future through appropriate HR processes including performance management systems.
  • To build a data bank containing data relating to the performance of PSBs/FIs and its officers;
  • To advise the Government on the formulation and enforcement of a code of conduct and ethics for managerial personal in PSBs/FIs;
  • To advise the Government on evolving suitable training and development programmes for management personnel in PSBs/FIs; and
  • To help banks in terms of developing business strategies and capital raising plan etc.

 

Bank board bureau chairman 2022

  • BBB is now practically non-functional. In April 2020, the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) had approved the extension of the term of the BBB’s part-time chairman BP Sharma and other members for a period of two years, which has now ended.
  • BP Sharma had been heading the BBB since 2018 after the tenure of its first chairman and former Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India Vinod Rai got over.

 

Presidential Election 2022

Relevance for UPSC Exam

Presidential Election 2022: The Election to the Office of President of India is a constitutional process. Office of President comes under the Indian Constitution- Historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure of UPSC Mains GS Paper 2.

 

Presidential Election 2022 in News

  • Recently, the Election Commission, by issuing a notification, has fixed the following schedule for the Presidential Election, 2022-
    • June 29, 2022: the last date for making nominations;
    • June 30, 2022: the date for the scrutiny of nominations;
    • July 2,2022: the last date for the withdrawal of candidatures; and
    • July 18, 2022: the date on which a poll shall, if necessary, be taken.
  • Article 324 of the Constitution read with the Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, 1952, and the Presidential and Vice – Presidential Elections Rules, 1974 vests the ECI with-
    • Superintendence, direction and control of the conduct of election to the office of the President of India.

 

Presidential Election 2022

  • Background: The term of office of Shri Ram Nath Kovind, President of India, is ending on 24th July, 2022.
  • Constitutional Provision:
    • Article 62 of the Constitution of India: an election to fill the vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of the outgoing President is required to be completed before the expiration of the term.
    • Article 55: Talks about manner in which president is to be elected.
    • Article 57: Talks about eligibility for re-election as the President of India.

Powers and Functions of Vice President of India

 

Who are eligible for Presidential Election 2022?

A Presidential candidate has to meet some qualifications for him/her to be elected as the president. The required qualifications for the office of president of India are:

  • She/He should be an Indian Citizen
  • She/His age should be a minimum of 35 years
  • She/He should qualify the conditions to be elected as a member of the Lok Sabha
  • She/He should not hold any office of profit under the central government, state government, or any public authority.

 

Election of President of India

  • Pre-requisite for the Election of President:
    • The nomination of a candidate for election to the office of President must be subscribed by at least 50 electors as proposers and 50 electors as seconders.
    • Every candidate has to make a security deposit of Rs. 15,000 in the RBI, which is liable to be forfeited in case the candidate fails to secure one-sixth of the votes polled.
  • Principle of Election for President of India: The election of the President of India is based on the principle of Proportional Representation by means of a single transferable vote.
  • Voting Method for the Election of President of India: It is a secret ballot system of voting.
  • Electoral College for the Election of President of India: Article 54 states that the President of India shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of-
    • The elected members of both Houses of Parliament; and
    • The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
  • Note: For the purpose of Article 54 and Article 55, “State” includes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union territory of Pondicherry.
  • Resolution of Disputes in Election of President: Any dispute related to the election of the President is taken up by the Supreme Court which has original jurisdiction in this case.
    • In this case, SC’s decision is final.
    • Note: After the election of the President is declared null and void, the acts done by the President in his office remain valid even after his removal.

 

Who can vote in the Election of President of India?

The President of India is elected by the Members of an Electoral College consisting of-

  • From Parliament: The elected members of both Houses of Parliament and
  • From State Legislature: The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
  • From UTs: The elected members of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry vide the Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1992.

 

Who can’t vote in the Presidential Election 2022?

The following group of people is not part of the electoral college responsible for electing the President of India:

  • From Parliament: Nominated Members of Lok Sabha (2) and Rajya Sabha (12)
  • From State Legislatures: Nominated Members of State Legislative Assemblies
    • Members of Legislative Councils (Both elected and nominated) in bicameral legislatures
  • From UTs: Nominated Members of union territories of Delhi and Puducherry.

 

President of India (Article 52-62): Constitutional Provisions, Qualifications and Election of President

 

AI In Education

Introduction

  • The UGC has recently recommended the application of modern teaching techniques which include hybrid mode.
  • In this scenario, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to address some of the biggest challenges in education today, innovate teaching and learning practices, and ultimately accelerate the progress towards SDG 4.
  • However, these rapid technological developments inevitably bring multiple risks and challenges, which have so far outpaced policy debates and regulatory frameworks.

 

About AI

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) uses the ability of the computer or computer-enabled system to process the information and produce outcomes similar to human rational behaviour for solving the problem and for decision making.
  • The goal of AI is to make smart computer system like humans to solve complex problems.
  • The technology can be applied in education system.

