”UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.
In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.
Why In News?
To mark the birth anniversary of Pingali Venkayya on August 2, the Central government has released a special commemorative postage stamp. Ministry of Culture organised “TirangaUtsav” on the occasion of his 146th Birth Anniversary.
Who is Pingali Venkayya?
- Freedom fighter Pingali Venkayya was the designer of India’s national tricolour. He was a farmer, a geologist, a lecturer at the Andhra National College in Machilipatnam, and a fluent speaker of Japanese. He was so fluent that he was famously known as ‘Japan Venkayya’.
- Venkayya was born on August 2, 1876, at Bhatlapenumarru, near present-day Machilipatnam town in Andhra Pradesh.
- A young Venkayya was sent to South Africa to fight in the war as a British Indian Army soldier. It was in South Africa that he was struck by the sense of nationhood the Union Jack inspired among British soldiers.
- Venkayya went on to design many models of the national flag. In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi approved a design at the Indian National Congress meeting in Vijayawada.
- The version presented by Venkayya to the Mahatma had two stripes (green and red) and the Gandhian charkha at the centre. On Gandhi’s suggestion, Venkayya added a white stripe on top, and this became the original Tricolour.
- Venkayya’s flag was used informally at all Congress meetings since 1921, but it was not until its 1931 session that the Congress adopted the Tricolour with the colour scheme we have grown up with — saffron, white and green — and the charkha at the centre.
- A postage stamp in his honour was released in 2009; the Vijayawada station of the All India Radio was named after him in 2014.
China-Taiwan-US: Why In News?
US Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan has angered China.
Where is Taiwan?
China-Taiwan-US: What is the Issue?
- China has condemned US Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan, calling it “extremely dangerous.”
- It is the highest-ranking visit by an American politician to the island in 25 years.
- China sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that will eventually be under Beijing’s control again.
- However, Taiwan sees itself as an independent country, with its own constitution and democratically-elected leaders.
- China’s President Xi Jinping has said “reunification” with Taiwan “must be fulfilled” – and has not ruled out the possible use of force to achieve this.
India Digital Ecosystem of Agriculture (IDEA)
India Digital Ecosystem of Agriculture (IDEA): In News
The Committee on Doubling Farmers’ Income (DFI) in its Report has appreciated the role of Digital Technology, which can play a transformational role in modernizing and organizing how rural India performs its agricultural activities.
About India Digital Ecosystem of Agriculture (IDEA)
- The government has finalized the core concept of the framework which would lay down the architecture for the federated farmers’ database.
- Further, the databases related to the schemes governed by the Department have been integrated.
- The IDEA would serve as a foundation to build innovative agri-focused solutions leveraging emerging technologies to contribute effectively in creating a better Ecosystem for Agriculture in India.
- This Ecosystem shall help the Government in effective planning towards increasing the income of farmers in particular and improving the efficiency of the Agriculture sector as a whole.
Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar campaign
Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar campaign: Great Marine Traditions of India
- India has a rich marine history. Marine activities were first mentioned in the Rigveda and references to the interrelationships of the ocean, sea and rivers can be found in the Indian Puranas.
- The diverse evidence from Indian socio-spiritual traditions, literature, poetry, sculpture, painting and from archaeology attest to the great marine traditions of India.
- India’s coastline of more than 7,500 km reflects our vast ocean resources. Most importantly, the Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country, that is, India.
Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar campaign: About the Campaign
- This year on 17th September 2022, the Government of India along with other voluntary organizations, and the local society will run a cleanliness campaign “Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar” along India’s entire coastline.
- The coastal cleanup drive will be carried out at 75 beaches across the country. A 75 days long campaign was launched on 03rd July 2022 to raise awareness about “Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar” culminating on “International Coastal Cleanup Day” on 17th September 2022.
- It will be the first-of-its-kind and longest-running coastal cleanup campaign in the world with highest number of people participating in it. The participation of common man will convey the message of “Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar” for the prosperity of not only coastal areas but also other parts of the country.
- A mobile app “Eco Mitram” has been launched to spread awareness about the campaign and also for the common people for voluntary registration for the beach cleaning activity on the 17thSeptember 2022.
