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UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY (10 August, 2022) | DAY LONG CURRENT AFFAIRS DIGEST FOR UPSC

 

UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

 

Circular and elliptical orbits in Space

 

What is the difference between circular and elliptical orbits?

  • Mostly objects such as satellites and spacecrafts are put in elliptical orbits only temporarily. They are then either pushed up to circular orbits at a greater height or the acceleration is increased until the trajectory changes from an ellipse to a hyperbola and the spacecraft escapes the gravity of the Earth in order to move further into space — for example, to the Moon or Mars or further away.
  • Satellites that orbit the Earth are mostly placed in circular orbits. One reason is that if the satellite is used for imaging the Earth, it is easier if it has a fixed distance from the Earth. If the distance keeps changing as in an elliptical orbit, keeping the cameras focussed can become complicated.

 

SSLV vs PSLV vs GSLV

 

  • The PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) are quite powerful and can carry huge loads. To place an Earth Orbiting Satellite in a low Earth orbit, one does not need such power horses.
  • The SSLV can easily carry small-to-medium loads from 10 kg to 500 kg. It is less expensive. The three stages being powered by solid fuel is another advantage. Solid fuel is easier to handle, whereas handling the liquid propellants used in the PSLV and GSLV is more complex.

 

What is SSLV?

  • SSLV is the abbreviation of Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV).
  • It is the smallest launch vehicle and weighs only 110 tonnes.
  • The SSLV has a height of 34 meters and has three solid stages. It has the liftoff mass of the launch vehicle is approximately 120 tonnes.

What is GSLV?

  • Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark II (GSLV Mk II) is the largest launch vehicle developed by India, which is currently in operation.
  • This fourth-generation launch vehicle is a three-stage vehicle with four liquid strap-ons. The indigenously developed cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS), which is flight proven, forms the third stage of GSLV Mk II.
  • The GSLV’s height is 49.13 m and it is divided into three stages. Its lift of mass is 414.75 tonnes.

What is PSLV?

  • Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is the third generation launch vehicle of India. It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.
  • After its first successful launch in October 1994, PSLV emerged as the reliable and versatile workhorse launch vehicle of India with 39 consecutively successful missions by June 2017.
  • During 1994-2017 period, the vehicle has launched 48 Indian satellites and 209 satellites for customers from abroad.

 

Genome sequencing and Monkey Pox

 

  • Genome sequencing is figuring out the order of DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome—the order of As, Cs, Gs, and Ts that make up an organism’s DNA.
  • The human genome is made up of over 3 billion of these genetic letters.
  • Today, DNA sequencing on a large scale—the scale necessary for ambitious projects such as sequencing an entire genome—is mostly done by high-tech machines.
  • Much as our eye scans a sequence of letters to read a sentence, these machines “read” a sequence of DNA bases.

 

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Wetlands in India- Steps Taken by Government

 

Wetlands in India- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 3: Environment- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

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Wetlands in India in News

  • Recently, total 15 Indian Wetland Sites were designated as the Ramsar Sites of International Importance under Ramsar Convention.
  • So far, 64 wetlands covering an area of 12,50,361 ha have been designated as Ramsar Sites of International Importance from India.
    • Out of 64 Ramsar sites, 38 were designated in the last 7 years, i.e., from 2014 to till date.

List of Ramsar Wetland Sites in India

 

What is a Wetland in India?

  • According to the Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules 2017, an area of marsh, fen, peat land or water; whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters, are considered as wetlands.

Wetlands in India – Area under Wetlands

  • As per the National Wetland Inventory & Assessment, 2011, Space Applications Centre- ISRO Ahmedabad identified approximately 2.0 lakhs water bodies/wetlands (>2.25 hectares) across the country covering an area of approximately 10 million ha.
  • These includes lakes/ponds, ox-bow lakes, high altitude & riverine wetlands, waterlogged areas, tanks, reservoirs, lagoons, creeks, sand beaches, corals, mangroves, mud flats, salt pans, aquaculture ponds, salt marshes, etc.

Regulatory Framework for Wetland Conservation in India

  • Environment Ministry has notified Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017 under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 as regulatory framework for conservation and management of wetlands across country.
  • It aims to conserve, manage and maintain the ecological character of the wetlands without restricting its wise use.

National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems (NPCA)

  • About: NPCA is being implemented for conservation and management of identified wetlands (includes lakes) in the country on cost sharing basis between Central Government and respective State Governments.
  • Implementing Ministry: Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC) is implementing the National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems (NPCA).
  • Scope: The scheme covers various activities such as-
    • Interception, diversion and treatment of wastewater,
    • Shoreline protection,
    • Lake front development,
    • In-situ cleaning i.e., desilting & de-weeding,
    • Storm water management,
    • Bioremediation,
    • Catchment area treatment,
    • Lake beautification,
    • Survey & demarcation,
    • Bio-fencing,
    • Fisheries development,
    • Weed control,
    • Biodiversity conservation,
    • Education and awareness creation,
    • Community participation, etc.

