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# Today’s News Diary 01-06-2022

## National Income Estimates

In News: The National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has released Provisional Estimates (PE) of National Income, 2021-22.

Nominal GDP vs Real GDP

• Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the final monetary value of the goods and services produced within the country during a specified period of time, normally a year.
• In simple terms, GDP is the measure of the country’s economic output in a year.
• Nominal GDP is the value of all final goods and services that an economy produces during a given year; it is not adjusted for inflation.
• It is calculated by using the prices that are current in the year in which the output is produced.
• Nominal GDP takes into account all of the changes that occurred for all goods and services produced during the year.
• If prices change from one period to the next and the output does not change, the nominal GDP would change even though the output remained constant.
• Real GDP, on the other hand, is the total value of all final goods and services that the economy produces during a given year, accounting for inflation. It is calculated using the prices of a selected base year.
• To calculate Real GDP, you must determine how much of GDP has been changed by inflation since the base year, and divide out the inflation each year.
• Real GDP, therefore, accounts for the fact that if prices change but output doesn’t, nominal GDP would change.

What is Gross Value Added (GVA)?

• In 2015, in the wake of a comprehensive review of its approach to GDP measurement, India opted to make major changes to its compilation of national accounts and bring the whole process into conformity with the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA) of 2008.
• As per the SNA, gross value added, is defined as the value of output minus the value of intermediate consumption and is a measure of the contribution to GDP made by an individual producer, industry or sector.
• At its simplest it gives the rupee value of goods and services produced in the economy after deducting the cost of inputs and raw materials used. GVA can be described as the main entry on the income side of the nation’s accounting balance sheet, and from an economics perspective represents the supply side.
• While India had been measuring GVA earlier, it had done so using ‘factor cost’ and GDP at ‘factor cost’ was the main parameter for measuring the country’s overall economic output till the new methodology was adopted.
• In the new series, in which the base year was shifted to 2011-12 from the earlier 2004-05, GVA at basic prices became the primary measure of output across the economy’s various sectors and when added to net taxes on products amounts to the GDP.

## Index Of Industrial Production

In News: India’s core sector output expanded 8.4% in April, the fastest pace in six months, with crude oil and steel the only sectors among the eight infrastructure industries comprising the index to record a marginal decline in production from the year-earlier period.

Key Findings

• The combined Index of Eight Core Industries stood at 143.2 in April 2022, which is an increased of 8.4 per cent (provisional) as compared to the Index of April 2021.
• The production of Coal, Electricity, Refinery Products, Fertilizers, Cement and Natural Gas industries increased in April 2022 over the corresponding period of last year.

• Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) releases Index of Eight Core Industries (ICI) every month.
• ICI measures combined and individual performance of production in selected eight core industries viz. Coal, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Refinery Products, Fertilizers, Steel, Cement and Electricity. The Eight Core Industries comprise 40.27 percent of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
• Base year is 2011-12.

## All-India Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers

In News: The All-India CPI-IW for April, 2022increased by 1.7 points and stood at 127.7 (one hundred twenty seven point seven).

• The Labour Bureau, an attached office of the M/o Labour & Employment, compiles Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers every month on the basis of retail prices collected from 317 markets spread over 88 industrially important centres in the country.
• The index is compiled for 88 centres and All-India and is released on the last working day of succeeding month.

## PM CARES for Children Scheme

Relevance for UPSC Exam

• GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

PM CARES for Children Scheme in News

• Recently, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi released benefits under PM CARES for Children Scheme via video conference.

PM CARES for Children Scheme

• About: PM CARES for Children Scheme is an initiative to provide financial assistance to support such children who have lost both the Parents or legal Guardian or Adoptive Parents or Surviving Parent to COVID-19 pandemic.
• Prime Minister of India has launched the PM CARES for Children Scheme on 29th May, 2021.
• Objectives: Objective of the PM CARES for children scheme is-
• To ensure comprehensive care and protection of Children in a sustained manner, and enable their wellbeing through health insurance,
• Empower them through education and
• Equip them for self-sufficient existence with financial support on reaching 23 years of age.
• Associated Ministry: Ministry of Women and Child Welfarehas been entrusted with the responsibility of anchoring the PM CARES for Children scheme, in collaboration with stakeholder Ministries, States and District Administration.
• Funding: PM CARES for Children Scheme is a central sector scheme.
• It means that central government would provide 100% funding for the PM CARES for Children Scheme.

