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Today’s News Diary For UPSC 06-06-2022|UPSC Daily Current Affairs Compilation

Today’s News Diary For UPSC 06-06-2022

Ex SAMPRITI-X

In News

A joint military training exercise Ex SAMPRITI-X is being conducted at Jashore Military Station in Bangladesh from 05 June to 16 June 2022.

Key Points

  • As part of the ongoing India Bangladesh bilateral defence cooperation.
  • Exercise SAMPRITI is an important bilateral defence cooperation endeavour conducted alternately by both countries which aims to strengthen and widen the aspects of interoperability and cooperation between both the armies.
  • The aim of the exercise is to strengthen interoperability between the two armies and to understand each other’s tactical drills and operational techniques.
  • The Indian contingent of company strength is being represented by a Battalion of the DOGRA Regiment and the contingent departed by road for the exercise location on 4 Jun 2022.
  • During the joint military exercise Ex SAMPRITI-X, armies of both the Nations will share expertise in multiple simulated scenarios of Counter Terrorism, Humanitarian Assistance & Disaster Relief and UN Peacekeeping Force under UN mandate.

Lifestyle for the Environment- LiFE Movement

In News

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched a global initiative ‘Lifestyle for the Environment – LiFE Movement’ on June 5, via video conference.

The idea of LiFE

  • The idea of LiFE was introduced by the Prime Minister during the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow last year.
  • The idea promotes an environment-conscious lifestyle that focuses on ‘mindful and deliberate utilisation’ instead of ‘mindless and destructive consumption.

About Mission Life

  • The vision of LiFE is to live a lifestyle that is in tune with our planet and does not harm it. And those who live such a lifestyle are called “Pro-Planet People”.
  • Mission LiFE borrows from the past, operates in the present and focuses on the future. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle are the concepts woven into our life.

Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) 

In News

On May 23, the Joe Biden administration launched its own version of a “pivot to Asia” through the establishment of the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)

About IPEF

  • An important by-product of the fourth Quad Summit in Tokyo on 24 May, was the Indo Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF) announced a day earlier.
  • This is an associated framework of the Quad that will open the region to other countries.
  • The IPEF goes beyond the original Quad intent. It develops the recent Quad initiatives for larger functional rather than security-led efforts in the Indo-Pacific.

Aspects of IPEF

  • The US sees the IPEF as expanding the US economic leadership in the Indo-Pacific, benefitting the US economy.
  • The IPEF is expected to decide on high standard rules for competition, rather than domination by any particular country.
  • The focus on resilient supply chains is an effort to protect the region from disruptions and inflationary pressures.

IPEFs Importance For India

  • The US-led Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) is strategically important for India for four reasons.
  • It will enhance India’s economic engagement in the region, which was dented after India’s withdrawal from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement.
  • India’s last-minute withdrawal from RCEP was not seen in the right spirit by ASEAN and other RCEP members.
  • The IPEF will help control the damage caused by the RCEP withdrawal as all the IPEF members save India and the US—Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam—are signatories to the RCEP.
  • Building resilient supply chains is one of the motives of the IPEF. India can consider members as alternative sources for its raw materials requirements. Malaysia could increase the supply of chips, whereas Australia can be a source of minerals for Indian industry. This could reduce India’s overdependence on China for these inputs.
  • It will also help India strengthen its ties with Australia.
  • The IPEF can also support India’s renewed love for free trade agreements.

WTO and Global Food Crisis

Introduction

  • Due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the world hurtles toward another food crisis and the spotlight has again shifted to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its role in impeding the food security concerns of a host of developing countries.
  • In this crisis situation, a central question that has divided economists, policymakers and humanitarian organisations is whether WTO has been the chief villain of the food crises in the new century.
  • Has its complex and asymmetrical rules on subsidies embedded in its 1995 Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) exacerbated the vulnerabilities of poor developing countries while allowing the developed countries to continue with their lavish grants to farmers and exporters, and perpetuate the distortions it was pledged to reform?

