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UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.


Nitrate Absorption in Plants

In News

Researchers led by those from the National Centre of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru (NCBS-TIFR), have found a new pathway that regulates nitrate absorption in plants.

Importance Of Nitrogen

  • Nitrogen is one of the most important macronutrients needed for the development of a plant. It is a part of chlorophyll, amino acids and nucleic acids, among others.
  • It is mostly sourced from the soil where it is mainly absorbed in the form of nitrates and ammonium by the roots.
  • Nitrates also play a role in controlling genome-wide gene expression that in turn regulates root system architecture, flowering time, leaf development, etc.
  • Thus, while a lot of action takes place in the roots to absorb and convert nitrogen into useful nitrates, the absorbed nitrates in turn regulate plant development apart from being useful as a macronutrient.

How Nitrate overuse could be harmful?

  • The overuse of nitrates in fertilizers, for instance, can lead to the dumping of nitrates in the soil which leads to accumulation of nitrates in water and soil.
  • This accumulation adds to soil and water pollution and increased the contribution to greenhouse gases.


Monsoon getting hotter than summer

In News

The monsoon has usually meant respite from the heat, but temperatures during these months — June to September — are seeing a rise, says an analysis by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), an environment group

Key Findings

  • This year, India saw record pre-monsoon temperatures in northern and western regions, in the absence of rain.
  • At an all-India level, average temperatures during the season are 0.3 degrees Celsius higher than the average summer temperatures (March to May) when compared from 1951 to 1980. In the past decade, 2012-2021, this anomaly has risen to 0.4 degrees Celsius.
  • India’s average temperature has risen 0.62 degrees Celsius from 1901 to 2020, according to India Meteorological Department records.
  • The average daily maximum temperature for March and April for Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Ladakh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand — as per IMD classification — was almost 4 degrees Celsius above normal (compared to its baseline of 1981-2010).
  • This is almost twice as much as the anomaly observed at an all-India level, and it holds true for even average daily minimum, daily mean and land surface temperatures, the CSE noted. Temperatures became closer to normal during May.


Amitabh Kant to be India’s new G20 Sherpa

Who is a Sherpa?

A Sherpa is typically a personal representative of the leader of a member nation at the G20 and some other groupings. The Sherpa usually engages in planning, negotiation and implementation of tasks through the G20 Summit. They help prepare the agenda, drum up consensus at the highest levels, and take part in a series of pre-summit consultations to negotiate their leaders’ positions.

About G20

The group of 20 top economies together make up more than 80% of global GDP, 75% of world trade and 60% of the population.

When will India host G20 Summit?

India will host the G20 Summit from December 1, 2022 and will convene the G20 Leaders’ Summit in 2023 for the first time, according to the ministry of external affairs. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been leading India’s representation at G20 Summits since 2014. India has been a member of the G20 since the grouping’s inception in 1999.


IMF’s wall of former chief economists

In News

India-born Gita Gopinath became the first woman and second Indian to feature on the ‘wall of former chief economists of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Indians who featured on the ‘wall of former chief economists’?

  • The first Indian to achieve the honour was Raghuram Rajan who was Chief Economist and Director of Research of IMF between 2003 and 2006.
  • Gopinath was appointed as IMF Chief Economist in October 2018 and was later promoted as the IMF’s First Deputy Managing Director in December last year.



In News

  • The World Health Organization has now confirmed that a new variant of Omicron is circulating in India. The sub-lineage strain has now been designated as BA.2.75.
  • Elaborating about the new sub-variant, WHO’s Chief Scientist Dr Soumya Swaminathan has said that it is too early to say anything because very limited sequencing data is available.

Cause Of Concern

  • The South-East Asia Region has been reporting an increasing trend in cases since early June, with over 157,000 new cases reported, a 20% increase as compared to the previous week.
  • Five of 10 countries (50 per cent) for which data are available showed increases in the number of new cases of 20% or greater, with the greatest proportional increases observed in Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh.
  • The highest numbers of new cases were reported from India (112,456 new cases, an increase of 21 per cent), Thailand (15,950, an increase of 6 per cent) and Bangladesh (13,516 new cases, a 53 per cent increase).