Analysis Of Yojana Magazine (May 2022): ”Safeguarding Children”

PM CARES for Children Scheme Benefits

• If someone needs an education loan for professional courses or higher education, then PM-CARES will help in that too.
• For other daily needs, arrangements have also been made for 4 thousand rupees every month for them through other schemes.
• Rs 10 lakh will be given on attaining the age of 23 years.
• Children will be given health coverage through the Ayushman Card and emotional counselling through samvad helpline for psychological and emotional help.

Kasturirangan Committee on Western Ghats

Scholarship for PM CARES Children

• About: It was launched to provide scholarship assistance to such Children who have lost both the Parents or legal Guardian or Adoptive Parents or Surviving Parent to COVID-19 pandemic to continue their education without any hindrance.
• Implementing Ministry: Scholarship for PM CARES Children is being implemented by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in line with the PM CARES for Children scheme.
• Funding: Scholarship for PM CARES Children is a central sector scheme.
• Associated Benefits: Under Scholarship for PM CARES Children, an allowance of ₹20,000/- per child per annum would be provided. It will cover the entire school fees, cost of the books and uniform, shoes and other educational equipment by providing-
• Monthly allowance of ₹1,000 per month and
• Annual academic allowance of Rs. 8,000.
• Eligibility: The Scholarship will be disbursed through DBT to the Children from Class 1std until they pass out the 12 std Class.
• Performance: 3945 Children have been benefited under the Scheme with an amount of ₹7.89 crore during 2022-23.

Economic Impact of COVID Related School Closures- ADB Report

## Coal gasification UPSC

• GS 3: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

National Coal Gasification Mission: Context

• Recently, the union Government has prepared a National Mission document to achieve 100 million tonne (MT) coal gasification by 2030 to diversify coal usage.

Coal gasification by 2030: Key points

• India has a reserve of 307 billion tonne of thermal coal and about 80 per cent of coal produced is used in thermal power plants.
• Diversification of coal has become imperative for its sustainable use due to environmental concerns and development of renewable energy.
• Coal gasification is the future and it is considered a cleaner option compared to burning of coal.

What is coal gasification?

• Coal gasification is a process in which coal is partially oxidated by air, oxygen, steam or carbon dioxide under controlled conditions to produce a fuel gas.
• Coal gasification process: It involves 5 stages—Gasification, Cooling and cleaning, Shifting, Purification, and Usage.

Coal Gasification in India

• In 2020, Ministry of Coal said that India aims for 100 million tonnes (MT) coal gasification by 2030 with investments worth over Rs. 4 lakh crores.
• In 2021, government rolled out National Coal Gasification Mission to use sustainably in future.
• All coal companies have been advised to appoint a nodal officer and to prepare an action plan for gasifying at least 10% of their coal production.
• Further, in all future commercial coal block auctions, a provision has been made for 20% rebate in revenue share for the coal used for gasification purpose provided the coal quantity used for gasification is at least 10% of total coal production.

Coal gasification: Why needed?

• India, being a signatory to the Paris Agreement, 2016 has declared three quantitative climate change goals as its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).
• Reduction in emissions intensity of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
• Achieving about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.
• Creating an additional carbon sink of 5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional tree & forest cover by 2030.
• Most of India’s known coal deposits are non-recoverable as they are deep, scattered and covered by forests. Underground coal gasification could help extract this plentiful reserve.

Benefits of coal gasification

• Environmental benefits: Coal gasification provides a more environment friendly method of producing energy. The process of gasification converts organic materials into carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas. This process is widely used on industrial scales for the generation of electricity from fossil fuels. Gasification plants produce significantly lower quantities of air pollutants.
• Economic benefits: Gasification can be utilized to turn lower-priced feedstock, such as pet coke and coal, into valuable products, like electricity, fuels and fertilizers. Moreover, the operating costs of a gasification power plant are lower than conventional coal-fired plants and require less pollution control equipment.
• Producing transportation fuels: The gasification process can be used to produce methanol and chemicals like ammonia and urea, which are the foundation of many fertilizers. Gasification can also be used to produce transportation fuels from oil sands, coal and biomass.
• Reliable technology: Gasification has been used on a commercial scale around the world for more than 50 years in the refining, fertilizer and chemical industries. As the uses for gasification expand into municipal and hazardous waste conversion, plant operators have the opportunity to conserve resources and limit hazardous emissions.