Importance of unrestricted imports

  • Between 2016 and 2018 about 85 per cent of Africa’s food was imported and that net food imports are expected to triple by 2025 even as undernourishment grows by one-third.
  • Similar is the story in the Caribbean, where food imports as a proportion of merchandise exports skyrocketed from 5 per cent in 1995 to 32 per cent in 2019.

The not so good history of WTO

  • The history of WTO’s functioning over the past 27 years clearly gives a clear picture of how WTO’s policies help developed nations ignoring the food security claims of the developing countries.
  • For close to three decades one has witnessed an asymmetrical battle at the apex trade body where developing countries have had to fight tooth and nail to secure the policy space for their food security programmes.
  • 2008 flags the year in which substantial reforms of AoA were defeated at the last moment by rich nations.
  • In 2011, when food prices once again spiked to alarming levels, WTO had failed to adapt and had tied the hands of developing countries with its trade rules.

India’s Struggle on the issue of public stockholding of food grains

  • India has been in the line of fire for its policy of procuring foodgrains at an administered price instead of the market rate and exceeding the de minimus level permitted by WTO.
  • This rule sets subsidy at 10 per cent of the total value of production which means India is regularly breaching its limits.
  • However, a peace clause agreed upon at the 9th Ministerial Conference in Bali in 2013 means it cannot be legally challenged at WTO.

Efforts by India led G33 Countries

  • Led by India, members of the G33 developing countries have been pressing for a permanent solution on the issue of procuring foodgrains, which was to have been formulated by 2017.
  • As a result India’s volume of purchases and release of stocks, including the determination of the release price and targeting are under constant scrutiny not just from developed countries such as the United States, United Kingdom and Japan but also from fellow member of G33.

Free trade doesn’t take care of crisis situations

  • When we talk of globalisation, we say free trade will take care of any crisis situation. But it has not been the case so far.
  • In a crisis, governments want to take care of their own. Normally, exporters wish to export more, while net importing countries tend to impose tariffs to protect their producers.
  • They try to balance the object of providing affordable food to consumers and protecting their producers.
  • The exporting countries look to impose export bans (like Indonesia banned edible oil export), while the net food importing countries reduce their tariffs to obtain affordable food items.

Conclusion

Big economies continue to use subsidies and most of the recorded subsidy programmes are in the largest trading economies of the US, EU and China. This systemic issue has to be addressed urgently because it undermines long-term food security.

Gun Control Legislation

Relevance for UPSC Exam

Gun Control Legislations in developed countries are often in the news for their misuse and associated killings of the innocent citizens. This is important for UPSC from International Relations of GS Paper 2 of UPSC Syllabus.

Gun Control Legislation in News

  • Recently, Canada introduced legislation to amend its Firearms. It is proposing to institute a ‘national freeze’ on handguns — preventing sale, purchase, transfer and import of handguns into Canada.
  • The U.S. recently witnessed two episodes of mass shootings in a span of 11 days that killed more than 30 people including elementary school children.

Analysis Of Sansad TV Discussion: ”America’s Gun Culture”

Gun Control Legislation in USA

  • In 2020, the U.S. had witnessed 24,576 homicides, of which approximately 79%, or 19,384 incidents, involved the use of a firearm.
  • Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution: It states that “the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed”.
    • The Second Amendment is often attributed as the root cause of all firearm-related violence.
  • The U.S. Supreme Court previously held that the amendment protects the right to “keep and bear arms” for self-defence, while federal courts argue of a potential infringement if federal, state and local firearm regulations circumvent this right.

Gun Control Legislation in Canada

  • Canada introduced legislation to amend its Firearms. It is proposing to institute a ‘national freeze’ on handguns — preventing sale, purchase, transfer and import of handguns into Canada.
  • The legislation is of particular significance because handguns were used in 49% of all firearm-related homicides in 2020.
  • Possessing a fully-automatic weapon, unless registered before 1978, is illegal in Canada. Gun licences are valid for five years and accorded to individuals at least 18 years of age upon completing the Canadian Firearms Safety Course.
  • The proposed legislation would revoke licences from holders deemed to be a danger to themselves or others.