Summit for Space Sustainability 2022

Summit for Space Sustainability 2022- Relevance for UPSC Exam

Summit for Space Sustainability 2022: Summit for Space Sustainability is being held to promote sustainable use of space by managing and reducing space debris and other space wastes.4th Summit for Space Sustainability 2022 is important for UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 (International Relations- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests).

Summit for Space Sustainability 2022 in News

  • Recently, the U.K. hosted the fourth summit for Space Sustainability 2022 in London in collaboration with the Secure World Foundation.
  • In line with the ambitious U.K. National Space Strategy, George Freeman, the Minister of Science, announced a new ‘Plan for Space Sustainability.’

Summit for Space Sustainability 2022

  • About: Summit for Space Sustainability is a high-level, multi-day event focused on developing solutions for space sustainability.
  • Mandate: Summit for Space Sustainability 2022 is a global summit to agree new ways of ensuring a safe, sustainable and secure space environment, including tackling space debris which threatens the satellites we rely on in our daily lives.
  • Summit for Space Sustainability 2022 theme: The theme of the 4th Summit for Space Sustainability 2022 is “Global Priorities for Space Sustainability”.
  • Hosts: 4th Summit for Space Sustainability 2022 is being hosted by the Secure World Foundation and the UK Space Agency.
  • Participation: 4th Summit for Space Sustainability will be a unique gathering of global stakeholders from government, industry, and civil society.

Sustainability in Outer Space                                            

  • Reason for Crowding of Space: As the cost of missions reduce and the number of players increase, the complexity of missions and slot allotment issues also increase.
    • With the emergence of large constellations and complex satellites, there is a risk of collisions and interference with radio frequencies.
  • Steps Taken: United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in 2019 adopted a set of 21 voluntary, non-binding guidelines to ensure the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.
    • The outer space is considered a shared natural resource of all the countries.
  • Threats to Space Sustainability:
    • Orbital crowding poses a direct threat to the operations and safety of a mission and is likely to cause legal and insurance-related conflicts.
    • Space Debris is another prominent issue. After the completion of a mission, an ‘end-of-life protocol’ requires space objects to be moved to the graveyard orbit or to a low altitude.
    • Solar and magnetic storms can potentially damage communication systems. Such space weather threats need to be addressed along with the efforts to identify the terrestrial carbon footprint of outer space missions.
  • Way Forward:
    • Outer space in the 2020s can no longer be considered a ‘space race’ because of the cost, when compared to the beginning of this century.
    • Sustainable practices in outer space would directly help reduce orbital crowding and collision risk while nurturing future technologies.
    • A collective effort by all space players, with the active role of the UN COPUOS or the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), is needed to set equitable standards for the ease of activities.

IN SPACe Inaugration: IN-SPACe Headquarters Inaugurated in Ahmedabad


Rohini commission Gets 13th Extension

Rohini commission UPSC: Relevance

  • GS 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Rohini commission OBC: Context

  • Recently, the Union Government has gave the 13th extension to the Justice Rohini Commission, giving it time until January 31, 2023 to submit its report.

Rohini Commission on OBC: Key points

  • The extension comes after Social Justice and Empowerment Ministry Secretary R Subrahmanyam had told that the commission had not sought any more extension and would submit its report by this July-end when its present term ends.
  • Rohini commission was constituted in 2017 under Article 340 of the Constitution to examine the issues related to the sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes.

About Rohini commission

  • The mandate of Rohini commission includes examining the extent of inequitable distribution of benefits of reservation among the castes or communities included in the OBCs.
  • The commission was also mandated to work out the mechanism, criteria, norms and parameters in a scientific approach for their sub-categorisation.
  • The commission’s mandate is also to take up the exercise of identifying the respective castes or communities or sub-castes or synonyms in the Central List of Other Backward Classes and classifying them into their respective sub-categories.
  • Its initial deadline to submit its report was 12 weeks — by January 2, 2018.

What is sub-categorisation of OBC?

  • Under the central government, OBCs are granted 27% reservation in jobs and education.
  • A debate arose due to the perception that only a few affluent communities among the Central List of OBCs have secured a major part of this 27% reservation.
  • The argument for sub-categorisation — or creating categories within OBCs for reservation — is that it would ensure “equitable distribution” of representation among all OBC communities.
  • To examine this, the Rohini Commission was constituted in 2017. At that time, it was given 12 weeks to submit its report, but has been given several extensions since.
  • Before the Rohini Commission was set up, the Centre had granted constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC).