- Through this campaign, a mass behavioural change among the masses is intended by raising awareness about how plastic usage is destroying our marine life.
Tribals In Jharkhand
Tribals In Jharkhand: Introduction
- The state of Jharkhand came into emergence on 15th November, 2001. The population of Jharkhand in mainly comprised of tribal people.
- There are more the 30 distinct tribal communities in Jharkhand and these tribes are grouped under the ‘scheduled tribes’ group of the Jharkhand populace. These tribes are separated on the basis of their language and cultural preferences. Banjara is one such tribe in Jharkhand.
- 76% of Jharkhand households are in the rural areas and about 28% of the households belong to the Scheduled Tribes.
- This mineral-rich state is home to tribes like: ASUR, BAIGA, BANJARA, BIRHOR, BIRJIA, CHERO, CHICK BARAIK, GOND, GORAIT, HO, KARMALI, KHARWAR, MUNDA, ORAON, etc.
Tribals In Jharkhand: Important tribals in Jharkhand
- Asur is an important tribe in the state of Jharkhand in the eastern part of the subcontinent of India. Asur in Jharkhand is one of the thirty major tribes of people who have made the state of Jharkhand their home. The people who belong to this tribe form quite a big part of the total population of the state of Jharkhand. They thrive mostly on the flesh of animals and birds and rice.
- The total population of the tribal group of Asur is 7783(0.13 % of the total population of the state).
- The people of the tribe of Baiga in Jharkhand inhabit in a particular district of the state. The name of this district of Jharkhand is the Garwah district.
The people who belong to the tribe of Baiga constitute a Kolerian ethnic community. The name of this tribe of Jharkhand has quite a few meanings. One of them is ‘ojha’ or a person who makes medicines. Many of the people who belong to the Baiga tribe make medicines by profession, though their chief traditional occupation has been shifting cultivation.
- Though smallest in number, the Banjara tribe in Jharkhand is a recognized part of the tribal community. Unlike the Banjara tribe of Rajasthan, the Banjaras of Jharkhand lead a settled life. They generally live in thatched huts with kuchcha walls.
- The colorful lives of the Banjaras now have become the source of entertainment to the entire state. Tribal festivals like Sarhul, Tusu and Sohrai are celebrated throughout the state. Banjara music and dances like Chaw, Natua, Ghatwari and Matha now-a-days has become sources of recreation even to the tourist to Jharkhand.
- Birhor is one of the primitive tribes in Jharkhand. In Jharkhand, Birhor are found in the Palamu, Garhwa, Dhanbad, Singhbhum, Giridih, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Gumla, etc. Birhor at Jharkhand belong to the Proto-Australoid stock; linguistically, they originate from the Austro-Asiatic group.
- Birhor tribe of Jharkhand consider themselves as the descendants of the Sun.
- In Jharkhand, the Birhor tribe is divided into two major sub-tribes, namely Jaghis Birhor and Uthalu Birhor.
- The Birjia tribe of Jharkhand is found in the districts of Ranchi, Gumla, Palamu and Lohardaga. In Jharkhand, Birjias live in small huts made of bamboo, wood or mud, which are located in the hills or the plains adjoining these hills.
- The Birjia tribe possesses a patriarchal society: a Birjia family is usually a nuclear family with father as the head of the family. Moreover, the Birjia society is known as a monogamous society, yet the prevalence of bigamy cannot be overruled.
- The Chero are one of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand. In Jharkhand, Chero dwell in the districts of Ranchi, SathalPargana, Latehar and Palamu.
- Chero, also known as Cherwas or Cherus, was a martial group that annexed many new territories through war. They are said to be descendants of the Kshatriya lineage known as Chandravanshi.
- The Chero tribe of Jharkhand is divided into two endogamous groups, namely Terahazari and Barahazari and is also divided into a number of clans said to follow endogamy and exogamy.
Among the major clans of Chero are:
· Manjhia, etc.
Among the important crops that form an integral part of agricultural yields are:
· Paddy, etc.