How do gun laws work in Japan?

  • Safeguards: Acquiring a gun in Japan is particularly difficult. One has to-
    • Present a series of documents,
    • Establish their ‘needs’,
    • Undertake an approximately month-long training on handling and safety,
    • Pass a scrutiny of criminal records and medical health, and
    • Then an exam to prove eligibility.
  • Punishments: Any violation is punishable with an imprisonment for a period up to three years, which could extend up to five years or more along with a fine of 10 million yen if done for “purpose of profit”.

Gun Control Legislation in New Zealand

  • The turnaround in gun-law legislation in the country came in 2019 following the mass shootings that took place at two mosques in Christchurch.
  • The present Canada gun control legislation requires firearms dealers to provide licence numbers of all its employees at a facility, including those not directly involved in handling any arms but having access to the premises.
  • Identification of Weaponry: It is now also mandatory for all weaponry to have an identification number.
    • In case a dealer receives an item without the same, they are required to have them stamped or engraved within 30 days of receipt.
  • Needed Qualifications: Applicants must be at least 16 years of age and undertake training in handling and storing firearms, and pass an exam.
    • The vetting process requires the applicant to furnish contact details of known people to ascertain that she/he is a ‘fit and proper person’.
    • If an applicant has resided overseas for six months or more in the past 10 years, she/he would have to provision a criminal history check from each country.

Gun Control Legislation in India

  • Eligibility: Gun licence applicants in India must be at least 21 years and not convicted of any offence involving violence, of ‘unsound mind’ or a threat to public safety and peace.
  • Vetting Procedure: Upon receiving an application, the licensing authority (i.e., the Home Ministry), asks the officer in-charge of the nearest police station to submit a report about the applicant after thorough vetting.
  • Arms Act Amendment 2019: The Arms Act amended in 2019 reduces the number of firearms that an individual can procure from three to two.
  • Indian laws are particularly elaborate in dealing with sale and unlawful trade of weapons.
  • It also enlists specific provisions on curtailing the use of licensed weapons to ensure social harmony.
  • No entity is permitted to sell or transfer any firearm which does not bear the name of the maker, manufacturer’s number or any other visible or stamped identification mark.
  • Punishment: Any act of conversion (such as shortening the barrel of a firearm or converting an imitation firearm into a firearm) or unlawful import-export is punishable with an imprisonment term of seven years.
    • The Punishment for above crime may extend to life imprisonment and be liable to monetary fines.

Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture

adda247.com/…/data-empowerment-and-protection-architecture

LiFE Movement

Relevance for UPSC Exam

LiFE Movement: Recently launched LiFE Movement initiative is relevant for UPSC aspirants. LiFE Movement will come under environment, and conservation section of the General Studies Paper 3 of the UPSC Syllabus.

LiFE Movement in News

  • Recently, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched a global initiative ‘Lifestyle for the Environment – LiFE Movement’ via video conference.
  • The launch of LiFE Movement will initiate ‘LiFE Global Call for Papers’ inviting ideas and suggestions from academics, universities & research institutions etc.
  • LiFE Movement will influence and persuade individuals, communities and organisations across the world to adopt an environment-conscious lifestyle.

BASIC countries at Glasgow Summit (CoP 26) of UNFCCC

What is LiFE Movement?

  • About: The idea of LiFE promotes an environment-conscious lifestyle that focuses on ‘mindful and deliberate utilisation’ instead of ‘mindless and destructive consumption.
    • The LiFE Movement is a global initiative for ensuring sustainable lifestyle of human beings and protecting the planet.
    • LiFE Movement global initiative was proposed by the Prime Minister of India at COP26, he UN’s climate summit in Glasgow.
  • Vision: The vision of LiFE is to live a lifestyle that is in tune with our planet and does not harm it.
    • Those who live such a lifestyle are called “Pro-Planet People”.
  • Mission: Mission LiFE borrows from the past, operates in the present and focuses on the future.
    • LiFE initiative uses the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle that are woven into our life.
    • The Circular Economy has been an integral part of India’s culture and lifestyle and LiFE initiative’s mission is to harness this.

