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Analysis of Sansad TV Discussion: Protecting e-Comm Consumers


  • A total of 5,12,919 complaints pertaining to e-commerce companies were registered with the National Consumer Helpline (NCH) during the period between April 2019 and November 2021.
  • The govt has recently proposed certain amendments to the rules in the form of Consumer Protection (e-commerce) (Amendment) Rules, 2021

About National Consumer Day

  • Every year, the 24th of December is observed as National Consumer Day. On this day, the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 had received the assent of the president.
  • The enactment of this Act is considered a historic milestone in the consumer movement in the country.
  • The National Consumer Day presents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the consumer movement, the need to make people aware of their rights as consumers, and to ensure consumers with effective safeguards against different types of exploitation such as defective goods, deficiency in services and unfair trade practices.
  • Especially in this age of e-commerce, which is facilitated the creation of new approaches to service and product delivery, the challenges of ensuring customer protection have grown manifold.

What is e-dakhil?

  • The Consumer Protection Act, 2019, which has come into force from 20th July, 2020, has provision for e-filing of consumer complaints in the Consumer Commissions and online payment of the fees for filing a complaint.
  • A web application for E-filing of consumer complaints named “edaakhil.nic.in” has been developed by NIC for the purpose.
    This digital software for filing consumer complaints has the many features like e-Notice, case document download link & VC hearing link, filing written response by opposite party, fling rejoinder by complainant and alerts via SMS/Email.
  • The e-daakhil portal empowers the consumer and their advocates to file the consumer complaints along with payment of requisite fees online from anywhere for the redressal of their complaints.
    It also facilitates the consumer commissions to scrutinize the complaints online to accept, reject or forward the complaint to the concerned commission for further processing.

Why GOI is planning to amend Consumer Protection (e-commerce) Rules, 2020?

  • Within a year of issuing the Consumer Protection (e-commerce) Rules, 2020 issued under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 (CPA 2019), the government has proposed certain amendments to these rules in the form of Consumer Protection (e-commerce) (Amendment) Rules, 2021.
  • The government has received several complaints against widespread cheating and unfair trade practices being observed in the e-commerce ecosystem
  • Proposed amendments aim to bring transparency in e-commerce platforms and further strengthen the regulatory regime.
  • For the purposes of preventing unfair trade practices in e-commerce, the Central Government had notified the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2020 with effect from 23 July 2020. However, since the notification of these rules, the Government has received several representations from aggrieved consumers, traders and associations complaining against widespread cheating and unfair trade practices being observed in the e-commerce ecosystem.
  • The prevalence of such unfortunate incidents has negatively impacted the consumer and business sentiment in the market, causing immense distress and anguish to many.
  • It was observed that there was an evident lack of regulatory oversight in e-commerce which required some urgent action. Moreover, the rapid growth of e-commerce platforms has also brought into the purview the unfair trade practices of the marketplace e-commerce entities engaging in manipulating search results to promote certain sellers, preferential treatment to some sellers, indirectly operating the sellers on their platform, impinging the free choice of consumers, selling goods close to expiration etc.
  • Additionally, conventional flash sales by third-party sellers are not banned on e-commerce platform. But, certain e-commerce entities are engaging in limiting consumer choice by indulging in “back to back” or “flash” sales wherein one seller selling on platform does not carry any inventory or order fulfilment capability but merely places a “flash or back to back” order with another seller controlled by the platform. This prevents a level playing field and ultimately limits customer choice and increases prices.

Consumer Protection(e-commerce)(Amendment) Rules, 2021

  • To protect the interests of consumers, prevent their exploitation and encourage free and fair competition in the market, the Government of India has shared a draft of the proposed amendments to the Consumer Protection (E-commerce) Rules, 2020. The proposed amendments aim to bring transparency in the e-commerce platforms and further strengthen the regulatory regime to curb the prevalent unfair trade practices. The proposed amendments are as follows:
    • To ensure compliance of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 and Rules, the appointment of Chief Compliance Officer, a nodal contact person for 24×7 coordination with law enforcement agencies, officers to ensure compliance to their orders and Resident Grievance Officer for redressing of the grievances of the consumers on the e-commerce platform, has been proposed. This would ensure effective compliance with the provisions of the Act and Rules and also strengthen the grievance redressal mechanism on e-commerce entities.
    • Putting in place a framework for registration of every e-commerce entity with the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) for allotment of a registration number which shall be displayed prominently on website as well as invoice of every order placed the e-commerce entity. Registration of e-commerce entities would help create a database of genuine e-commerce entities and ensure that the consumers are able to verify the genuineness of an e-commerce entity before transacting through their platform.
    • To protect the interests of consumers, mis-selling has been prohibited i.e selling goods and services entities selling goods or services by deliberate misrepresentation of information by such entities about such goods or services.
    • To ensure that consumers are aware about the expiry date of the products they are buying on the e-commerce platform all sellers on marketplace e-commerce entities and all inventory e-commerce entities to provide best before or use before date to enable consumers to make an informed purchase decision.
    • To ensure that the domestic manufacturers and suppliers get a fair and equal treatment on the e-commerce platform it has been provided that where an e-commerce entity offers imported goods or services, it shall incorporate a filter mechanism to identify goods based on country of origin and suggest alternatives to ensure fair opportunity to domestic goods.
    • To ensure that consumers are not adversely affected in the event where a seller fails to deliver the goods or services due to negligent conduct by such seller in fulfilling the duties and liabilities in the manner as prescribed by the marketplace e-commerce entity, provisions of Fall-back liability for every marketplace e-commerce entity have been provided.

Possible Question

”How are the interests of e-commerce consumers being protected, how is free and fair competition in e-com market being encouraged and how are redressal mechanisms for consumer grievances being strengthened?”


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