The Chick Baraik of Jharkhand is found in Ranchi, Lohardaga and Gumla districts. The Chick Baraik in Jharkhand belongs to the Proto-Australoid and speaks Mundari, Hindi and Sadani languages. The Chick Baraik tribe presents a picture of communal harmony. In Jharkhand, the Chick Baraiks do not dwell in a separate village but live with the other tribes and castes within the same village
- The Gonds originally belong to Madhya Pradesh: but, in Jharkhand, Gond belongs to Palamu, Singhbhum and Ranchi districts. The Gond of Jharkhand, linguistically, belongs to the Dravidian race; but, racially, the Gond at Jharkhand hail from Proto-Australoid stock.
- According to the common belief, the Gond tribe belongs to a martial group, who trace their descent from the Kshatriyas. They are said to have migrated in the Central province in the 14th century, legends opine that the Gonds hailed from the South through Bustar and Chanda.
The Gorait at Jharkhand belong to the Austric racial group and are found scattered in the districts of Dhanbad, Palamu, Ranchi, SathalPargana, Singhbhum and Hazaribagh. Linguistically, the Gorait belong to the Proto-Australoid group.
Pradhan is the head of the society, the Pradhan works in close association with the other members of the panchayat.
- They are the most populous tribal groups in north-east India.
- Oraons are considered to be related to proto-Australoids and have been inhabiting the land since the pre-Dravidian era.
- The lingo that has been accepted by the population of the Oraon tribe in Jharkhand is Kurukh. This language has originated from the Dravidian family of languages and bears significant similitude with other contemporary dialects like Brahui and Malto.
- The religion followed by huge fraction of the Oraon people is Sarna. The rest have, however, have chosen to embrace Christianity.
- They have the most primitive caste system among the oldest tribes.
- They are also one of the largest tribal groups in India.
- The abode of the members of the extremely cherished Munda tribe is not confined to the borders of the state of Jharkhand. The Munda people have also penetrated into other beleaguering states of Orissa, Chattisgarh, Bihar and West Bengal.
- Many of the agricultural implements mentioned in Vedic literature such as langala, or hula (plough) and kuddala (spade), are of the etymological origin of the Munda tribe.
- A conspicuous dialect(Mundari) and a unique life-style.
- The religion that is followed by a quarter of the population of Munda of Jharkhand is Christianity. However, they also have evolved their own religion known as Sarna. They consider the celestial bodies like the moon, sun and the planets to be holy and ‘Sing Bonga’ or the ‘Sun God’ is their principal deity.
- The Ho is one of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand. The Ho in Jharkhand belong to Proto-Australoid stock and speak Ho and Hindi languages: a corrupt version of Bengali is also spoken by the Hos of Jharkhand.
- In Jharkhand, Ho tribe dwells near the rivers, river terraces or by the side of the springs.
- The Ho at Jharkhand is known to possess a panchayat-based administration where the Manki, the head of the panchayat, takes decisions on behalf of the entire society.
Tribals In Jharkhand: Challenges faced by the tribals in Jharkhand
- According to NFHS-5, the socio-economic condition of families of STs in Jharkhand is not at par with that of other families and there is a need for critical attention of the government for furthering the welfare of the STs of Jharkhand.
- Schedule Tribes households lag in aspects such as pucca houses, electricity, health and drinking water facilities.
- The non-existence of proper toilet facilities in the houses is reflective of their socio-economic situation.
- Pre-schooling of children and school attendance of school-going children are also very low.
- Malnutrition and undernourishment are also major causes of concern with respect to tribal children in Jharkhand.
- Prevalence of Naxalism and law and order problems are also crucial challenges to tribals in Jharkhand.
Naga Ceasefire Agreement
Relevance for UPSC Exam
General Studies III- Internal Security
The National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) has rued the lack of progress in the Naga peace process after 25 years of signing ceasefire agreement with the Central government.
The Naga Political Issue
- The Britishers annexed Assam in 1826, and in 1881and the Naga Hills became part of British India. The formation of the Naga Club in 1918, which told the Simon Commission in 1929 “to leave us alone to determine for ourselves as in ancient times” was the first sign of Naga resistance.