 

Applications Of AI in Education

  • Robot Teachers
  • Personalised Education
  • Tutoring
  • Automated Grading System
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Administrative Tasks
  • Creation Of Smart Content
  • Multilingual Teaching

 

Beijing Consensus On AI

  • Representatives from the UNESCO’s Member States, international organizations, academic institutions, civil society and the private sector have adopted the Beijing Consensus on Artificial Intelligence and Education, at the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education held in Beijing in 2019.
  • It is the first-ever document to offer guidance and recommendations on how best Member States can respond to the opportunities and challenges brought by AI for accelerating the progress toward SDG 4.
  • The Consensus reaffirms a humanistic approach to deploying AI technologies in education for augmenting human intelligence, protecting human rights and for promoting sustainable development through effective human-machine collaboration in life, learning and work.
  • The Consensus details the policy recommendations on AI in education in five areas:
    • AI for education management and delivery;
    • AI to empower teaching and teachers;
    • AI for learning and learning assessment;
    • Development of values and skills for life and work in the AI era; and
    • AI for offering lifelong learning opportunities for all.
  • It also elaborates recommendations corresponding to four cross-cutting issues:
    • Promoting equitable and inclusive use of AI in education;
    • Gender-equitable AI and AI for gender equality;
    • Ensuring ethical, transparent and auditable use of education data and algorithms; and
    • Monitoring, evaluation and research.

 

CORPAT 2022 Exercise

Relevance for UPSC Exam

Ex CORPAT 2022: IND-INDO CORPAT 2022 is being conducted in the Andaman Sea and Straits of Malacca. Military exercises are come under Internal Security of UPSC GS Paper 3 and Bilateral International Relations of UPSC GS Paper 2.

 

CORPAT 2022 Exercise in News

  • The 38th India-Indonesia Coordinated Patrol (IND-INDO CORPAT) between the Indian Navy Units of Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC) and Indonesian Navy is being conducted from June 13 to 24 2022 in the Andaman Sea and Straits of Malacca.

 

Key Facts about 38th CORPAT 2022 Exercise

  • About: The 38th CORPAT is the first post pandemic Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT) between India and Indonesia.
  • Activities: CORPAT 2022 includes a visit by the Indonesian Navy units to ANC at Port Blair from June 13 to 15, 2022 followed by a Sea Phase in the Andaman Sea and visit by IN Units to Sabang (Indonesia) from June 23 to 24, 2022.
    • Naval Component under the aegis of HQ ANC undertakes coordinated patrols with other littoral countries of the Andaman Sea along respective Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) towards enhancing regional maritime security.
    • It is being undertaken as part of Government of India’s vision of SAGAR (Security And Growth for All in the Region).

Exercise ‘Bongosagar’

 

CORPAT Naval Exercise

  • About: India-Indonesia Coordinated Patrol (IND-INDO CORPAT) is a naval exercise that is being conducted between the navies of India and Indonesia since 2002.
  • Location: The two Navies have been carrying out CORPAT along their International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) since 2002.
  • Significance: Naval Exercise IND-INDO CORPAT has-
    • Helped build understanding and interoperability between both the Navies and
    • Facilitated measures to prevent and suppress Illegal Unreported Unregulated (IUU) fishing, drug trafficking, maritime terrorism, armed robbery and piracy, etc.
    • Contributed towards forging strong bonds of friendship across the Andaman Sea and Straits of Malacca.

Indo Pacific Economic Framework

 

India and Srilanka relations

Relevance

  • GS 2: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

 

Srilanka economic crisis: Context

  • Recently, in an interview the Sri Lankan Prime Minister, Ranil Wickremesinghe, touched upon a significant aspect of India-Sri Lanka relations — the commonality between Sri Lanka and the southern parts of India.

 

India and Srilanka relations UPSC: Key points

  • The PM called for the development of the south India-Sri Lanka sub-region as a single market that would provide more opportunities for the economic growth of both countries.
  • In 2016, he highlighted the fact that the five Indian southern States had a combined gross state domestic product of nearly $450 billion.
  • When we add Sri Lanka’s $80 billion GDP, the sub-region would have a $500 billion economy, having an aggregate population of around 270 million.

 

Economic crisis in Sri Lanka

  • The present economic crisis in Sri Lanka has pushed it closer to India for immediate relief.
  • For the last few months, the Indian media’s regular coverage of the crisis has led to better understanding and even created a sense of empathy in India about the plight of the neighbouring country.
  • India, as part of its ‘Neighbourhood First’ policy, has extended support to the people of Sri Lanka in the form of aid (close to $3.5 billion) to help secure Sri Lanka’s food, health and energy security by supplying it essential items such as food, medicines, fuel and kerosene.
  • Signing of an agreement on June 10 between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Export-Import Bank of India for a $55-million short term Line of Credit to facilitate the procurement of urea for paddy crop.

 

India and Srilanka: Historical baggage

  • The Sinhalese perception is that India is a threat to Sri Lanka. Moreover, in the aftermath of the 1983 anti-Tamil pogrom, the support provided by the Indian government to Tamil rebels only strengthened this perception.
  • Scrapping a tripartite agreement by Sri Lanka signed in 2019 with India and Japan for the development of Colombo’s East Container Terminal was a reflection of the historical baggage.
  • Another project, a collaboration between NTPC Limited and the Ceylon Electricity Board, was cancelled just when bids were to be floated for the coal-fired 500-megawatt project.
  • The project of building a sea bridge and tunnel, connecting Rameshwaram to Talaimannar, remains on paper.

 

India and Srilanka relations: Potential

  • There is enormous scope for collaboration between the two countries in the area of infrastructure development.
  • The economic crisis has revived talk of linking Sri Lanka’s electricity grid with that of India.
  • India’s interests would also be served by developing the east coast of Sri Lanka, especially the Trincomalee-Batticaloa belt, whose potential for tourism, commerce, trade and industry is well known.
  • Much more will have to be done but the opportunity created by the current circumstances should be utilised to bring Indian and Sri Lankan societies closer.

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