## Just Solutions To Climate Change Through Science

Introduction

• At Stockholm in 1972, countries proclaimed, under Principle 18 of their closing declaration, that “Science and technology, as part of their contribution to economic and social development, must be applied to the identification, avoidance and control of environmental risks and the solution of environmental problems and for the common good of mankind”.
• In the 50 years since, science-policy interfaces have been sources of increasingly strident warnings of the risks, and damages, created by climate change and other environmental threats but not the part of the solutions to these challenges.
• Science-policy interfaces can be part of delivering solutions that are just and equitable, but to do so these institutions must further, rather than hinder, the decolonisation of knowledge production, including on climate change.

The IPCC Case

• The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ipcc) was formed in 1988.
• It is a UN backed body.
• Since it’s formation it is the foremost science-policy interface on climate change.
• Notably through highly publicised efforts to diversify and broaden its teams of authors and reviewers.
• The IPCC  releases a new “assessment report” every eight years or so. Each cycle is a mammoth undertaking, culminating in a trio of reports that comprehensively examines the science of climate change.
• Nevertheless, critics of the interface continue to raise concerns with the long-term implications of decisions that are often cast as apolitical, and sometimes even merely technical.

How serious is the risk of Climate Change?

• The window for limiting global warming to relatively safe levels is rapidly closing, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ipcc).
• On April 4th the body released a new report, of nearly 3,000 pages. It appeared after two weeks of wrangling by representatives from 195 governments over how best to present the “state of the union” of climate science.
• Its conclusion is hardly cheering. To meet the goals of the Paris agreement, to limit the average global temperature rise to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels—and failing that, to below 2°C—will take immediate and unprecedented action from every country.

Need for changing Science-policy interfaces

• The science-policy interfaces currently operating on climate change and in other environmental arenas, including biodiversity, desertification, ozone depletion, and chemical pollution need to be changed.
• It is important to note that negotiations to establish, or later to adjust, a science-policy interface will typically be intergovernmental.
• Careful delineation of rules and procedures are must to strengthen the transparency, legitimacy, and credibility of a science-policy interface’s work product.
• If science-policy interfaces are to deliver just and effective solutions to climate change, they must involve indigenous peoples and local communities.

Conclusion

With growing understanding of what the UN Environment Programme has called the “triple planetary crisis” of climate change, biodiversity loss and chemical pollution, we are also seeing greater demand for science-policy work on an ever growing network of interconnected urgent environmental issues. Now is the time to make sure these institutions can deliver on the promises envisioned in Stockholm in 1972.

• GS Paper 2: Important aspects of governance- Transparency and accountability; e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

UIDAI Aadhaar Data Leak in News

• Recently, in a bizarre reversal, the Union government withdrew a notification from a Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) office cautioning people against sharing photocopies of their Aadhaar card.
• Earlier, Government has revoked the above advisory, claiming that it would be “misinterpreted”.

• The Bengaluru Regional Office of the UIDAI urged people to use the masked Aadhaar number facility — that can be downloaded from the UIDAI website.
• The report said that the publicly available datasets had sensitive details such as full Aadhaar number details and also included bank account details of individuals.

UIDAI Audit: CAG Flags Several Issues in Aadhaar Card

• The dangers of providing the full Aadhaar number to several agencies are evident in the way these numbers have been used by fraudsters for criminal purposes such as-
• Identity theft,
• Know Your Customer (KYC)-related fraud among others in recent years.
• The UIDAI has itself registered far more potential fraud cases related to the issue highlighted above in recent years compared to the past.
• Other scams that are of a higher order have also been revealed recently, related to biometrics theft that have allowed scamsters to steal welfare benefits at the expense of genuine beneficiaries.
• The Internet is rife with leaked data and this poses a major threat to user privacy.

Ambivalence of UIDAI

• The UIDAI has been ambivalent about the inherent dangers in the indiscriminate use of the Aadhaar number or the Aadhaar card by citizens.
• This is evidennt in its series of flip-flops on the issue even before this latest withdrawal notice.
• There seems to be a contradiction of views within the UIDAI authority on the issue of potential misuse of the Aadhaar number.
• On the one hand, in statements advising caution and user discretion in revealing one’s Aadhaar number, it is seeking to treat these as sensitive information just like the biometrics provided by citizens to the authority.
• Yet, on the other, it has sought to universalise the open use of the Aadhaar as an identity document with missionary zeal and has downplayed the risks of doing so.

