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UPSC News Diary – October 11th, 2022

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UPSC News Diary Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

UPSC Prelims Bits” is every day published in the morning between 11:00 AM to 12:00 Noon and contains selective current affairs articles. ”UPSC Prelims Bits” covers various topics from UPSC Prelims Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC Prelims Bitsarticle, we focus on UPSC Preliminary exam-oriented current affairs covering various sections from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

United Nations World Geospatial International Congress(UNWGIC)

 

Why in news?

  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi addressed the United Nations World Geospatial International Congress, via video message.
  • The Conference is happening in Hyderabad.

The theme of the conference

‘Geo-enabling the Global Village: No one should be left behind’ 

Why UNWGIC formed?

  • In 2011, following decision 2011/24, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, of which the Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management is a subsidiary body, “encouraged Member States to hold regular high-level, multi-stakeholder discussions on global geospatial information, including through the convening of global forums, with a view to promoting a comprehensive dialogue with all relevant actors and bodies”.
  • Thus, the aim of the United Nations World Geospatial Information Congress (UNWGIC) is to provide a convening, participatory and inclusive environment to enhance the communication, understanding, knowledge and application of geospatial information management.
  • The inaugural United Nations World Geospatial Information Congress was held in Deqing, Zhejiang Province from 19 to 21 November 2018.

 

Bharat Ratna Nanaji Deshmukh

 

Why in news?

The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has paid tributes to Bharat Ratna Nanaji Deshmukh on his birth anniversary.

Know about Nanaji Deshmukh

  • Nanaji Deshmukh was born on October 11, 1916. A social reformer and politician from India, he worked in the fields of education, health, and rural self-reliance.
  • He was associated with Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) from a very early age.
  • He is believed to have established Saraswati Shishu Mandir (SSM), which runs a chain of private schools in India and is said to be the educational wing of the RSS.
  • He started the country’s first SSM at Gorakhpur in 1950 and was the founder of Deendayal Research Institute (DRI) situated at Chitrakoot.
  • He was also responsible for starting India’s first rural university, Chitarkoot Gramodya Vishwavidyalaya.
  • He played a key role in the Jaya Prakash (JP) movement against Emergency in 1974. As the general secretary of the Lok Sangharsh Samiti, Deshmukh threw his weight behind Narayan’s call for total revolution.

 

Sri Guru Ram Das Ji

 

Why in news?

The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has bowed to Sri Guru Ram Das Ji on the auspicious occasion of his Parkash Purab.

Know about Guru Ram Das Ji

  • Guru Ram Das ji was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikkhism.
  • He is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition.
  • He invited merchants and artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.
  • His son built the Gurudwara Harmandir Sahib and installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604.
  • He has composed 638 hymns, or about ten percent of hymns in the guru Granth sahib.
  • He was a celebrated poet and composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian classical music.
  • Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode.
  • It is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition.
  • Ram Das extended the Manji system of religious organization by adding the masand institution.
  • The masand were Sikh community leaders who lived far from the Guru, but acted to lead the distant congregations, their mutual interactions and collect revenue for Sikh activities and temple building.

 

Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan(JP)

 

Why in news?

The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has paid tributes to Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan on his birth anniversary.

Know about JP

  • Jayaprakash Narayan, also known as JP or Lok Nayak, was an Indian independence activist, theorist, socialist, and political figure.
  • He was born on October 11, 1902, and he passed away on October 8, 1979.
  • In the middle of the 1970s, he led the opposition against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, whose overthrow he had called for a “total revolution,” and for this, he is remembered.
  • In 1999, in honour of his contributions to society, he received the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honour in India.
  • His concept of Total Revolution is a holistic one. He used the term Total Revolution for the first time in a British magazine called The Time in 1969.

 

Tele-MANAS Initiative

 

Tele-MANAS Initiative- Relevance For UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges
    • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

UPSC News Diary – October 11th, 2022_30.1

 

Tele-MANAS Initiative in News

  • Recentlt, Tele-MANAS initiative of Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare was launched virtually by Sh. Thawar Chand Gehlot, Hon’ble Governor of Karnataka at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru.
  • Tele-MANAS Initiative is a step forward in establishing a new milestone in the field of mental health on the occasion of World Mental Health Day.

