Relevance of ‘Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) at COP 15’ for UPSC
Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) at COP 15: For UPSC examination purpose, COP 15 of Convention on Biodiversity and related happenings are must read for every serious aspirant.
Post-2020 GBF and related decisions mark an important point of progress at COP 15, so it is important for both UPSC Pre and Mains examination 2023-24.
It is also an important part of GS 2: Important International Institutions and GS 3: Environmental Conservation.
Also Read: What is COP 15 of Convention on Biodiversity(CBD)?
Why Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) in News?
- The UN Biodiversity Conference, COP15 had been held in Montreal from December 07 to 19, 2022.
- Nearing the conclusion of this two-week meeting, 190 + countries have adopted a landmark biodiversity pact to restore natural ecosystems.
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Know about COP 15
- Convened under UN auspices, chaired by China, and hosted by Canada, the 15th Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF), including four goals and 23 targets for achievement by 2030.
- COP15 had representatives of 188 governments on site and agreed on the framework that hopes to arrest the ongoing loss of terrestrial and marine biodiversity.
Also Read: What is the Focus of COP 27?
What is Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework?
- The Global Biodiversity Framework is considered equivalent to the Paris Agreement on climate change in terms of its significance for protecting biodiversity.
- The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) December 19, 2022. The framework has 23 targets that the world needs to achieve by 2030.
- The targets are ambitious, considering that biodiversity is in a poor state. In 2020, the world had failed to meet the last set of targets, the Aichi Targets. Countries would need to ensure success this time round.
- This agreement means people around the world can hope for real progress to halt biodiversity loss and protect and restore our lands and seas in a way that safeguards our planet and respects the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities.
Also Read: Conversation on Wetland Conservation at COP14 | Ramsar COP
Key Points about Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)
- Through Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), countries agreed to protect 30 percent of the planet by 2030.
- The countries pledged to achieve 23 targets to reverse ecosystem degradation under four overarching goals for the survival of the natural world.
- Under the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), countries also agreed to reduce harmful government subsidies worth 500 billion dollars annually, while vowing to identify subsidies that are harmful to biodiversity by 2025.
- Its other targets include reducing the use of pesticides by half and raising annual international financial flows from developed to developing countries to at least 20 billion dollars by 2025, and to at least 30 billion dollars by 2030.
How will Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) Impact India?
- The Global Biodiversity Plan gives India legroom on farm subsidies.
- The GBF gives elbow space to India both in terms of continuing farm subsidies and pesticide use.
- This has been a priority for India, which has been voluntarily pitching for natural farming in a big way.
- Also, suggestions from India for keeping all the goals and targets, globally, were accepted, along with other propositions.
- The most significant contribution of the Indian interventions was that all targets are kept global in nature and countries will be free to adopt them according to their circumstances, priorities, and capabilities.
Know About the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- Opened for signature in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, and entering into force in December 1993, the CBD is an international treaty for the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of the components of biodiversity and the equitable sharing of the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources.
- With 196 Parties, the CBD has near universal participation among countries. The Convention seeks to address all threats to biodiversity and ecosystem services,including:
- threats from climate change, through scientific assessments,
- the development of tools, incentives and processes,
- the transfer of technologies and good practices and
- the full and active involvement of relevant stakeholders including indigenous peoples and local communities, youth, women, NGOs, sub-national actors and the business community.
- The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing are supplementary agreements to the CBD.
- Cartagena Protocol: The Cartagena Protocol, which entered into force 11 September 2003, seeks to protect biodiversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. To date, 173 Parties have ratified the Cartagena Protocol.
- The Nagoya Protocol: The Nagoya Protocol aims to hare the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies. Entering into force 12 October 2014, it has been ratified by 135 Parties.
Also Read: COP27 to Create a Special Loss and Damage Fund | Today’s The Hindu Editorial Analysis for UPSC
Environment and Ecology current affairs:
FAQs on Landmark Biodiversity Pact at COP 15
Q. What is CBD?
- The CBD is an international legally binding treaty, which commits governments worldwide to safeguard biodiversity.
- It covers all life on Earth – ecosystems, animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms and focuses on achieving sustainable development – that is, human progress without threatening biodiversity.
- The CBD was signed in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993.
Q. Which are Aichi targets?
- The Aichi Biodiversity Targets are an ambitious set of global goals aimed at protecting and conserving global biodiversity.
- They are twenty actions adopted under ‘Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.
Q. What is Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)?
- The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) December 19, 2022.
- The framework has 4 goals and 23 targets that the world needs to achieve by 2030.