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First Carnatic War | Modern Indian History

First Carnatic War- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

First Carnatic War | Modern Indian History_40.1

 

First Carnatic War (1746-48)- Background

  • The First Carnatic war was a result of Anglo-French rivalry in Europe and ambition to achieve dominance in India.
  • The Austrian War of Succession broke out in 1740 in Europe which gave rise to Anglo-French rivalry in India.
  • French Domination in the 18th century led to commercial and maritime rivalry between France and England around the world including in India.
  • French-British rivalry in India manifested during succession disputes among rajas, nawabs and chieftains of south India.

First Carnatic War | Modern Indian History_50.1

 

First Carnatic War- Key Details

  • First Carnatic War Duration: Though various events culminating in the first Carnatic war started in 1740 but the actual war took place between 1746-48.
  • Parties Involved: French and English, Anwar-ud-Din (Nawab of Carnatic).
  • Key Causes:
    • Austrian War of Succession
    • To establish domination over India

Battle of Plassey 1757: Background, Causes and Impact on Indian Polity and Economy

 

First Carnatic War- Course of War

  • Provocation: English Navy under Commodore Curtis Bennett seized some French ships near madras coast and provoked the French governor Marquis Joseph-François Dupleix.
  • Role of Nawab of Carnatic: Dupleix appealed for protection from Anwar-ud-Din (Nawab of Carnatic). Nawab warned the British that his province was neutral territory.
    • He also warned Britishers that no attack on French possessions would be tolerated.
  • French Capture of Madras: Dupleix invited French troops from Mauritius navy and captured Madras from English. English in turn made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Pondicherry.
  • Battle of St. Thome: English pleaded with the Nawab of Carnatic to liberate Madras from French control. Nawab asked French to return it to English.
    • Indian French Governor Dupleix denied Nawab’s request and tried convincing the Nawab unsuccessfully that Madras would be handed over to him at a later stage.
    • This led to the Battle of St. Thames on the banks of river Adiyar.
    • The Battle of St. Thames was fought between a 10000 large force of Nawab, led by Mahfouz Khan (the Commander-in-Chief of Anwaruddin) and a small French army under Captain Paradise.
    • A small French army defeated a large army of Nawab of Carnatic.
  • Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle: It was signed in 1748, ending the first Carnatic war in India. Treaty of Aix-La Chapellebrought the Austrian War of Succession to a conclusion.
    • Outcome: Madras was handed back to the English, and the French, in turn, got their territories in North America.

Battle of Buxar 1764

 

First Carnatic War- Significance

  • Proved Superiority of Europeans: This was proved when a small French Army defeated a large army of Nawab of Carnatic.
  • Importance of Navy: Superior French Navy helped in defending the French territories in India against English, manifesting the importance of the Naval power in the Anglo-French Rivalry.

 

Treaty of Allahabad 1765

Treaty of Allahabad 1765

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