Findings of the report so far

  • In 2018, the Commission analysed the data of 3 lakh central job given under OBC quota over the preceding five years and OBC admissions to colleges over the preceding three years.
  • The findings were: 97% of all jobs and educational seats have gone to just 25% of all sub-castes classified as OBCs;
  • 95% of these jobs and seats have gone to 10 OBC communities;
  • 37% of the total OBC communities—983 OBC communities—have zero representation in jobs and educational institutions;
  • 994 OBC sub-castes have a total representation of only 2.68% in recruitment and admissions.


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The Editorial Analysis: Making Sense of the Rupee Slump

Making Sense of the Rupee Slump- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 3: Indian Economy- Issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Making Sense of the Rupee Slump in News

  • On July 1, the rupee breached the 79 per dollar mark for the first time ever. The domestic currency has been dominating the headlines for hitting lifetime lows against the greenback for some time.

Depreciation of Indian Rupee

  • Fall of Indian Rupee: In 2022, Indian Rupee slipped 6.7% against the dollar. It is the worst performer among the BRICS countries.
    • However, the rupee has fared better than other emerging market currencies including the Philippine peso (8.1% drop), the Thai baht (8.1%), the Chilean peso (12.3%), and the Polish zloty (15.8%).
  • Rise of Dollar: The dollar index, which gauges the strength of the greenback against six peer currencies, rose by 11% in the same time period.

Causes of Rupee Depreciation

  • Fed Interest Hike and Flight of FPI capital: Due to steep interest rate increases by the U.S. Federal Reserve to tame four decades-high inflation, investors have withdrawn from riskier emerging markets and opted for safe haven assets.
    • So far, in 2022, FPIs have dumped Indian equities worth a net $29.01 billion, more than double the $11.9 billion worth of equities sold during all of 2008, the year of the global financial crisis.
  • Widening Trade Deficit: a widening trade deficit has added pressure on India’s current account deficit (CAD), which in turn has added pressure on the outlook for the local currency.
    • In FY22, India incurred a CAD of $38.7 billion, or 1.2% of the GDP.
  • Rising Gold Imports: While India’s production of gold is negligible, the country is the second highest consumer of gold in the world.
    • In FY22, India imported gold worth $46.17 billion, which is 33% higher than the year earlier (see chart 5).
    • In May, gold imports swelled to $6.02 billion, recording an almost nine-fold jump from a year earlier.

Rupee Depreciation in 2021

Impact of Rupee Depreciation

  • Reduced Forex Reserves: In order to smoothen the rupee’s fall and curb excess volatility, the Reserve Bank of India has been selling dollars in the forex markets from its reserves from time to time.
    • The drawdown of dollars by the central bank has dented reserves. From a high of $642 billion in September, reserves plummeted to $593 billion as of June 24, a drop of $49 billion.
    • According to the RBI’s latest ‘State of the Economy’ report, the foreign exchange reserves in June were equivalent to 10 months of import, down from 15 months of import cover in September 2021.
  • Impact of Rising CAD: Incurring a CAD means that India is importing more goods and services and spending on servicing overseas borrowings than it is exporting or earning through remittances, which in turn creates more demand for dollars.

Steps taken by India

  • Steps taken by RBI: This selling spree by FPIs has exacerbated the demand for the dollar and led to a corresponding excess supply of the rupee, weakening the local currency.
  • Countering Rising CAD and Gold Import: In order to rein in the widening CAD and reduce pressure on the weakening rupee, the government raised the import duty levied on gold to 15% from 10.75%.
  • Cess on Export of Fuel: the government also imposed a cess on the export of petrol, diesel and jet fuel.
    • Private refiners have been exporting fuel and earning ‘windfall’ profits while pumps were running dry in some parts of the country.
    • High-speed diesel and motor gasoline exports more than trebled in March 2022, while the exports of jet fuel more than doubled.

Rupee Depreciation in 2022: Indian Rupee at Record Low


Fire in Electric Vehicles: Government Constitutes Expert Pane

Fire Risk in Electric Vehicles: Relevance

  • GS 3: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Fire in electric car: Context

  • Amid increasing cases of fire in electric vehicles, the Union Government has recently constituted an expert panel to probe the recent series of battery explosions in electric vehicles (EVs).

