- GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
What is UNFCCC?
- The UNFCCC (for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) is the United Nations based framework that support the global response to the threat of climate change.
- It was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.
- The original secretariat was in Geneva. Since 1995, the secretariat has been located in Bonn, Germany.
- The Convention has near universal membership (197 Parties) and is the parent treaty of the 2015 Paris Agreement and 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
- UNFCCC established an international environmental treaty to combat “dangerous human interference with the climate system”, in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.
- UNFCCC treaty is considered a legally non-binding agreement.
What is Conference of the Parties (COP)?
- Article 7.2 of the convention defines the COP as the “supreme body” of the Convention, as it is its highest decision-making authority. The climate change process revolves around the annual sessions of the COP.
Timeline of important COPs
|UNFCCC COPs||Year||Venue||Landmark decisions|
|UNFCCC COP 1||1995||Berlin, Germany||—|
|UNFCCC COP 3||1997||Kyoto, Japan||Kyoto protocol adopted|
|UNFCCC COP 7||2001||Marrakesh, Morocco||Marrakesh Accords—the most detailed outline of the rules and procedures for the functioning of the global carbon market instruments like International Emissions Trading, the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation|
|UNFCCC COP 8||2002||New Delhi, India||Delhi Declaration: focussed on the development needs of the poorest countries and the need for transfer of technology to mitigate climate change.|
|UNFCCC COP11/CMP1||2005||Montreal, Canada||First session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.|
|UNFCCC COP13||2007||Bali, Indonesia||Bali Road Map and Bali action plan: charing the way for a post-2012 outcome.|
|UNFCCC COP 14||2008||Poznan, Poland||Adaptation Fund under the Kyoto Protocol launched.|
|UNFCCC COP15||2009||Copenhagen, Denmark||Copenhagen Accord drafted. A five nation accord between US and BASIC countries (India, China, Brazil and South Africa). Developed countries promised to provide $30 billion for the period 2010-12 and to mobilize long term finance of further $100 billion a year by 2020.|
|UNFCCC COP 16||2010||Cancun, Mexico||Green Climate Fund (GCF) established to assist developing nations in dealing with climate change. GCF was intended to raise climate finance of $ 100 billion by 2020.|
|UNFCCC COP 17||2011||Durban, South Africa||A new commitment to form a universal climate change agreement by 2015 for the period beyond 2020. This agreement effectively resulted in the Paris Agreement of 2015.|
|UNFCCC COP 18||2012||Doha, Qatar||Doha Agreement: Agreement to extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol. Climate Technology Centre (CTC) was established as an implementation arm of the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism.|
|UNFCCC COP 19||2013||Warsaw, Poland||Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) term was coined here.|
|UNFCCC COP 20||2014||Lima, Peru||National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) should be prepared by the government. Launch of NAZCA Climate Action Portal.|
|UNFCCC COP 21||2015||Paris, France||Paris Agreement adopted.
Global Stocktake to be created every 5 years to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the Paris Agreement.
|UNFCCC COP 22||2016||Marrakech, Morocco||Adaptation of African Agriculture (AAA) was launched at the Conference. Deliberations on “Orphan Issues”.|
|UNFCCC COP 23||2017||Bonn, Germany. (Chaired by Fiji)||Gender Action Plan was launched. Ocean Pathway Partnership was launched, Talanoa Dialogue, Powering Past Coal Alliance.|
|UNFCCC COP 24||2018||Katowice, Poland||——|
|UNFCCC COP 25||2019||Madrid, Spain||Establishment of Santiago Network.|
|UNFCCC COP 26||2021||Glasgow, UK||Glasgow summit|