”UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.
In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.
Joint Rivers Commission of India and Bangladesh
Why in news?
- The 38th Meeting of Ministerial level Joint Rivers Commission of India and Bangladesh was held in New Delhi on 25th August 2022.
- During this meeting, it has been agreed to widen the area of ongoing cooperation by including 8 more rivers for data exchange.
Know about Joint Rivers Commission of India and Bangladesh
- The Joint Rivers Commission of India and Bangladesh was constituted in the year 1972 as a bilateral mechanism to address issues of mutual interest on common / border / transboundary rivers.
- One of the important areas of cooperation, where India has been assisting Bangladesh, is sharing of real time flood data. India has recently extended the period of flood data sharing beyond 15th October to help Bangladesh address unforeseen flood events.
- India and Bangladesh share 54 rivers, of which 7 rivers have been identified earlier for developing framework of water sharing agreements on priority.
Smart India Hackathon 2022
Why in news?
PM recently addressed the Grand Finale of Smart India Hackathon 2022.
Know about ”Smart India Hackathon”
- Smart India Hackathon is a nationwide initiative to provide students with a platform to solve some of the pressing problems we face in our daily lives, and thus inculcate a culture of product innovation and a mindset of problem-solving.
- The first four editions SIH2017, SIH2018, SIH2019 and SIH2020 proved to be extremely successful in promoting innovation out-of-the-box thinking in young minds, especially engineering students from across India.
- SIH 2022 brings the next generation evolution by inclusion of new methodology to inculcate the culture of startup and innovation ecosystem across different age groups.
49th Chief Justice of India
Why in news?
- Justice Uday Umesh Lalit will be sworn-in as 49th Chief Justice of India today.
- President Draupadi Murmu will administer him oath as the 49th Chief Justice of India at Rashtrapati Bhawan.
- He succeeds Justice NV Ramana, who retired yesterday.
- Justice UU Lalit will be in office for 74 days, a tenure shorter than average.
- Justice Lalit was involved in some landmark judgements in past and will also handle some major cases in his tenure as Chief Justice.
- In past, he was involved in the landmark judgement in the Triple Talaq case.
- Justice UU Lalit studied at the Government Law College, Mumbai, and specialised in criminal law. He practised in the Bombay High Court till 1985 and moved to Delhi in 1986.
Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs)
Why in news?
Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and NITI Aayog will establishing more than 500 Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs) in Jammu and Kashmir to nurture an innovative mind-set among high school students.
Know about Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs)
- With a vision to ‘Cultivate one Million children in India as Neoteric Innovators’, Atal Innovation Mission is establishing Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs) in schools across India.
- The objective of this scheme is to foster curiosity, creativity, and imagination in young minds; and inculcate skills such as design mindset, computational thinking, adaptive learning, physical computing etc.
- ATL is a workspace where young minds can give shape to their ideas through hands on do-it-yourself mode; and learn innovation skills.
- Young children will get a chance to work with tools and equipment to understand the concepts of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math).
- Mayurbhanj, located in the northern part of Odisha is famous for its Chhau dance.
- The warriors in this dance dress in their traditional costumes and follow strict techniques of Chhau while performing the dance.
- It is in the Odia speaking regions where Chhau was prevalent in the past and is now being practised in the present. These are Mayurbhanj, Saraikela, Puruliya.
- In the beginning, this dance form was confined to swordplay, with a sword in one hand and the shield in the other. Most of the accompanying music was composed only to exhibit the physical powers, techniques of sword playing and acrobatic movements of the dancers.
- Dress, costumes, and makeup play an important role in all dance performances.
- Chhau is a dance drama, the characters portrayed in the dance are of Gods and Goddesses and sometimes animals.
- The dresses and costumes used in the dance depend on the theme and the characters portrayed. Dress items include dhoti gamcha, turban, and kamarband.
- Some of the ornaments are ghungroo and bajubandh. Swords, shields, lathi (stick), bow and arrow are some of the important props. The music (which is a combination of classical and folk music of Odisha) plays a prominent role.
- Dhol, Shehnai, Dhumsa, and Chad-chadi are some of the important instruments of this dance form.
- Considered among the oldest and most scientific martial arts in the world, Kalaripayattu was developed in Kerala. Lauded as the pride of Kerala, it is acknowledged and respected across the world.
- The training begins with an oil massage of the entire body until it is agile and supple. Feats like chattom (jumping), ottam (running) and marichil (somersault) are also integral parts of the art form. There are also lessons in using weapons like swords, daggers, spears, maces, and bows and arrows.