Implementation of NPCA

  • Four-pronged approach of preparing Brief Documents, filling Ecosystem Health Cards, instituting Wetland Mitras and formulating Integrated Management Plans based on the health and specific threats facing the wetlands, is in place for conservation and management of wetlands.
  • Under the NPCA scheme, the central assistance is based on the proposals received from the State Governments in the form of Integrated Management Plans including brief documents, in conformity with the guidelines and budget availability.
  • Performance: So far, MoEF&CC has sanctioned proposals for conservation of 164 wetlands across the country and released an amount of about Rs. 1066.43 Crores as central share.
  • Dedicated Web Portal (https:// indianwetlands.in) for Wetlands: It is a publicly available informationand knowledge platform in order to-
    • Facilitate Knowledge sharing,
    • Information dissemination,
    • Host capacity building material, and
    • Provide a single-point access data repository for processing information and making it available to the stakeholders in an efficient and accessible manner.

Centre for Wetlands Conservation and Management (CWCM) 

  • About: CWCM has been established under the Environment Ministry’s National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM).
  • Mandate:
    • to serve as a knowledge hub and to enable exchange of knowledge between wetland users, managers, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners and
    • to assist the national and State/ UT Governments in the design and implementation of policy and regulatory frameworks, management planning, monitoring and targeted research specifically related to wetlands.

Ramsar Sites- 10 New Indian Wetlands added to the List

 

22nd Bharat Rang Mahotsav 2022 (Azadi Segment)

 

Bharat Rang Mahotsav 2022- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Bharat Rang Mahotsav 2022 in News

  • Recently, Maharashtra Governor Shri Bhagat Singh Koshyari inaugurated the 22nd ‘Bharat Rang Mahotsav’ at Rabindra Natya Mandir in Mumbai.

Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) Strategy

Bharat Rang Mahotsav 2022

  • About: “Azadi Ka Amrit MahotsavBharat Rang Mahotsav 2022” is being celebrated under Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav to pay tribute to our freedom fighters.
    • Director of National School of Drama, Professor Ramesh Chandra Goud will preside over the programme.
  • Organizing Body:
    • National School of Drama is being organized by National School of Drama under Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav.
    • In Mumbai, the Bharat Rang Mahotsav programmes is being jointly organised by Ministry of Cultural Affairs and P.L. Deshpande Maharashtra Kala Akademi.
  • Participation: Bharat Rang Mahotsav 2022 festival is open for public.

Bharat Rang Mahotsav 2022 Key Activities

  • As part of the 22nd Bharat Rang Mahotsav, 2022 (Azadi Segment), 30 plays will be showcased in Delhi, Bhubaneshwar, Varanasi, Amritsar, Bengaluru and Mumbai from 16th July to 14th August, 2022.
  • The festival will showcase plays of renowned theatre directors based on life and sacrifices of our freedom fighters.
  • Drama ‘I am Subhash’ directed by Chandrakant Tiwari will be played on the first day of the festival.
  • The 22nd Bharat Rang Mahotsav 2022 festival will conclude on August 13 with the play ‘Rang De Basanti Chola’ directed by Mohammad Nazir Qureshi.

Key Facts about Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav (AKAM)

  • About: Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav is an initiative to celebrate and commemorate 75 years of progressive India and the glorious history of its people, culture and achievements.
    • Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav is an embodiment of all that is progressive about India’s socio-cultural, political, and economic identity.
  • Celebrating People of India: Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav is dedicated to the people of India who have been instrumental in bringing India thus far in its evolutionary journey.
    • People of India also hold within them the power and potential to enable the Prime Minister’s vision of activating India 2.0, fuelled by the spirit of Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  • Beginning of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav: The official journey of “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav” commenced on 12th March 2021 which starts a 75-week countdown to our 75th anniversary of Independence.
  • Categorize: Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav is envisioned to be celebrated in five categories –
    • Freedom Struggle,
    • Idea @75,
    • Achievements @75,
    • Action @75 and
    • Resolve @75

Har Ghar Tiranga Campaign

 

Internationalisation of Higher Education

 

Internationalisation of Higher Education- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Internationalisation of Higher Education in News

  • Recently, the Minister of State for Education informed Lok Sabha about various initiatives taken by the government to promote Internationalisation of Higher Education as per mandate of National Education Policy (NEP)-2020.

National Education Policy

NEP 2020 on Internationalisation of Higher Education

NEP 2020 stipulates various measure to promote India as global study destination and Internationalisation. For example-

  • Facilitating research / teaching collaborations and faculty /student exchange with high-quality foreign HEI and signing of relevant mutually beneficial MOUs with foreign countries;
  • Encouraging high performing Indian universities to set up campuses in other countries;
  • Selected universities e.g., those from among the top 100 universities in the world will be facilitated to operate in India;
  • Setting up of International Student Office at each HEI for welcoming and supporting students arriving from abroad;
  • Counting credits acquired in foreign universities, wherever appropriate as per requirement for each HEI; and
  • Courses and programmes in subjects, such as Indology, Indian Languages, AYUSH systems of medicines, yoga, arts etc.