Conclusion

• The UIDAI must popularise the use of the masked Aadhaar facility as a start and rethink ways to tighten the scrutiny over how Aadhaar numbers are issued and utilised.
• In addition to the above, law enforcement agencies must crack down on data leaks and websites carrying unmasked Aadhaar-related information.

Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)

## Eshram portal

• GS 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Eshram for informal workers: Context

• According to the latest data of e-shram portal, the income of informal workers shows sharp disparity in the Indian society.

Eshram update: Key points

• More than 94 per cent of 27.69 crore informal sector workers registered on the e-Shram portal have a monthly income of Rs 10,000 or below.
• While 4.36 per cent have a monthly income between Rs 10,001 and Rs 15,000.
• More than 74 per cent of the enrolled workforce belongs to scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (SC) and other backward classes (OBC).
• The proportion of the General Category workers is 25.56 per cent.
• Age-wise analysis of the data show that 61 per cent of the registered workers on the portal are of the age from 18 years to 40 years, while 22 per cent are of the age from 40 years to 50 years.
• Gender analysis shows that 52 per cent of registered workers are female and 47 per cent are male.
• Top-5 states in terms of registrations are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.
• Occupation wise, agriculture is at the top with 52 per cent of enrolments done by those related to the farm sector followed by domestic and household workers at 10 per cent and constructions workers at 9 per cent.

What is eShram Portal?

• It is a national portal will help build a comprehensive National Database of Unorganised Workers (NDUW) in the country.
• It will not only register the unorganised workers but would also be helpful in delivering of various social security schemes being implemented by the Central and State Governments.

Key features of e-Shram portal

• Registration under the e-SHRAM portal is totally free and workers do not have to pay anything for his or her registration at Common Service Centres (CSCs) or anywhere.
• The workers shall be issued an eSHRAM card with unique Universal Account Number (UAN) and will be able to access the benefits of the various social security schemes through this Card anywhere anytime.
• Registration, under the portal, has started from 26 August 2021.
• Authentication of database will be done through Aadhar (97% coverage).

## NTPCs Biodiversity Policy 2022

• GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Biodiversity Policy NTPC: Context

• Recently, NTPC Ltd issued a renewed Biodiversity Policy 2022 to establish a comprehensive vision and guiding principle for conservation, restoration, and enhancement of biodiversity.

Biodiversity Policy 2022: Key points

• This Biodiversity Policy is an integral part of NTPC’s Environmental Policy. Its objectives are aligned with environmental and sustainability policies.
• Moreover, the policy is also designed to support all the professionals of the NTPC Group to help them contribute toward the achievement of the targets set in this field.
• NTPC has always been mindful about avoiding operations in areas with the highest biodiversity value and judiciously selecting project sites.
• The company will further strengthen its current efforts to achieve a ’no net loss’ of biodiversity at all of its currently operating sites and ensure there is a net positive balance wherever applicable.
• NTPC was the first PSU to issue Biodiversity Policy in 2018.

NTPC recent environmental initiatives

• NTPC is raising awareness among local communities, employees, and its associates across the supply chain about biodiversity through project-specific and national level trainings in collaboration with experts.
• NTPC is also collaborating with local communities, organizations, regulatory agencies and research institutes of national/international repute in the field of biodiversity.
• Further, NTPC will be adhering to legal compliances with respect to biodiversity by complying with rules and regulations related to the environment, forest, wildlife, coastal zone, and green cover during planning and execution of its projects.
• In a major initiative undertaken by NTPC, it has signed a five-year agreement with Andhra Pradesh Forest Department for conservation of Olive Ridley Turtles in the coastline of Andhra Pradesh.
• With the Financial Contribution of Rs. 4.6 Crores and increased participation of community, the no. of hatchings released in sea water as increased about 2.25 times since intervention by NTPC.

• NTPC Ltd. is India’s largest integrated energy producer under Ministry of Power established in 1975.
• NTPC became a Maharatna company in May 2010. As of January 2020, there are 10 Maharatnas CPSEs in India.

