Yojana Magazine is a very important and indispensable source for UPSC Civil Services Exam Preparation. Here, we come with ”Analysis Of Yojana Magazine” which covers the monthly Yojana Magazine keeping in mind the demand of UPSC, particularly from the topics of important government schemes.
In ‘‘Analysis Of Yojana Magazine,” we cover each and every topic of the Yojana edition of a particular month and provide an easy-to-understand gist.
This topic-wise analysis is prepared from the July 2022 edition of the monthly Yojana Magazine.
Tribals In Jharkhand: Introduction
- The state of Jharkhand came into emergence on 15th November, 2001. The population of Jharkhand in mainly comprised of tribal people.
- There are more the 30 distinct tribal communities in Jharkhand and these tribes are grouped under the ‘scheduled tribes’ group of the Jharkhand populace. These tribes are separated on the basis of their language and cultural preferences. Banjara is one such tribe in Jharkhand.
- 76% of Jharkhand households are in the rural areas and about 28% of the households belong to the Scheduled Tribes.
- This mineral-rich state is home to tribes like: ASUR, BAIGA, BANJARA, BIRHOR, BIRJIA, CHERO, CHICK BARAIK, GOND, GORAIT, HO, KARMALI, KHARWAR, MUNDA, ORAON, etc.
Tribals In Jharkhand: Important tribals in Jharkhand
- Asur is an important tribe in the state of Jharkhand in the eastern part of the subcontinent of India. Asur in Jharkhand is one of the thirty major tribes of people who have made the state of Jharkhand their home. The people who belong to this tribe form quite a big part of the total population of the state of Jharkhand. They thrive mostly on the flesh of animals and birds and rice.
- The total population of the tribal group of Asur is 7783(0.13 % of the total population of the state).
- The people of the tribe of Baiga in Jharkhand inhabit in a particular district of the state. The name of this district of Jharkhand is the Garwah district.
The people who belong to the tribe of Baiga constitute a Kolerian ethnic community. The name of this tribe of Jharkhand has quite a few meanings. One of them is ‘ojha’ or a person who makes medicines. Many of the people who belong to the Baiga tribe make medicines by profession, though their chief traditional occupation has been shifting cultivation.
- Though smallest in number, the Banjara tribe in Jharkhand is a recognized part of the tribal community. Unlike the Banjara tribe of Rajasthan, the Banjaras of Jharkhand lead a settled life. They generally live in thatched huts with kuchcha walls.
- The colorful lives of the Banjaras now have become the source of entertainment to the entire state. Tribal festivals like Sarhul, Tusu and Sohrai are celebrated throughout the state. Banjara music and dances like Chaw, Natua, Ghatwari and Matha now-a-days has become sources of recreation even to the tourist to Jharkhand.
- Birhor is one of the primitive tribes in Jharkhand. In Jharkhand, Birhor are found in the Palamu, Garhwa, Dhanbad, Singhbhum, Giridih, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Gumla, etc. Birhor at Jharkhand belong to the Proto-Australoid stock; linguistically, they originate from the Austro-Asiatic group.
- Birhor tribe of Jharkhand consider themselves as the descendants of the Sun.
- In Jharkhand, the Birhor tribe is divided into two major sub-tribes, namely Jaghis Birhor and Uthalu Birhor.
- The Birjia tribe of Jharkhand is found in the districts of Ranchi, Gumla, Palamu and Lohardaga. In Jharkhand, Birjias live in small huts made of bamboo, wood or mud, which are located in the hills or the plains adjoining these hills.
- The Birjia tribe possesses a patriarchal society: a Birjia family is usually a nuclear family with father as the head of the family. Moreover, the Birjia society is known as a monogamous society, yet the prevalence of bigamy cannot be overruled.
- The Chero are one of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand. In Jharkhand, Chero dwell in the districts of Ranchi, SathalPargana, Latehar and Palamu.
- Chero, also known as Cherwas or Cherus, was a martial group that annexed many new territories through war. They are said to be descendants of the Kshatriya lineage known as Chandravanshi.