 

Tele-MANAS Initiative

  • About: Tele-MANAS aims to provide free tele-mental health services all over the country round the clock, particularly catering to people in remote or under-served areas.
    • Tele-MANAS Full form: Full form of Tele-MANAS is Tele Mental Health Assistance and Networking Across States.
  • Nodal Agency: The programme includes a network of 23 tele-mental health centres of excellence, with NIMHANS being the nodal centre and International Institute of Information Technology-Bangalore (IIITB) providing technology support.
    • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bengaluru and National Health Systems Resource Centre (NHRSC) will provide the technical support.
  • Service Centre: A toll-free, 24/7 helpline number (14416) has been set up across the country allowing callers to select the language of choice for availing services.
    • Service is also accessible with 1-800-91-4416. The calls would be routed to Tele-MANAS cells in the respective state and union territory.

 

Tele-MANAS Initiative Implementation

  • Tele-MANAS will be organised in two tier system;
    • Tier 1 comprises of state Tele-MANAS cells which include trained counsellors and mental health specialists.
    • Tier 2 will comprise of specialists at District Mental Health Programme (DMHP)/Medical College resources for physical consultation and/or e-Sanjeevani for audio visual consultation.
    • Presently there are 5 regional coordination centres along with 51 State/UT Tele MANAS cells.
  • Specialised care is being envisioned through the programme by linking Tele-MANAS with other services like National tele-consultation service, e-Sanjeevani, Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission, mental health professionals, Ayushman Bharat health and wellness centres and emergency psychiatric facilities.
  • Eventually, this will include the entire spectrum of mental wellness and illness, and integrate all systems that provide mental health care. NIMHANS has conducted training for 900 Tele MANAS counsellors from majority of States/UTs.

 

National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS)- Key Points

  • About NIMHANS: The National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) is a multidisciplinary institute for patient care and academic pursuit in the field of mental health and neurosciences.
    • Headquarter: National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences is a premier medical institution located in Bengaluru, India.
    • NIMHANS is the apex centre for mental health and neuroscience education in the country.
  • Parent ministry: NIMHANS Institute operates autonomously under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • An Institute of National Importance: NIMHANS, Bangalore Act 2012 declares NIMHANS to be an Institute of National Importance and provides for its incorporation and matters connected therewith.
    • Earlier, the Central Government recognized NIMHANS’s eminent academic position, growth and contributions, and declared it a ‘Deemed University in 1994.

New Indian Brain Templates has developed by NIMHANS: Explained

 

Sustainable Mountain Development Summit (SMDS)

 

Sustainable Mountain Development Summit (SMDS)- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 3: Environment- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

 

Sustainable Mountain Development Summit (SMDS) in News

  • Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change attended the inaugural session of Sustainable Mountain Development Summit-XI, (SMDS-XI) being held at Leh, Ladakh UT from 10-12 October, 2022.

 

Sustainable Mountain Development Summit (SMDS)

  • About: The Sustainable Mountain Development Summit (SMDS) is a flagship annual event of Integrated Mountain Initiative (IMI), a civil society-led forum working across the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR).
    • Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) comprises 10 mountain states, two union territories and four hill districts.
    • Every year 3-5 salient themes engaging the immediate attention of and relevant to the mountains and hills are taken up for threadbare discussion and debate.
    • Conclusions and recommendations emerging from this exercise are pursued by IMI subsequently for actionable output.
  • Components: In addition to the central event, two integral components of the Sustainable Mountain Development Summit (SMDS) include-
    • The Mountain Legislators’ Meet (MLM) and
    • The Indian Himalayan Youth Summit.
  • Theme: The theme for SMDS-XI is ‘Harnessing tourism for sustainable mountain development’.
  • Focus Area: The main focus of the SMDS 2022 summit is to reduce the negative impacts of tourism while harnessing its positive contributions to building climate and socio-ecological resilience and sustainability.
  • Participation: Each summit had 200-300 participants, representing a diverse mix of policymakers, eminent scientists, researchers, academics, research and educational institutions, government representatives, legislators, etc.