## Garib Kalyan Sammelan

• GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Garib Kalyan Sammelan in News

• Recently, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi addressed ‘Garib Kalyan Sammelan’ in Shima, Himachal Pradesh.
• To commemorate 8 years of the landmark achievements of the Government, MyGov has also launched the Sabka Vikas Maha Quiz that will enable citizens to participate, play and learn about the development taking place in the country.

What is Garib Kalyan Sammelan?

• Garib Kalyan Sammelan conceptualizes elected public representatives across the country directly interacting with the public to get feedback about the various welfare programmes being run by the government.
• Garib Kalyan Sammelan is a public programme marking the completion of eight years of the government led by the Prime Minister.
• Organization: Garib Kalyan Sammelan is being organized across the country at State Capitals, District Headquarters, and Krishi Vigyan Kendras.
• The last 8 years of the Government have been based on the Prime Minister’s mantra of‘Reform, Perform, Transform’.
• Across sectors, landmark policies and initiatives have been implemented to improve last mile delivery of benefits and enhance development outcomes across the country.

District Good Governance Index (DGGI) | J&amp;K to have District-level Governance Index

Pro-Poor Policies of the Government

• Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwas, Sabka Prayaas’: It became the cornerstone of policies aimed at improving the lives of the underprivileged.
• Various Pro-Poor Schemes: Schemes such as PM Ujjwala Yojana, PM SVANidhi Scheme, Jal Jeevan Mission, Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan have all been instrumental in providing basic amenities and improving the quality of living of the poor.
• PM Jan Dhan Yojana: Under it, over 45 crore people were brought into the formal banking sector, further enabling ₹6 Lakh Cr worth of Direct Benefit Transfers (DBT) to beneficiaries.
• Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana: To reduce and counter the Impact of COVID-19, Government schemes such as PM Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana led to free distribution of rations to more than 80 Cr underprivileged people.
• Support to Agriculture Sector:
• PM-KISAN: Initiatives such as PM KISAN have been transformational in strengthening the agriculture sector by providing ₹6,000 every year to over 11 Cr farmers across the nation.
• PM Fasal Bima Yojana: ₹2 Lakh Cr has been disbursed for insurance claims under the PM Fasal Bima Yojana and 167 kisan rail routes have been operationalised to improve farm to market logistics.

Government e-Marketplace (GeM) | GeM Portal touches INR 1 Lakh Crore in Procurement

Government Schemes for Transforming Healthcare sector

• Countering the COVID-19 Pandemic: Through a concerted push by the Government, India became home to the largest and fastest vaccination drive in the world.
• Infrastructure: During the pandemic, healthcare facilities were also ramped up including inauguration of multiple oxygen plants and increasing PPE manufacturing capacity from 0 to second largest in the world.
• Use of Technology: To ensure that vaccinations reached the remotest parts of the country drone technology was used and for the first time in the world the entire vaccination drive was digitized.
• Ayushman Bharat Yojna: viewing healthcare as an important pillar for economic growth, the Government launched the world’s largest insurance coverage scheme- Ayushman Bharat Yojana, wherein 3.26 Cr citizens availed free medical treatment.
• Janaushadhi Kendras: To increase the availability of affordable medicines over 8,700 Janaushadhi Kendras were established in the country that aid in 50-90% savings in medicine costs.
• Creating Health Infrastructure: recognising the need for increased penetration of healthcare delivery across the nation, the Government operationalised 6 new AIIMS and increased medical colleges by 55% in the country.

Recognizing Altruism- Good Samaritan Laws

Building Quality Infrastructure towards ensuring Ease of Living

• Ensuring Last Mile Connectivity: With a major push towards infrastructure development focused on enhancing last mile connectivity in the country, the remotest regions have also witnessed never seen before development.
• Important Projects: Projects such as Atal Tunnel, Bogibeel Bridge and airports in Sikkim & Tripura, are all examples of the aforementioned progress.
• Tax Reforms: landmark reforms such as GST have eased the burden on taxpayers by helping households save upto 4% of their monthly expenditures.
• Ensuring Ease of Living through Digitization: Through a concerted focus on digitisation through the Digital India initiative, processes such as tax filing, insurance claims and government paperwork have been streamlined and simplified.
• This has also been made possible through an unprecedented increase in the number of digital users in the country.

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY)