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Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 1: Indian History- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

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Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya- Context

  • Recently, the Prime Minister of India paid tribute to Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya on his Death Anniversary (Punya Tithi).

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Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya- Key Points

  • Birth: Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was born in 1916 in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh. His father’s name was Bhagwati Prasad, an astrologer, and his mother Rampyari was a religious woman.
  • About: Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was an Indian politician and most important leader of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
    • He was also the forerunner of the present-day Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
  • Education: Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya completed his intermediate education at Birla College, Pilani, and his Bachelors in Arts at Sanatan Dharma College, Kanpur, in 1939.
    • He came in contact with RSS at this college through his classmate Baluji Mahashabde.
    • Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya pursued his master’s degree from St John’s College in Agra but didn’t complete it.

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Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya- Key Philosophies

  • Integral humanism: Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya defines it as “a classless, casteless and conflict-free social order”.
    • The concept of Integral Humanism talks about the integration of indigenous “Indian culture” with the social, political, and economic fabric of the nation.
    • The Philosophy of Integral Humanism provides for a holistic approach towards human welfare.
    • It envisions that happiness can be achieved through a synthesis of materialism, spiritualism and cautious desire.
  • The idea of Bharat: Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya wanted to decolonize Indian political thought as he felt that the Indian intellect was getting suffocated by Western theories.
    • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay believed that western intellectual colonization of Indian intellect has left a roadblock to the growth and expansion of the original Bharatiya.
    • He did welcome modern technology, if, it is to be adapted to suit the Indian requirements.
  • Polity: Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya visualized for India a decentralized polity and self-reliant economy with the village as the base.
    • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was against caste polarisation in politics and identity-based voting.
    • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya wanted people to do their duty while exercising their franchise “in a judicious and intelligent manner”.
  • Welfare of People: Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was against the left-right division. He believed it is detrimental to the growth of a constructive, transformative pro-people ideology.
    • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya strongly believed that politics must be controlled by the masses, and not the wealthy.
    • He was not in favour of Neoliberalism. He believed it could challenge democracy.
    • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya emphasized that people’s welfare should not be compromised for corporate interests.
    • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya pleaded for diversities in economic and social philosophies against a single meta-narrative ruling the world or a nation.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy- Indian Social Reformer


Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya- Key Literary Works

  • He started Rashtra Dharma from Lucknow in the 1940s. It was meant for spreading the ideology of Hindutva nationalism.
  • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya also started the weekly “Panchjanya” and then the daily “Swadesh”.
  • Other Important Literary Work:
    • Samrat Chandragupta (1946)
    • Jagatguru Shankaracharya (1947)
    • Akhand Bharat Kyon? (1952)
    • Bharatiya Arthniti: Vikas Ki Disha (1958)
    • The Two Plans: Promises, Performances, Prospects (1958)
    • Rashtra Jivan Ki Samasyayen (1960)
    • Devaluation: A Great Fall (1966)
    • Political Diary (1968)
    • Rashtra Chintan
    • Integral Humanism
    • Rashtra Jivan Ki Disha

Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia


Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya- Various Scheme in the Name of Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya

  • Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY).
  • Deendayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY)
  • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya Shramev Jayate Karyakram.
  • Deendayal Upadhyaya Swaniyojan Yojana (DUSY).
  • Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana.


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