Battery fires in electric vehicles

  • Manufacturers like Okinawa and Pure EV have recalled some batches of electric scooters due to fire incidents in the electric vehicles.
  • Recently, an old man died at his home in Telangana after the battery of an electric scooter exploded while being charged.
  • A Tata Nexon EV caught fire in Maharashtra last month, which is being seen as the first major instance of a passenger vehicle catching fire in India.
  • The committee will suggest ways to ensure the right quality of the product. They have to come up with a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for testing and validation of key components and formulate a certification standard for the battery used in EVs.




Reason for opting for electric vehicles

  • Climate change: The growing concern over climate change has led to global efforts to electrify the transportation sector, so that dependence on fossils could be reduced.
  • Cost of battery: The cost of Li-ion (Lithium-ion) battery technology has decreased by a staggering order of magnitude in the last decade.
  • Government incentives: Various governments are providing incentives to usher in the transition and private industry ramping up plans for capturing the market.




Reasons for fire in electric vehicles

  • The world is racing towards electric vehicles, with vehicle companies, battery manufacturers, and material suppliers vying with each other for market share.
  • However, Li-ion batteries are complex devices requiring a level of sophistication that can takes years to perfect.
  • Hurrying the development of this complex technology without careful safeguards can lead to increasing safety incidents, as evidenced recently on Indian roads.
  • The reasons for fire may include manufacturing defects, faulty charging, external damage, or faults in the deployment in the battery management system, which could result in these batteries becoming a fire risk.
  • Issue in battery: Battery fires, like other fires, occur due to the convergence of three parts of the “fire triangle”: heat, oxygen, and fuel.
  • If an adverse event such as a short circuit occurs in the battery, the internal temperature can raise as the anode and cathode release their energy through the short.


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BRICS Communications Ministers Meeting 2022

BRICS Communications Ministers- Relevance for UPSC Exam

BRICS Communications Ministers Meeting: BRICS Communications Ministers Meeting 2022 is being held under the chairmanship of China. BRICS Communications Ministers is important part of UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 Syllabus (International Relations- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests).

BRICS Communications Ministers Meeting in News

  • Recently, Minister of Railways, Communications, Electronics and Information Technology Sh. Ashwini Vaishnaw, participated in the BRICS Communications Ministers meeting 2022.

India at BRICS Communications Ministers Meeting 2022

  • In the BRICS Communications Ministers 2022 Meeting, India highlighted achievements of India in the field of ICT.
  • India also underlined the reforms undertaken by Government in Telecom sector.
  • All Ministers appreciated India’s offer for platforms for Digital Public Goods like Aadhar, CoWin, UPI and Diksha and decided to further collaborate in this area.

BRICS Summit 2022- Key Outcomes

BRICS Communications Ministers 2022

  • About: The first meeting of the BRICS Communication Ministers was held in 2015 in Russia, where it was agreed that developing countries have a great potential in the ICT ecosystem and that increased participation of business, academia and other relevant stakeholders for ICT development among BRICS Countries must be encouraged.
  • BRICS Communications Ministers 2022: work-plans were finalized for BRICS Institute for Future Networks (BIFN), Digital BRICS Task Force (DBTF).
    • These mechanisms will help in deepening Innovative cooperation among BRICS countries.

BRICS Business Forum 2022

About BRICS Grouping 

  • About: BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • Background: In 2001, Goldman Sachs’ Jim O’Neill authored a paper called “Building Better Global Economic BRICs”, pointing out that future GDP growth in the world would come from China, India, Russia, and Brazil.
    • Though the paper did not recommend any formal grouping, it said that BRIC economies combined would outstrip the western dominated world order before 2039.
  • BRICS Formation: In 2006, leaders of the BRIC countries met on the margins of a G-8 (now called G-7) summit in St. Petersburg, Russia, and BRIC was formalized that year.
    • Shortly afterward, in September 2006, the group was formalized as BRIC during the 1st BRIC Foreign Ministers’ Meeting, which met on the sidelines of the General Debate of the UN Assembly in New York City.
    • First formal summit: took place in 2009 in the Russian Federation and focused on issues such as reform of the global financial architecture.
    • South Africa was invited to join BRIC in December 2010, after which the group adopted the acronym BRICS.
    • South Africa subsequently attended the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, in 2011.
  • BRICS Headquarters: BRICS doesn’t have any headquarter rather all the countries of BRICS have offices dedicated to BRICS in their own nation.
  • BRICS Structure: BRICS does not exist in the form of organization, but it is an annual summit between the supreme leaders of five nations.
  • BRICS Presidency: The Chairmanship of the forum is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.
    • India had the BRICS Presidency from January 2021.
    • Currently, China has the BRICS Presidency.
  • BRICS Significance: BRICS Member Countries together represent-
    • 41% of the Global Population
    • 24% of the Global GDP and
    • 16% of the Global Trade