 

Previous Sustainable Mountain Development Summits

 

SMDS THEMATIC FOCUS
SMDS-I (2011), Nainital Hydropower, Adaptation measures under Climate Change, Rural Tourism, Community forestry
SMDS-II (2012), Gangtok Water, Forests & Communities, Mountain Livelihoods
SMDS-III (2013), Kohima Forests, Water: Rivers, streams & springs, Mountain agriculture
SMDS-IV (2015) , Itanagar Disaster Risk Reduction, Mountain Agriculture, Forests
SMDS-V (2016), Leh Water Security, Skills for development in the mountains
SMDS-VI (2017), Aizawl Climate Change & Sustainable Mountain Cities

 

SMDS-VII (2018), Solan Well-being of Next Generation of Farmers in the Indian Himalayan Region
SMDS-VIII (2019), Shillong Livelihood & Entrepreneurship for Youth

 

National Conference of State Tourism Ministers

 

Chandrayaan-2 gauges sodium content on Moon’s surface

 

Chandrayaan-2 gauges sodium content on Moon’s surface: Relevance for UPSC Exam

General Studies III- Achievements of Indians in S&T

 

Chandrayaan-2 gauges sodium content on Moon’s surface: Context

Scientists from ISRO have mapped out the global distribution of sodium on the Moon’s surface using the CLASS instrument (Chandrayaan-2 large area soft X-ray spectrometer) onboard of the Chandrayaan-2 mission.

This is the first effort to provide a global-scale measurement of sodium on the lunar surface using X-ray fluorescent spectra.

 

Chandrayaan-2

  • Chandrayaan-2 consisted of an Orbiter, Lander and Rover, all equipped with scientific instruments to study the moon.
  • The Orbiter would watch the moon from a 100-km orbit, while the Lander and Rover modules were to be separated to make a soft landing on the moon’s surface.
  • ISRO had named the Lander module as Vikram, after Vikram Sarabhai, the pioneer of India’s space programme, and the Rover module as Pragyaan, meaning wisdom.
  • The Orbiter part of the mission has been functioning normally. It is carrying eight instruments.
  • Each of these instruments has produced a handsome amount of data that sheds new light on the moon and offers insights that could be used in further exploration.

 

X-Ray Fluorescence

  • It is commonly used to study the composition of materials in a non-destructive manner.
  • When the sun gives out solar flares, a large amount of X-ray radiation falls on the moon, triggering X-ray fluorescence.
  • The CLASS measures the energy of the X-ray photons coming from the moon and counts the total number.
  • The energy of the photons indicates the atom (for instance, sodium atoms emit X-ray photons of 1.04 keV) and the intensity is a measure of how many atoms are present.

 

Presence of Sodium on Moon: Significance

  • Sodium can be used as a tracer of the volatile history of the moon.
  • When compared to Earth, the moon is significantly depleted of volatile elements such as sodium.
  • The amount of volatiles on the moon today can be used to test formation scenarios of the Earth-Moon system.

 

Reinventing the United Nations

 

Reinventing the United Nations: Relevance for UPSC Exam

General Studies III- Inclusive Growth & Issues

 

Reinventing the United Nations: Context

  • The United Nations Secretary General (UNSG), António Guterres, addressed the United Nations General Assembly and said “The world is in big trouble, gridlocked in colossal global dysfunction, even the G20 is in the trap of geopolitical divides”.

 

United Nations: History

  • The League of Nations set up in 1920, was the first intergovernmental organization with the aim to promote international cooperation and outlived its utility with World War II.
  • The United Nations claims to be the one place where all the world’s nations can discuss common problems and find shared solutions that benefits all of humanity.

 

Why United Nation is at inflection point?

