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UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY 19 JULY, 2022 | DAY LONG CURRENT AFFAIRS DIGEST FOR UPSC

UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

Currency’s Exchange Rate?

 

What determines a currency’s exchange rate?

  • The price of any currency in a market economy is determined by supply and demand.
  • The supply of a country’s currency in the foreign exchange market is determined by various factors such as central bank policy and the local demand for imports and foreign assets.
  • The demand for a country’s currency, on the other hand, is determined by factors such as central bank policy and the foreign demand for exports and domestic assets.

 

Present Bail Law in India

 

What is the present bail law in India?

  • Bail is governed by provisions in the CrPC.
  • Offences are categorised as bailable and non-bailable.
  • Under Section 436, bail is a right in bailable offences and the police or court is bound to release the accused following the furnishing of a bail bond, with or without surety.
  • For a non-bailable offence, an accused cannot claim bail as a right.
  • The discretion lies with the courts. Section 437 sets out the circumstances in which courts can grant bail for non-bailable offences.
  • The provision mandates the court to consider granting bail to an accused below 16 years, someone who is sick, or is a woman.

 

Relevance Of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation(SCO) for India

 

How SCO is Relevant for India?

  • India acquired the observer status in the grouping in 2005 and was admitted as a full member in 2017.
  • Through the years, the SCO hosts have encouraged members to use the platform to discuss differences with other members on the sidelines.
  • India is also a part of the ‘Quadrilateral’ grouping with the U.S., Japan and Australia.
  • Its association with the grouping of a rather different nature is part of its foreign policy that emphasises on principles of “strategic autonomy and multi-alignment”.

 

Extended Fund Facility (EFF)

 

What is IMF’s EFF?

  • When a country faces a serious medium-term balance of payments problems because of structural weaknesses that require time to address, the IMF can assist through an Extended Fund Facility (EFF).
  • Compared to assistance provided under the Stand-by Arrangement, assistance under an extended arrangement features longer program engagement—to help countries implement medium-term structural reforms—and a longer repayment period.
  • An EFF provides support for comprehensive programs including the policies needed to correct structural imbalances over an extended period.

 

 

Great Indian Bustards

 

Great Indian Bustards- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 3: Environment- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

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Great Indian Bustards in news

  • As per the studies conducted by Wildlife Institute of India, there are around 150 Great Indian Bustards left across the country.
    • These includes about 128 birds in Rajasthan and less than 10 birds each in the States of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

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Great Indian Bustards

  • About: Great Indian Bustards (GIBs) are the largest among the four bustard species found in India, the other three being MacQueen’s bustard, lesser florican and the Bengal florican.
  • Habitat: In India, GIBs are confined mostly to Rajasthan and Gujarat. Small populations occur in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Preferred Habitation: Great Indian Bustards (GIBs) prefer grasslands as their habitats.
    • Being terrestrial birds, they spend most of their time on the ground with occasional flights to go from one part of their habitat to the other.
  • Feeding Pattern: Great Indian Bustards (GIBs) feed on insects, lizards, grass seeds etc.
  • Importance: GIBs are considered the flagship bird species of grassland and hence barometers of the health of grassland ecosystems.

 

Conservation Status of Great Indian Bustards (GIBs)

  • IUCN Status: IUCN has categorised GIBs as critically endangered.
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): GIBs are listed under Appendix 1 of the CITES.
  • Convention on Migratory Species (CMS): GIBs are listed under Appendix I of CMS.
    • Great Indian Bustard was also the mascot of the prestigious 13th CMS Conference of Parties held in Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
  • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Great Indian Bustards are listed under Schedule 1 of the WPA Act 1972.

 

Threats to Great Indian Bustards (GIBs)

  • Power Transmission Lines: WII have been pointing out overhead power transmission lines as the biggest threat to the GIBs.
    • WII research has concluded that in Rajasthan, 18 GIBs die every year after colliding with overhead powerlines.
    • This happens due to their poor frontal vision, as they can’t detect powerlines in time and their weight make in-flight quick manoeuvres difficult.
  • Development of Renewable energy infrastructure: Kutch and Thar desert are the places which have witnessed creation of huge renewable energy infrastructure over the past two decades.
    • These energy infrastructures are leading to installation of windmills and construction of power lines even in core GIB areas, causing deaths of Great Indian Bustards.
  • Change in Land use pattern: Change in landscape by way of farmers cultivating their land, which otherwise used to remain fallow due to frequent droughts in Kutch.
    • Cultivation of cotton and wheat instead of pulses and fodder are also cited as reasons for falling GIB numbers.

Environmental Performance Index 2022

 

Jal Shakti Abhiyan

 

Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Introduction

  • Building on the success of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan of 2019 and 2021 in generating awareness amongst the citizens of the country, this year ‘Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch The Rain-2022’ (JSA: CTR-2022) campaign was launched by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 22 March 2021, World Water Day.
  • This was a time-bound, mission-mode water conservation campaign. Beyond the numbers, the campaign created a strong environment for bringing together all stakeholders working on water recharge and management.
  • Many States did more than that was originally planned. Some states extended the campaign to all their districts, going beyond the water-stressed districts that were selected initially.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan: What is Catch The Rain Campaign?