BRICS Summit 2022- Key Outcomes


Ozone depletion Over Tropics

Ozone depletion UPSC: Relevance

  • GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Ozone depletion: Context

  • Recently, scientists have revealed a large, all-season ozone hole in the lower stratosphere over the tropics thus causing a great global concern.

Ozone depletion over tropics: Key points

  • The ozone hole over the tropics is comparable in depth to that of the well-known springtime Antarctic hole, but roughly seven times greater in area.
  • The observed data agree with the cosmic-ray-driven electron reaction (CRE) model and strongly indicate the identical physical mechanism working for both Antarctic and tropical ozone holes.
  • All-season ozone hole is defined as an area of ozone loss larger than 25% compared with the undisturbed atmosphere.
  • The observation comes as a surprise to many scientists as it was not predicted by conventional photochemical models.
  • In the polar ozone hole, approximately 80% of the normal ozone value is found to be depleted at the center of the tropical ozone hole.

Ozone Depletion over Tropics: Why concern?

  • The tropics constitute half the planet’s surface area and are home to about half the world’s population.
  • Preliminary reports show ozone depletion levels over equatorial regions are already endangering large populations and the associated UV radiation reaching these regions is far greater than expected.
  • The present discovery calls for further careful studies of ozone depletion, UV radiation change, increased cancer risks, and other negative effects on health and ecosystems in the tropical regions

Ozone Depletion over Tropics: Impact

  • The depletion of the ozone layer can lead to increased ground-level UV radiation, which can increase risk of skin cancer and cataracts in humans.
  • It can also weaken human immune systems, decrease agricultural productivity, and negatively affect sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems.

What is ozone layer?

  • Ozone layer meaning: The Ozone layer is present in Earth’s atmosphere (15-35km above Earth) in the lower portion of the stratosphere and has relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). It reduces harmful UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface.

What is ozone layer depletion?

  • Ozone layer depletion is the gradual thinning of the earth’s ozone layer present in the upper atmosphere.
  • Ozone depletion also consists of a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions, which is referred to as the ozone hole.

Ozone depletion causes

  • Manufactured chemicals, especially manufactured halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam- blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCFCs, halons) are the major causes of ozone layer depletion.
  • Since the early 1970’s, scientists observed reduction in stratospheric ozone and it was found more prominent in Polar Regions.
  • Ozone Depleting Substances have a lifetime of about 100 years.


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How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?

How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?: Introduction

  • The world in 1992 came together to agree on the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • It was also clear that the conservation of bioresources, particularly its utilisation, required active involvement of local communities; they needed to receive a share of the profits earned from the use of their resources and knowledge.
  • This is the reason the world in 2010 agreed on an instrument, called Nagoya Protocol, for fair and equitable sharing of benefits with communities.
  • But in 2022—30 years since the convention—the global community is still working to update the framework and to recommit for the conservation of flora and fauna.
  • We still do not understand what needs to be done to avert biodiversity extinction and benefit those who conserve it.

How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?: What happened in Nairobi?

  • The six-day meeting of the open-ended working group on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework failed to achieve as much as was expected.
  • The objective of the meeting was to reach a consensus on the text of the framework, which is to be finalised at the 15th Conference of the Parties (CoP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in December.