  • A Club outside UN: The G7 Summit, held in June, endorsed the goals of a cooperative international Climate Club to accelerate climate action outside the UN.
  • Nonworking of WTO: The dispute settlement mechanism of the WTO without the quorum of its members has rendered the institution dysfunctional.
  • Failed promises: Despite the G7 having accepted the need for transfer of funds at Rio in 1992, because of their role in creating the climate crisis, the promise made in 2009 to provide at least $100 billion per year in climate finance remains unfulfilled.
  • The China challenge: China has opted for rival set of multilateral institutions. China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) seeks to achieve policy, infrastructure, trade, financial, and people to people connectivity by building a new platform for international cooperation to create new drivers of shared development, and covers half the world population with one third the GDP and investment of $930 billion.
  • Challenge of non-traditional security: China’s Global Development Initiative 2021, and linked Global Security Initiative, 2022, is developing a conceptual frame responding to an urbanising world, i.e., digital governance and non- traditional security, which the international system has not covered.
  • A divide within the UN: More significant than the clash of institutions reflecting the deepening divide between the Atlantic powers and the Russia-China combine is the diffusion of wealth, technology and power. The ‘rest’, despite threats, are now capable of not taking sides and are looking for leadership within the United Nations, for what the UNSG characterised as “coalition of the world”.

 

Reinventing the United Nations: Road ahead

  • Strategists in major powers see the world in binary terms around rules. In a multipolar world, the question is the kind of rules needed for human wellbeing and whether principles would serve the purpose better.
  • The time is ripe for a big idea that both keeps away from the current multilateral focus on global rules, amount of aid and inviolability of IPR’s as well as recognises a role for competing institutions as countries can now secure the best terms themselves without bargaining.
  • Just as the ‘Rio principles’ continue to guide climate change, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, or ‘world as one family’, focusing on comparable levels of wellbeing can be the core of a set of universal socio-economic principles for a dialogue between the states.
  • To the current global consensus around equitable sustainable development, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has added a clearer societal purpose to flesh out a universal Civilizational principle. He emphasized “Lifestyle for Environment” seeing climate change as a societal process.

 

Reinventing the United Nations: India’s Role

  • India’s Presidency of the Group of 20, UN Security Council (UNSC)in 2022, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in 2023 when major powers are not even talking to each other and India alone, now the fifth largest economy, is interacting with each of them, presents a historic opportunity.

 

Conclusion

United Nations, however dysfunctional, the only global platform for world governance. No country would gain by falling UN. Even if we dissolve UN, there is no alternative than reinventing the UN again. India’s and global interest lie in preserving the UN rather than dismantling of UN.

 

India’s Dark Sky Reserve

 

India’s Dark Sky Reserve: Relevance for UPSC Exam

General Studies III- Achievements of Indians In S&T, Awareness In The Fields Of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-Technology, Bio-Technology, Pharma Sector & Health Science.

 

India’s Dark Sky Reserve: Context

  • The union territory of Ladakh will host India’s first Dark Sky Reserve which will be set up in Hanle area in the next three months.
  • The Dark Sky Reserve is being built as part of Ladakh’s high-altitude Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary.

 

What is Dark Sky Reserve (DSR)?

  • Definition of Dark Sky Reserve: The International Dark Sky Association (IDSA) defines an international dark sky reserve (IDSR) as “a public or private land of substantial size (at least 700 km², or about 173,000 acres) possessing an exceptional or distinguished quality of starry nights and nocturnal environment, and that is specifically protected for its scientific, natural, educational, cultural heritage, and/or public enjoyment.
  • A dark sky reserve requires a “core” area that has clear sky without any light pollution, which can enable telescopes to see the sky in its natural darkness.

 

India’s Dark Sky Reserve: Ideal Location

  • Ladakh is ideal for long-term observatories and dark-sky sites because of its large arid area, high elevation, and sparse population, extreme cold and minimum temperature drops to minus 40 Degree Celsius.
  • The Changthang wildlife Sanctuary, the DSR site is situated around 4,500 metres
  • The Department of Science and Technology and Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) in Bengaluru are providing support for the facility. The IIA already manages the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) complex in Hanle, Ladakh.