Government Initiatives to Promote Internationalisation of Higher Education

In line with the recommendations of National Education Policy (NEP), 2020, several measures have been initiated to strengthen Internationalization of the Higher Education, such as:

  • Guidelines on Internationalization of Higher Education were notified by UGC in July, 2021.
    • It includes provisions like setting up of Office for International Affairs and Alumni Connect Cell in the campus of Universities hosting foreign students.
  • 179 Universities have established Office for International Affairs and 158 Universities have set up Alumni Connect Cells.
  • Academic Collaboration: In order to foster academic collaboration between Indian HEIs and foreign HEIs, “University Grants Commission Regulations, 2022” have been notified in 2022.
  • World-class foreign universities and institutions will be allowed in the GIFT City, Gujarat to offer courses in Financial Management, FinTech, Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.
    • These will be free from domestic regulations, except those by International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA).
    • It aims to facilitate availability of high-end human resources for financial services and technology.
  • Offshore Campuses: UGC Institutions of Eminence Deemed to be Universities Regulations have been amended to allow Institutions of Eminence to set up Off-Shore campuses.

Key points About NEP-2020

  • It is the third education policy of our country. The earlier two was launched in 1968 and 1986.
    • This national policy came after a gap of 34 years.
  • It is based on the recommendations of Kasturirangan committee.
  • It renames the Ministry of Human Resource Development to Ministry of Education.
  • It proposes a 5+3+3+4 curricular and pedagogical structure.

 

Stages Years Class Features
Foundational 3-8 3 years of pre-primary and 1-2 Flexible, multi-level, activity-based learning
Preparatory 9-11 3-5 Light textbooks, more formal but interactive classroom learning
Middle 12-14 6-8 Introduction of subject teachers for learning of more abstract concepts, experimental learning
Secondary 15-18 9-12 Reading in-depth, critical thinking, greater attention to life aspirations

 

Implementation of NEP-2020

  • There will be an apex body called Higher Education Commission of India (HECI), which will resolve disputes among the following bodies.
Bodies Features
NHERA (National Higher Education Regulatory Authority) Light but tight regulation
NAC (National Accreditation Commission) Meta-accrediting agency
HEGC (Higher Education Grants Council) Responsible for funding
GEC (General Education Council) frame expected learning outcomes for higher education programmes.

Reforms in Higher Education: Parliamentary Standing Committee Submits Report

 

The Editorial Analysis- Rankings that Make No Sense

 

NIRF’s ranking of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

NIRF’s ranking of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in News

  • Recently released the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF)’s ranking of higher education institutions (HEIs) has received considerable flak from different sections of academia.

NIRF India Ranking 2021

NIRF’s ranking of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)

  • About NIRF Ranking: The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) is a framework adopted in 2015 by the Ministry of Education (Erstwhile Ministry of Human Resource Development) to rank institutions of higher education in India.
  • Categories for Ranking: NIRF ranks higher education institutions under 11 different categories. Initially, there were only four categories in the first NIRF Ranking 2016. The 11 categories are-
    1. Management
    2. Engineering
    3. Universities
    4. Pharmacy
    5. Architecture
    6. Medical
    7. Dental
    8. Law
    9. Colleges
    10. Research Institutions
    11. Overall
  • Parameters used for NIRF Rankings: Assessment of Higher Educational Institutions are done by the ministry on the following five parameters-
    1. Teaching, Learning, and Resources (TLR)
    2. Research and Professional Practice (RP)
    3. Graduation Outcomes (GO)
    4. Outreach and Inclusivity (OI)
    5. Peer Perception

Associated Concerns with NIRF India Ranking 2022

  • Data Fudging: An analysis of the data submitted by some multi-discipline private universities participating in various disciplines under the NIRF provides evidence of data fudging.
    • There seems to be a lack of a rigorous system of verification by the NIRF of the data submitted by HEIs.
    • For instance, the faculty-student ratio (FSR) is an important criterion for ranking.
    • Evidence suggests that some private multi-discipline universities have claimed the same faculty in more than one discipline.
    • Faculty in liberal arts have been claimed as faculty in law too, to claim an improved FSR.
  • Lack of Transparency: The NIRF requires the data submitted to it be published by all the participating HEIs on their website so that such data can be scrutinised.
    • Some private multi-discipline universities have not granted free access to such data on their website; instead, they require an online form to be filled along with the details of the person seeking access.
    • Such non-transparency is antithetical to the ranking exercise.
    • There is also discrepancy in the data submitted to the NIRF and the data on the websites of these institutions.
    • For instance, the data uploaded on the websites omit details on the number, name, qualification and experience of the faculty.
  • Gap in Methodology Employed: There is a gap between the methodology employed for accreditation purposes and for ranking purposes.
    • While the National Assessment and Accreditation Council gives due weightage to publications in UGC-Care listed journals, the NIRF uses publication data only from Scopus and Web of Science.

Conclusion

  • Severe methodological and structural issues in the NIRF undermine the ranking process. The methodology must be revised in consultation with all the stakeholders.

NIRF Ranking 2022

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