Second Carnatic War- Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper 2: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
2nd Carnatic War- Background
- First Carnatic War did not end the Anglo-French Rivalry in India as peace in India was short-lived due to many reasons.
Key Facts about 2nd Carnatic War
- When 2nd Carnatic War was fought?
- Second Carnatic war was fought between 1749-54.
- Where Second Carnatic War was fought?
- 2nd Carnatic War was fought Carnatic Region of Southern India.
- Who were involved in the Second Carnatic War?
- 2nd Carnatic War was fought between different claimants to the posts of Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Carnatic who were either supported by the French or Britishers.
- What was the Outcome of the Second Carnatic War?
- Second Carnatic war resulted in the victory of Muzaffar Jung, who became Hyderabad’s Nizam and Muhammad Ali, who became the Nawab of the Carnatic.
Why Second Carnatic War was fought?
- Succession Battle for Nizam of Hyderabad: Nizam-ul-Mulk, semi-independent Nawab of Hyderabad died in 1748. He was also the Mughal governor of the Deccan.
- His death led to a succession battle among various contenders. French and British supported them to ensure their influence over the throne of Nizam.
- This led to Anglo-French rivalry in the Deccan region.
- Aspirations of Dupleix: Dupleix, the French governor who successfully led the French side in the first Carnatic war, wanted to enhance French influence in the region.
- With the above aim, he started interfering in the local affairs of the Nawabs and Nizams, especially directed to reduce the English influence in India.
Course of Second Carnatic War
- Coincidence: The death of Nizam-ul-Mulk, the founder of Independent Hyderabad and the release of the Chanda Sahib, the son-in-law of Dost Ali, the Nawab of Carnatic, by the Marathas coincided.
- Battle for the Post of Nizam of Hyderabad: For the throne of Nawab, there were following two contestants-
- Nasir Jang, the son of the Nizam: He laid the claim to the throne as he was the successor of Nizam.
- Muzaffar Jang, the grandson of the Nawab: He laid claim to the throne saying that the Mughal Emperor had appointed him as the governor of Hyderabad.
- Contestant for the post of Nawab of Carnatic: Nawabship of the Carnatic was a subsidiary post officially dependent on the Nizam, for which there were the following two contestants-
- Anwar-ud-Din: he had only been appointed Nawab of the Carnatic in 1743 which was resented by Chanda Sahib.
- Chanda Sahib: He was the son-in-law of a previous Nawab of the Carnatic, Dost Ali (1732-39).
- European Support: The French, led by Dupleix supported the claims of Muzaffar Jang (Deccan) and Chanda Sahib (Carnatic), while the English sided with Nasir Jang (Decan) and Anwar-ud-din (Carnatic).
- Battle of Ambur: French allied with the combined armies of Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib and killed Anwar- ud-din at the Battle of Ambur (near Vellore) in 1749.
- Muzaffar Jung was made Nizam of Hyderabad and subahdar of Deccan.
- Dupleix was appointed governor of all the Mughal territories to the south of the River Krishna.
- After Anwaruddin Khan’s death, his son Muhammad Ali fled to Trichy. Chanda Sahib was proclaimed the Nawab of the Carnatic.
- Battle of Arcot: Britishers failed to provide adequate support to Muhammad Ali at Trichinopoly. Now, Robert Clive (Led Britishers) planned a surprise attack on Arcot(the capital of the Carnatic) to divert the pressure from Trichinopoly.
- After several battles, Chanda Sahib was killed and Muhammad Ali was made Nawab of the Carnatic.
- Through this surprise raid, the British won over the French and Chanda Sahib.
Outcome of Second Carnatic War
- French Influence over Nizam: Muzaffar Jung was killed a couple of months later and the French installed Muzaffar’s uncle Salabat Jung as the new Nizam of Hyderabad.
- British Influence over Carnatic: British supported Muhammad Ali became the Nawab of Carnatic.
- Decline of French Power: due to the heavy financial losses that Dupleix’s policy involved, the French authorities decided to recall him in 1754.
- Charles Robert Godeheu was made the new French Governor-General in India who adopted the policy of negotiations and signed the Treaty of Pondicherry with Britishers.
- Treaty of Pondicherry: the English and the French agreed not to interfere in the quarrels of native princes. Each party was left in possession of the territories actually occupied by them at the time of the treaty
- India Rulers became Client of European Powers: Muhammad Ali in the Carnatic and Salabat Jang in Hyderabad became clients rather than patrons.