- In 1946 the Naga National Council (NNC) declared Nagaland an independent state on August 14, 1947 though after India’s independence in 1947, the Naga territory was initially a part of Assam.
- The NNC resolved to establish a “sovereign Naga state” and conducted a “referendum” in 1951, in which “99 per cent” supported an “independent” Nagaland.
- On March 22, 1952, the Naga Federal Government (NFG) and the Naga Federal Army (NFA) were formed. The Government of India sent in the Army to crush the insurgency and, in 1958, enacted the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
- In 1957, an agreement was between Naga leaders/groups and the Indian government amalgamated the Naga Hills region of Assam and the Tuensang frontier division to the northeast together under a single unit directly administered by the Indian government.
- Nagaland achieved statehood in 1963, though the rebel activities continued.
- The Naga groups include- Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland-NK (NSCN), Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland- Reformation (NSCN-R) and Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland-K-Khango (NSCN-K-Khango) and are breakaway factions of National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-IM) and National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K).
The Naga Ceasefire Agreement
- The NSCN-IM (Isak-Muivah faction-extremist) signed a ceasefire agreement with the Centre in 1997 when the peace talks began.
- The Union government had signed a framework agreement with the NSCN-IM in 2015 to find a solution to the Naga political issue though the negotiations are yet to be concluded.
- Interlocutor R.N. Ravi signed the agreement on behalf of the Centre in presence of PM Modi. The other two signatories were leader of NSCN(IM) i.e., Isak Chishi Swu, who died in 2016 and Thuingaleng Muivah (86) who is leading the talks.
- The Government of India recognized the unique history, culture and position of the Nagas and their sentiments and aspirations. The NSCN(IM) also appreciated the Indian political system and governance. Both sides agreed for concluding an accord in October 2019, which would settle all Naga issues
- It shows the governments strong intent to resolve the long-standing issue and adoption of diplomatic peaceful approach by Naga Society to fulfil their aspirations.
- The details of the agreement have not been made public by the government citing security reasons
- Despite of conclusion of successful talks on the government’s deadline of October 31, 2019, no accord was signed.
- The negotiations hit an impasse in 2020 with differences cropping up between NSCN-IM and interlocutor Ravi. Subsequently, NSCN-IM demanded the removal of Mr. Ravi as interlocutor.
- The then Joint Intelligence Chief R.N. Ravi noticed the difference in understanding the Framework Agreement as was evident from the group’s insistence on a Naga constitution, and demand for a Greater Nagalimstretching beyond the boundaries of the present Nagaland state.
- In November 2017, Ravi signed an agreement with seven groups who had come together under the banner of the Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs), which did not include the NSCN (IM) which considers itself the principal representative of Naga aspirations and has been a rival of many of the NNPG groups. In a letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2020, the IM accused Ravi of attempting to “segregate the Naga civil society”.
- After becoming Nagaland Governor in 2019, Ravi accused NSCN (IM) for delaying the settlement by raising the contentious symbolic issues of separate Naga national flag and constitution.
- Ravi’s open criticism made the NSCN(IM) publicly harden its position with pushing the demand of Naga flag and Naga constitution as non-negotiable.
- NSCN(IM) claimed the framework agreement included the idea of unification of all Naga inhabited areas in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Manipur and accused Ravi of twisting the document by deleting key words that suggested Nagaland would co-exist with India as a sovereign.
- This led to the demand of removal of Ravi which was eventually implemented.
Complexities in Nagaland Issue
- NSCN(IM) is in a delicate position and it is difficult to abandon the demand for a Greater Nagalim but India cannot accept that demand.
- Naga flag and Naga constitution which is one of the core demands of NSCN(IM) cannot be accepted by Indian Government given the abrogation of Article 370 (Special status to Jammu & Kashmir) in August 2019.
- Some demands that need discussion are
- Bicameral Assembly with at least 40 nominated members representing different tribes;
- Absorption of cadres as local armed forces or in the Indian paramilitary;
- Setting up of autonomous councils in Naga-dominated areas of neighbouring states;
- Use of the Naga flag for at least customary events.
