- GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
- The Union Government has released National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
- NAPCC was launched by the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change.
- The NAPCC identifies measures that promote development objectives while also yielding co-benefits for addressing climate change effectively.
- There are eight “National Missions” which form the core of the National action plan. They focus on promoting understanding of climate change, adaptation and mitigation, energy efficiency and natural resource conservation.”
- Protection of the poor through inclusive and sustainable development strategy.
- Qualitative change in the method through which the national growth objectives will be achieved.
- Demand side management through cost effective strategies for end use
- Deployment of appropriate technologies for adaptation, and mitigation of green-house gases (GHG).
- Innovative market, regulatory and voluntary mechanisms to promote Sustainable Development.
There are eight core missions under NAPCC
- National Solar Mission
- National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
- National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
- National Water Mission
- National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
- National Mission for A Green India
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
- National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
National Solar Mission
- The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options.
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
Building on the Energy Conservation Act 2001, the plan recommends:
- Mandating specific energy consumption decreases in large energy-consuming industries, with a system for companies to trade energy-savings certificates;
- Energy incentives, including reduced taxes on energy-efficient appliances;
- and Financing for public-private partnerships to reduce energy consumption through demand-side management programs in the municipal, buildings and agricultural sectors.
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plan calls for:
- Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code;
- A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste;
- Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and Incentives for the use of public transportation.
National Water Mission
- With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures.
National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
- The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming.
National Mission for a “Green India”
- Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
- The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
- To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modelling, and increased international collaboration.
- It also encourages private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.