- The Chero tribe of Jharkhand is divided into two endogamous groups, namely Terahazari and Barahazari and is also divided into a number of clans said to follow endogamy and exogamy.
Among the major clans of Chero are:
· Manjhia, etc.
Among the important crops that form an integral part of agricultural yields are:
· Paddy, etc.
The Chick Baraik of Jharkhand is found in Ranchi, Lohardaga and Gumla districts. The Chick Baraik in Jharkhand belongs to the Proto-Australoid and speaks Mundari, Hindi and Sadani languages. The Chick Baraik tribe presents a picture of communal harmony. In Jharkhand, the Chick Baraiks do not dwell in a separate village but live with the other tribes and castes within the same village
- The Gonds originally belong to Madhya Pradesh: but, in Jharkhand, Gond belongs to Palamu, Singhbhum and Ranchi districts. The Gond of Jharkhand, linguistically, belongs to the Dravidian race; but, racially, the Gond at Jharkhand hail from Proto-Australoid stock.
- According to the common belief, the Gond tribe belongs to a martial group, who trace their descent from the Kshatriyas. They are said to have migrated in the Central province in the 14th century, legends opine that the Gonds hailed from the South through Bustar and Chanda.
The Gorait at Jharkhand belong to the Austric racial group and are found scattered in the districts of Dhanbad, Palamu, Ranchi, SathalPargana, Singhbhum and Hazaribagh. Linguistically, the Gorait belong to the Proto-Australoid group.
Pradhan is the head of the society, the Pradhan works in close association with the other members of the panchayat.
- They are the most populous tribal groups in north-east India.
- Oraons are considered to be related to proto-Australoids and have been inhabiting the land since the pre-Dravidian era.
- The lingo that has been accepted by the population of the Oraon tribe in Jharkhand is Kurukh. This language has originated from the Dravidian family of languages and bears significant similitude with other contemporary dialects like Brahui and Malto.
- The religion followed by huge fraction of the Oraon people is Sarna. The rest have, however, have chosen to embrace Christianity.
- They have the most primitive caste system among the oldest tribes.
- They are also one of the largest tribal groups in India.
- The abode of the members of the extremely cherished Munda tribe is not confined to the borders of the state of Jharkhand. The Munda people have also penetrated into other beleaguering states of Orissa, Chattisgarh, Bihar and West Bengal.
- Many of the agricultural implements mentioned in Vedic literature such as langala, or hula (plough) and kuddala (spade), are of the etymological origin of the Munda tribe.
- A conspicuous dialect(Mundari) and a unique life-style.
- The religion that is followed by a quarter of the population of Munda of Jharkhand is Christianity. However, they also have evolved their own religion known as Sarna. They consider the celestial bodies like the moon, sun and the planets to be holy and ‘Sing Bonga’ or the ‘Sun God’ is their principal deity.
- The Ho is one of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand. The Ho in Jharkhand belong to Proto-Australoid stock and speak Ho and Hindi languages: a corrupt version of Bengali is also spoken by the Hos of Jharkhand.
- In Jharkhand, Ho tribe dwells near the rivers, river terraces or by the side of the springs.
- The Ho at Jharkhand is known to possess a panchayat-based administration where the Manki, the head of the panchayat, takes decisions on behalf of the entire society.
Tribals In Jharkhand: Challenges faced by the tribals in Jharkhand
- According to NFHS-5, the socio-economic condition of families of STs in Jharkhand is not at par with that of other families and there is a need for critical attention of the government for furthering the welfare of the STs of Jharkhand.
- Schedule Tribes households lag in aspects such as pucca houses, electricity, health and drinking water facilities.
- The non-existence of proper toilet facilities in the houses is reflective of their socio-economic situation.
- Pre-schooling of children and school attendance of school-going children are also very low.
- Malnutrition and undernourishment are also major causes of concern with respect to tribal children in Jharkhand.
- Prevalence of Naxalism and law and order problems are also crucial challenges to tribals in Jharkhand.