How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?: The Indian Story

  • India has an exemplary record in putting together the legal and administrative framework for biodiversity conservation and to share the benefits of knowledge with communities.
  • In 2002, the country adopted the Biological Diversity Act and put in place an elaborate framework to protect bioresources and to share benefits with traditional knowledge-holders: the National Biodiversity Authority has been established; each state has its own biodiversity board; and each village has its biodiversity management committee (BMC). These BMCs are required to prepare people’s biodiversity register and has the powers to impose charges and fines for extraction of resources found in their village.
  • But on the ground level, the entire effort to share benefits with communities has been reduced to, at best, a meaningless bureaucratic exercise.
  • We know that the system of access and benefit-sharing can work only if the knowledge-holders are recognised; if the traders and manufacturing companies that use their knowledge are held liable for payments, and this payment is then transferred to the community or the knowledge-holders.
  • But we find that no data is available with states—other than a few—on the money received from companies and traders for access and benefit-sharing.
  • So, it is not clear if all companies have paid for the use of resources or knowledge, on what basis, and how much.
  • The reason is there is no information available about the knowledge-holders. The law provides that if the information is not available, then funds should be spent on conservation in the region where the knowledge-Bioresources come from.

How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?: The Case Of Kani Tribals

  • In the famous case of the Kani tribals and their knowledge of Arogyapacha, a medicinal plant, this was the fatal flaw.
  • When their knowledge was used to develop a pharmaceutical product, it was agreed that the sales revenue would be shared with the tribals.
  • But then the question was how the plant could be collected—it was found in the wild and on lands under the forest department.
  • The Kani tribals were denied permission to collect or even grow the plant, saying it was endangered.
  • Cases were filed against the tribals for collection and cultivation.
  • So, the entire work to use the traditional knowledge to benefit communities and, through this, build a conservation movement was futile.
  • Today, restrictions on the tribals to go into the forests have increased. This means their younger generations can no longer identify the plant. The uncoded knowledge is being lost. In this way biodiversity will be lost.

How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?: The Convention on Biological Diversity

  • The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993.
  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international legally-binding treaty with three main goals: conservation of biodiversity; sustainable use of biodiversity; and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. Its overall objective is to encourage actions which will lead to a sustainable future.
  • The governing body of the CBD is the Conference of the Parties (COP). This ultimate authority of all governments (or Parties) that have ratified the treaty meets every two years to review progress, set priorities and commit to work plans.
    In 2010, Parties to the CBD adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, a ten-year framework for action by all countries and stakeholders to safeguard biodiversity and the benefits it provides to people
  • To date, there are 193 Parties n Components of biodiversity are all the various forms of life on Earth including ecosystems, animals, plants, fungi, microorganisms, and genetic diversity.
  • With its three objectives, the CBD is often seen as the key international instrument for sustainable development.

How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?: The Biodiversity Act, 2002

  • The Biodiversity Act, 2002 was brought with an aim to conserve India’s biological diversity and ensure sustainable use of biological resources.
  • The Act also ensures the benefits accrued from the use of traditional and genetic resources are shared with the local communities with prior and informed consent-approval of local communities in a fair and equitable manner.
  • The Act was an outcome of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992 that India adopted and ratified. Later, India also notified Access and Benefit Sharing Regulations, 2014 to give effect to the Nagoya protocol, 2010 that India became a party to in the year 2014.
  • The Biodiversity Act, 2002 was brought with a three-tier decentralised system, involving the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), State Biodiversity Boards (SBB) and the Biodiversity Management Committees (BMC) at the local level.

How To Avert Biodiversity Extinction?: The Biodiversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021

  • The amended Bill was drafted in response to complaints by traditional Indian medicine practitioners, the seed sector, and industry and researchers that the Act imposed a heavy “compliance burden” and made it hard to conduct collaborative research and investments and simplify patent application processes.
  • It proposes to “widen the scope of levying access and benefit-sharing with local communities and for further conservation of biological resources.”
  • The Bill seeks to exempt registered AYUSH medical practitioners and people accessing codified traditional knowledge, among others, from giving prior intimation to State biodiversity boards for accessing biological resources for certain purposes.


As the world meets to discuss the next decade of biodiversity conservation, lessons from the past will be critical. Not only do we need to protect bioresources in the wild—in protected areas—but also a vibrant system to capture local and indigenous knowledge and to ensure that people benefit from conservation as well as utilisation of resources. For this, we need voices and experiences from the ground so that policy is smart and informed. Otherwise, policies will be only on paper.


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