What can be done?
- Any moves to alter boundaries will intensify ethnic conflicts and insurgencies beyond Nagaland and thus proper consultations and dialogues must be in line before taking any step further.
- The accord should be concluded only after consulting the states like Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh which have a stake in the matter.
- The Central government needs reiterate its commitment of finalizing the Naga accord while seeking to re-engage with the NSCN (I-M) without giving in to its arbitrary demands.
Global Engagement Scheme
Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Global Engagement Scheme in News
- Recently, Union minister for Culture, Tourism provided various details about Global Engagement Scheme in Lok Sabha.
Global Engagement Scheme
- About: Under Global Engagement Scheme, Festivals of India are organized in other countries showcasing folk art and other cultural events as exhibitions, dance, music, theatre, food fest, literary fest, film fest, yoga etc.
- Parent Ministry: Global Engagement Scheme is being implemented by the ministry of Culture.
- Grants Under the Scheme: Under the scheme, Ministry of Culture also gives Grant-in-aid to Indo- Foreign Friendship Cultural Societies for organizing programmes and activities including folk art and other cultural activities for their promotion abroad.
- Components of the Scheme: Global Engagement Scheme has following three components-
- Festival of India
- Grant-in-Aid Indian Foreign Cultural Societies Scheme
- Contribution Grants ( Contribution to Indian Organizations and Delegations under CEP). This component is meant for-
- Indian Contribution towards membership of International Organizations like ICROM, UNESCO, World Heritage Fund and
- Facilitate Indian Participation and Hosting of International Meetings.
Promotion of Indian Culture in the Country- Zonal Cultural Centers (ZCCs)
- Zonal Cultural Centers (ZCCs): Seven Zonal Cultural Centers (ZCCs) have been set up by the government to protect, preserve and promote various forms of folk art and culture throughout the country.
- Headquarters of these Zonal Cultural Centers (ZCCs) are located at Patiala, Nagpur, Udaipur, Prayagraj, Kolkata, Dimapur and Thanjavur.
- Key Role: The folk artists from all over India are engaged to perform in the festivals and Programmes organized by these ZCCs regularly in all States/Union Territories of India.
- Besides, the folk artists are also sent abroad to perform in Festivals of India.
- Incentives like Dearness allowance, honorarium, board & lodging, local & international travel are provided to these artists by the respective ZCCs and Ministry of Culture.
Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’
Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’ – Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper 3: Security- Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’ in News
- The 4th Edition of India Oman Joint Military Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’ between contingents of Indian Army and the Royal Army of Oman is scheduled to take place from 01 to 13 August 2022.
Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’
- About: Exercise Al NAJAH-IV is a joint military exercise between Indian Army and Royal Army of Oman.
- The previous edition of the exercise ‘Al Najah IV’ was organised in Muscat in 2019.
- Location: Exercise Al NAJAH-IV 2022 is being taking place at the Foreign Training Node of Mahajan Field Firing Ranges (Rajasthan).
- Mandate: Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’ aims to enhance the level of defence co-operation between Indian Army and Royal Army of Oman and will further manifest in enhancing the bilateral relations between the two nations.
- Scope: The scope of the ‘AL NAJAH-IV’ exercise includes professional interaction, mutual understanding of drills & procedures, establishment of joint command & control structures and elimination of terrorist threats.
- Focus Areas: The joint exercise would focus on-
- Counter Terrorism Operations,
- Regional Security Operations,
- Peace Keeping Operations under United Nations charter
- Organising joint physical training schedules, tactical drills, techniques and procedures.
- Representation: In the Exercise ‘AL NAJAH-IV’, Royal Army of Oman contingent is represented by 60 personnel from the Sultan of Oman Parachute Regiment.
- The Indian Army is represented by troops from the 18 Mechanised Infantry Battalion.
- Key Activities: A comprehensive training programme to culminate in a 48 hours long validation exercise involving establishing of-
- Joint mobile vehicle check posts,
- Joint cordon and search operations and
- Joint room intervention drills in a built up area.