 

India’s Dark Sky Reserve: International Standards

  • International Dark Sky Association’s Recognition: The IDSA recognizes and accredits dark-sky areas worldwide, in three categories. The Mont Mégantic Observatory in Quebec is the first such site to be recognized (in 2007) as an International Dark Sky Reserve.
  • Individuals or groups can nominate a site for certification to the International Dark Sky Association (IDSA). There are five designated categories, namely International Dark Sky parks, communities, reserves, sanctuaries and Urban Night Sky Places.
  • The certification process is similar to that of a site being awarded the UNESCO World Heritage Site tag or getting recognised as a Biosphere Reserve. Between 2001 and January 2022, there have been 195 sites recognised as International Dark Sky Places globally, the IDSA said.
  • IDSA recognized Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah as the world’s first International Dark Sky Park.
  • In 2015, the IDSA introduced the term “Dark Sky Sanctuary” and designated the Elqui Valley of northern Chile as the world’s first International Dark Sky Sanctuary. The Gabriela Mistral Dark Sky Sanctuary is named after a Chilean poet.

 

India’s Dark Sky Reserve: India’s Objective

  • The primary objective of the proposed Dark Sky Reserve is to promote astronomy tourism in a sustainable and environment-friendly manner. Scientific methods will be used here to preserve the night sky from ever-increasing light pollution.
  • With metros, cities and peripheral areas experiencing light pollution and remaining constantly lit up, there are diminishing areas that offer a view of clear skies on cloudless nights.
  • In the pilot phase, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), has procured ten small and easy-to-handle telescopes and light-reflecting shields. IIA’s scientists and outreach experts will identify locals and train them to use these telescopes.
  • This will include basic sky gazing, identification of constellations, and locating the pole star, among others. These telescopes will be installed at the homestays, which is a popular option for tourist accommodation in Ladakh.

 

Conclusion

  • The Dark Sky Reserve is likely to boost Astro tourism in India where there has been no such reserve. Once set up, the reserve will be the highest-located site in the country for infrared, gamma-ray, and optical telescopes.

 

Agni Tattva under LiFE Campaign

 

Agni Tattva under LiFE Campaign- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges
    • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 

Agni Tattva under LiFE Campaign in News

  • Power Foundation of India in association with Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA) is currently running a campaign to create awareness on Agni Tattva under LiFE – Lifestyle for environment.

 

 

Agni Tattva under LiFE Campaign

  • About: The Agni Tattva campaign – Energy for LiFE, an initiative under the umbrella campaign of Sumangalam.
  • Parent Ministry: Agni Tattva under LiFE Campaign was launched by Shri R K Singh, Union Minister of Power and New & Renewable Energy, in New Delhi September 2022.
  • Objective: Agni Tattva under LiFE Campaign aims to create awareness of the core concept of Agni Tattva, an element that is synonymous with energy and is amongst the five elements of Panchmahabhoot.
  • Theme: The first conference of the Agni campaign was organised in Leh, on the theme of ‘Sustainability and Culture’.
  • Key Activities: A series of seminars spanning the length and breadth of the country have been planned as a part of the Agni Tattva
    • This campaign includes conferences, seminars, events, and exhibitions across the country involving educational institutions, communities, and relevant organisations.

 

What is LiFE Movement?

  • About: The idea of LiFE promotes an environment-conscious lifestyle that focuses on ‘mindful and deliberate utilisation’ instead of ‘mindless and destructive consumption.
    • The LiFE Movement is a global initiative for ensuring sustainable lifestyle of human beings and protecting the planet.
    • LiFE Movement global initiative was proposed by the Prime Minister of India at COP26, he UN’s climate summit in Glasgow.
  • Vision: The vision of LiFE is to live a lifestyle that is in tune with our planet and does not harm it.
    • Those who live such a lifestyle are called “Pro-Planet People”.
  • Mission: Mission LiFE borrows from the past, operates in the present and focuses on the future.
    • LiFE initiative uses the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle that are woven into our life.
    • The Circular Economy has been an integral part of India’s culture and lifestyle and LiFE initiative’s mission is to harness this.

 

What is Power Foundation of India?

  • Power Foundation of India is a Society formed under the aegis of the Ministry of Power, Government of India, and supported by leading CPSEs.
  • The Foundation is involved in areas of advocacy and research, positively impacting the evolving energy landscape.

 

COP26 Glasgow Summit of UNFCC- India’s Commitments

 

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