- The primary aim is the ultimate coordination between mind and body. Another focus of Kalaripayattu is specialisation in indigenous medicinal practices. Kalaris are also important centres of religious worship. Once the course is complete, one should engage in oil massage and practice to maintain shape.
What is FCEV?
- Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are powered by hydrogen.
- They are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no tailpipe emissions—they only emit water vapor and warm air. FCEVs and the hydrogen infrastructure to fuel them are in the early stages of implementation.
- FCEVs use a propulsion system similar to that of electric vehicles, where energy stored as hydrogen is converted to electricity by the fuel cell.
- FCEVs are fueled with pure hydrogen gas stored in a tank on the vehicle. Similar to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, they can fuel in less than 4 minutes and have a driving range over 300 miles.
- Fuel cells work in a similar manner to conventional batteries found in electric vehicles but they do not run out of charge and don’t need to be recharged with electricity.
- They continue to produce electricity as long as there is a supply of hydrogen. Just like conventional cells, a fuel cell consists of an anode (negative electrode) and cathode (positive electrode) sandwiched around an electrolyte.
- The primary advantage of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) is that they produce no tailpipe emissions. They only emit water vapour and warm air.
- Another advantage is that they are more efficient than internal combustion engine vehicles.
One Nation One Fertilizer Scheme
One Nation One Fertilizer Scheme- Relevance for UPSC Exam
General Studies III- Effects of Liberalization on The Economy, Changes In Industrial Policy and their effects on Industrial Growth.
The Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers will implement One Nation One Fertilizer (ONOF) by introducing a Single Brand for Fertilizers and Logo under the fertilizer subsidy scheme named “Pradhanmantri Bhartiya Janurvarak Pariyojna” (PMBJP).
One Nation One Fertilizer (ONOF)
- The single brand name for UREA, DAP, MOP and NPK etc. would be BHARAT UREA, BHARAT DAP, BHARAT MOP and BHARAT NPK etc. respectively for all Fertilizer Companies, State Trading Entities (STEs) and Fertilizer Marketing Entities (FMEs).
- Also, a logo indicating Fertilizer subsidy scheme namely Pradhanmantri Bhartiya Janurvarak Pariyojna will be used on the fertilizer bags.
- Under the scheme, companies are allowed to display their name, brand, logo and other relevant product information only on one-third space of their bags.
- On the remaining two-thirds space, the “Bharat” brand and Pradhanmantri Bharatiya Jan Urvarak Pariyojana logo will have to be shown.
What is the government’s argument for introducing this scheme?
The government’s logic for introducing a single ‘Bharat’ brand for all subsidized fertilizers +being marketed by companies is as follows:
- The maximum retail price of urea is currently fixed by the government, which compensates companies for the higher cost of manufacturing or imports incurred by them.
- The MRPs of non-urea fertilizers are, on paper, decontrolled.
- But companies cannot avail subsidy if they sell at MRPs higher than that informally indicated by the government.
- Simply put, there are some 26 fertilizers (inclusive of urea), on which government bears subsidy and also effectively decides the MRPs.
- Apart from subsidizing and deciding at what price companies can sell, the government also decides where they can sell.
- This is done through the Fertilizer (Movement) Control Order, 1973.
- Under this, the department of fertilizers draws an agreed monthly supply plan on all subsidized fertilizers in consultation with manufacturers and importers.
- This supply plan is issued before the 25th of each month for the following month, with the department also regularly monitoring movement to ensure fertilizer availability as per requirement, including remote areas.
- The government is spending vast sums of money on fertiliser subsidy (the bill is likely to cross Rs 200,000 crore in 2022-23).
- By deciding where and at what price companies can sell, it would obviously want to take credit and send that message to farmers.
Possible drawbacks of the scheme
- It may disincentivize fertilizer companies from undertaking marketing and brand promotion activities.
- They will now be reduced to contract manufacturers and importers for the government. Any company’s strength ultimately is its brands and farmer trust built over decades.
- Currently, in case of any bag or batch of fertilizers not meeting the required standards, the blame is put on the company. But now, that may be passed on fully to the government.
- Politically, the scheme might well boomerang rather than benefit the ruling party.
Arth Ganga Model
Arth Ganga Model- Relevance for UPSC Exam
General Studies II- Government Scheme/Policies.
The Director General of the National Mission for Clean Ganga, spoke about the Arth Ganga Model during his virtual keynote address to the Stockholm World Water Week 2022.
What is Arth Ganga Model?
- PM Modi first introduced the concept during the first National Ganga Council meeting in Kanpur in 2019.
- He urged for a shift from Namami Gange, the Union Government’s flagship project to clean the Ganga, to the model of Arth Ganga.
- The latter focuses on the sustainable development of the Ganga and its surrounding areas, by focusing on economic activities related to the river.