  • National Water Mission’s (NWM) campaign “Catch The Rain” with the tagline “Catch the rain, where it falls, when it falls” is to nudge the states and stakeholders to create appropriate Rain Water Harvesting Structures (RWHS) suitable to the climatic conditions and sub-soil strata before monsoon.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA)

  • The government of India launched the Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) in 2019.
  • This was a time-bound, mission mode water conservation campaign, implemented in the July – November 2019 period in 1,592 blocks of 256 water-stressed districts of the country.
  • These blocks fell under the critical or over-exploited groundwater category, where the groundwater was being extracted faster than it could be replenished.
  • JSA was a collaborative effort of various ministries of the Government of India and state governments, coordinated by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan: 5 Aspects Of JSA

  • Water conservation and rainwater harvesting.
  • Renovation of traditional and other water bodies.
  • Reuse of water and recharging of structures.
  • Watershed development, and
  • Intensive afforestation.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Amrit Sarovar

  • India is celebrating the Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, marking 75 years of Independence.
  • It has been decided that, in order to commemorate this momentous occasion, 75 water bodies will be created or rejuvenated in every district. These will be called Amrit Sarovar.
  • The creation/rejuvenation of the Amrit Sarovars will be a special effort under JSA-CTR 2022.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan: CTR-2022

  • JSA: CTR-2022 is being taken up in all districts (rural as well as urban areas) of the country with the main theme Catch the Rain, where it falls when it falls.
  • The campaign is being implemented from 29 March 2022 to 30 November 2022 – the pre-monsoon and monsoon period in the country.
  • Under this campaign, activities are also undertaken under the following new interventions in campaign in addition to the activities considered under interventions of JSA: CTR-2021:
    • Spring Shed Development and Management
    • Wetland Development and Management
    • Catchment area protection and development

 

Emergency Rule in Sri Lanka

 

Emergency Rule in Sri Lanka- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: International Relations– India and its neighbourhood- relations.

Emergency Rule in Sri Lanka in News

  • Recently, Sri Lanka’s Acting President Ranil Wickremesinghe declared an Emergency, days before legislators elect a new President in a scheduled parliamentary vote.
  • Emergency in Sri Lanka was declared amid political tumult and a deepening economic crisis. Mr. Wickremesinghe is a frontrunner in the contest.
    • This is the third time that Sri Lanka is under Emergency rule since April 2022.

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Emergency Rule in Sri Lanka

  • Powers: A state of Emergency gives the President powers to make regulations overriding existing laws in Sri Lanka.
  • Associated Concerns: democracy advocates believe that Emergency Powers will lead to arbitrary arrests, especially of dissidents.
    • It is widely believed that the Imposition of Emergency is an undemocratic draconian act.
    • Sri Lankan Emergency may affect the fundamental rights of its citizen in a democratic society.
  • Constitution provision: Constitutionally, a new President must be elected through Parliament within one month if the office of the President falls vacant.
    • The nominations will be made soon, making known the final list of presidential aspirants in Parliament, and the voting will take place on Wednesday.

The Editorial Analysis: Sri Lankan Lessons for India

Key Reasons Behind Sri Lanka’s Economic Crisis

Shortage of foreign reserves

  • The economic mismanagement of successive governments has depleted 70 per cent of Sri Lanka’s foreign reserves with only $2.31 billion left with debt repayment of over $4 billion.
  • Sri Lanka’s high dependency on imports for essential items like sugar, pulses, and cereals adds fuel to the economic meltdown as the island nation lacks foreign reserves to pay for its import bills.

The pandemic effect

  • The island nation’s huge dependence on tourism and foreign remittances was sapped by the COVID-19 pandemic that set the pretext for the current crisis.
  • Tourism, which accounts for over 10 per cent of the Sri Lankan GDP, was hurt after it lost visitors from three key countries: India, Russia and the UK.

Russia-Ukraine war-induced inflation

  • The ongoing Russia-Ukraine war resulted in steep price inflation of crude oil, sunflower oil and wheat.
  • Crude oil prices hit a record high in 14 years with prices soaring over $125/barrel at the height of the crisis.
  • India had to step in by supplying 40,000 MT of diesel under a promised $500 million line of credit. India has so far supplied over 2,00,000 MT of fuel in the last 50 days.

Agri sector crisis

  • The Rajapaksa government’s decision to ban all chemical fertilizers last year to make agriculture 100 per cent organic severely hit the country’s farm production, especially in rice and sugar production forcing the reversal of this decision.

Sharp fall in FDI

  • According to government data, FDI stood at $548 million in 2020 compared to $793 million and $1.6 billion in 2019 and 2018, respectively.

 

Crisis in Sri Lanka- Sri Lankan PM Resigns

 

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