COP26 Glasgow Summit of UNFCC- India’s Commitments

India’s Achievements Towards a Sustainable Future

  • India’s forest cover is increasing and so is the population of lions, tigers, leopards, elephants and rhinos.
  • India’s commitment to reach 40% of installed electric capacity from non-fossil fuel-based sources has been achieved, 9 years ahead of schedule.
  • The target of 10% ethanol blending in petrol has been achieved 5 months ahead of the November 2022 target.
    • This is a major accomplishment given that blending was hardly 1.5% in 2013-14 and 5% in 2019-20.
  • India’s local initiatives like POSHAN, ASHA, and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is also helping in financial inclusion and localising the initiative.

India’s Commitments at COP26 Glasgow- Key Commitments made by India

  • India’s Target by 2030:
    • India will ensure 50% of its energy will be sourced from renewable energy sources.
    • India will reduce its carbon emissions by 2030 by a billion tonnes.
    • India will also reduce its emissions intensity per unit of GDP by less than 45%.
    • India would also install 500 Gigawatt of renewable energy by 2030, a 50 GW increase from its existing targets.
  • India’s Target by 2070: India will aim to achieve net-zero emissions latest by 2070.
    • This is in contrast to India’s run-up to the COP where it had strongly resisted demands by developed countries to take on net-zero targets.
  • Impact on India: Taking on net-zero targets, requires a sharp shift to clean energy sources that several experts have opined, which will impose a steep cost on India.

UN Glasgow Climate Change Conference (COP 26)

adda247.com/…/un-glasgow-climate-change-conference-cop-26

Rotary International World Convention

Relevance for UPSC Exam

Rotary International World Convention is an international event and relevant for UPSC Prelims Exam and UPSC Mains. No. of questions from International Category are increasing in the UPSC Prelims exam. This is why Rotary International World Convention is important for UPSC Aspirants.

Rotary International World Convention in News

  • The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi addressed the Rotary International World Convention via a video message.
  • Calling the Rotarians a ‘true mix of success and service’, the Prime Minister said that “every Rotary gathering of this scale is like a mini-global assembly. There is diversity and vibrancy. “

Liquid-Mirror Telescope- India’s first International Liquid-Mirror Telescope (ILMT)

Key Facts about Rotary International World Convention

  • Background: On 15 August 1910, Paul Harris convened the first Rotary convention. At the time, there were 16 clubs in the United States.
    • They shared the Rotary name and had similar objectives, but no central office or constitution.
    • In 1977, the Council on Legislation became Rotary’s legislative body.
    • The convention remained the main event for meeting friends, celebrating accomplishments, and discussing the future of Rotary.
  • About: Rotary is a global network of 1.4 million neighbours, friends, leaders, and problem-solvers who see a world where people unite and take action to create lasting change – across the globe, in our communities, and in ourselves.
  • Objective: Rotary International aims to provide service to others, promote integrity, and advance world understanding, goodwill, and peace through our fellowship of business, professional, and community leaders.
  • Rotary International Motto: Two Mottos of Rotary International are-
    • ‘Service Above Self’ and
    • ‘One Profits Most Who Serves Best’

Rotary International Functions

Rotary members believe that we have a shared responsibility to take action on our world’s most persistent issues. Rotary International’s 46,000+ clubs work together to:

  • Promote peace
  • Fight disease
  • Provide clean water, sanitation, and hygiene
  • Save mothers and children
  • Support education
  • Grow local economies
  • Protect the environment

List of Technologies developed by DRDO

FAQs

  1. When was the first Rotary International World Convention convened?

 Ans. First Rotary International World Convention was convened in 1910 by Paul Harris.

  1. What are the Mottos of the Rotary International?

Ans. Rotary International has two mottos- Service Above Self’ and ‘One Profits Most Who Serves Best’.

  1. Who organizes the Rotary International World Convention?

Ans.  Rotary International World Convention is convened by the Rotary International.

  1. Where is Rotary International World Convention convened?

 

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