- At its core, the Arth Ganga model seeks to use economics to bridge people with the river.
- It strives to contribute at least 3% of the GDP from the Ganga Basin itself.
- The Arth Ganga project’s interventions are in accordance with India’s commitments towards the UN sustainable development goals.
Under Arth Ganga, the government is working on six verticals.
- Zero Budget Natural Farming that includes chemical-free farming for 10 kms on either side of the river, generating “more income, per drop”, ‘Gobar Dhan’ for farmers.
- Monetization and Reuse of Sludge &Wastewater that envisages reuse of treated water for irrigation; industrial purposes and revenue generation for ULBs.
- Livelihood Opportunities Generation such as ‘Ghat Mein Haat’, promotion of local products, Ayurveda, medicinal plants, capacity building of volunteers like Ganga Praharis.
- Public Participation to ensure increased synergies between stakeholders.
- Cultural Heritage &Tourism that looks to introduce boat tourism through community jettis, promotion of yoga, adventure tourism etc. and Ganga Artis.
- Institutional Building by enhancing the local capacities for better decentralized water governance.
James Webb Space Telescope
James Webb Space Telescope- Relevance for UPSC Exam
General Studies III- Awareness In The Fields Of It, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-Technology, Bio-Technology, Pharma Sector & Health Science.
The James Webb Space Telescope, NASA’s latest and most powerful telescope, has captured new images of our solar system’s largest planet, Jupiter, presenting it in a never-before-seen light.
About James Webb Space Telescope
- WST is a space telescope jointly developed by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).
- It is planned to succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s flagship astrophysics mission.
- It will conduct a broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, including:
- Observing some of the most distant events and objects in the universe such as the formation of the first galaxies.
- Detailed atmospheric characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets
How is it different from other telescopes?
- JWST is more powerful and has the ability to look in the infrared spectrum, which will allow it to peer through much deeper into the universe, and see-through obstructions such as gas clouds.
- As electromagnetic waves travel for long distances, they lose energy, resulting in an increase in their wavelength.
- An ultraviolet wave, for example, can slowly move into the visible light spectrum and the infrared spectrum, and further weaken to microwaves or radio waves, as it loses energy.
- Hubble was designed to look mainly into the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
- JWST is primarily an infrared telescope, the first of its kind.
Special features of JWST
- Powerful space telescopes, like JWST or the Hubble Telescope, are often called time machines because of their ability to view very faraway objects.
- The light coming from those objects, stars or galaxies, which is captured by these telescopes, began its journey millions of years earlier.
- Essentially, what these telescopes see are images of these stars or galaxies as they were millions of years ago.
- The more distant the planet or star, the farther back in time are the telescopes able to see.
- JWST will also be positioned much deeper into space, about a million miles from Earth, at a spot known as L2.
- It is one of the five points, known as Lagrange’s points, in any revolving two-body system like Earth and Sun, where the gravitational forces of the two large bodies cancel each other out.
- Objects placed at these positions are relatively stable and require minimal external energy to keep them there. L2 is a position directly behind Earth in the line joining the Sun and the Earth.
- It would be shielded from the Sun by the Earth as it goes around the Sun, in sync with the Earth.
- JWST has one large mirror, with a diameter of 21 feet (the height of a typical two-storey building), that will capture the infra-red light coming in from the deep universe while facing away from the Sun.
- It will be shielded by a five-layer, tennis court-sized, kite-shaped sunscreen that is designed to block the heat from Sun and ensure the extremely cool temperatures that the instruments are built to operate at.
- Temperatures on the sun-facing side can get as high as 110°C, while the other side would be maintained at –200° to –230°C.
- The extremely cold temperatures are needed to detect the extremely faint heat signals from distant galaxies.
- The mirror as well as the sunscreen is so large, they could not have fit into any rocket. They have been built as foldable items and would be unraveled in space.
Important details about Jupiter
- The photographs have captured a new view of the planet, presenting in detail its massive storms, colorful auroras, faint rings and two small moons — Amalthea and Adrastea.
- While most of us are familiar with the yellow and reddish-brown gas giant.
- The JSWT’s Near-Infrared Camera, with its specialized infrared filters, has shown Jupiter encompassed in blue, green, white, yellow and orange hues.
- Jupiter’s famous Great Red Spot, a storm so big that it could swallow Earth, appeared bright white in the image, since it was reflecting a lot of sunlight.
- The brightness here indicates high altitude — so the Great Red Spot has high-altitude hazes, as does the equatorial region.
- The numerous bright white ‘spots’ and ‘streaks’ are likely very high-altitude cloud tops of condensed convective storms.