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India-China Face Off in Tawang: know Everything for UPSC

Relevance of ”India-China Face Off in Tawang” for UPSC


India-China Face Off in Tawang: India-China Face Off in Tawang covers GS 2: IR & GS 3: Internal Security for UPSC CSE. 

India-China Face Off in Tawang is also important for UPSC CSE Prelims Examination 2023: So, knowing key facts about LAC, Disputed Areas between India & China, Major Wars between India & China, Recent Stand Offs and Face Offs, Diplomatic Engagement etc. important.


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Why in news?


  • The clash between the Indian Army and China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) troops at the Tawang sector of Arunachal Pradesh took place on December 9, 2022.
  • This recent clash along LAC was triggered after a large Chinese patrol attempted to transgress the Line of Actual Control (LAC).


Background of India-China Face Off


  • The latest India-China Face Off in Tawang Sector is the first such incident after the June, 2020 episode when 20 Indian soldiers were killed in Galwan Valley.
  • This incident came days after China expressed objection to Operation Yudhabhyas, an India-US joint military exercise at Auli in the Uttarakhand hills, claiming it was a violation of 1993 and 1996 border agreements.


Where, What & When of India-China Face Off in Tawang?


  • The India-China Face Off incident occurred at the disputed Yangtse area in Tawang.
  • This part of the LAC is one of the “agreed disputed areas” between the two sides.
  • The incident took place when “the Indian troops were following the routine pre-decided patrolling format”.
  • The clash took place at about 3 am on December 9.
  • Indian and Chinese troops are positioned on either side of the nullah, but at 3 am in morning, some 300 Chinese troops came into the Indian side.
  • However, the Indian troops contested the PLA attempts in a “firm and resolute manner”.
  • The Chinese troops reportedly initiated an argument over the patrolling area, which the Indian troops had objected to.
  • There were no warning signs about the transgression and hearing the sentries being assaulted, some 70 to 80 Indian troops mobilised quickly in the dead of night to push back the intruders.
  • There was intense hand-to-hand combat with sticks and canes for a few hours, according to sources.
  • So, the altercation triggered the clash, which lasted for several hours.

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What Kind of Loss and Damage done during India-China Face Off in Tawang Sector?


  • During India-China Face Off in Tawang on December 09, 2022, Soldiers from both sides suffered minor injuries Personnel from both sides suffered minor injuries during the clash.
  • However, the number of troops injured in the clash is unclear.

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What is the Post Face Off Situation along LAC?


  • After Face Off both sides immediately disengaged from the area.
  • As a follow-up, our Indian commander in the area held a flag meeting with his counterpart to discuss the issue in accordance with structured mechanisms to restore peace and tranquility.

Also Read: China-Taiwan Conflict


How recent India-China Face Off shows a changed pattern of Chinese Transgression along LAC?


  • There has been a change in the pattern of PLA patrols, with large-size patrols coming now to assert their claim.
  • Before the 2020 standoff in eastern Ladakh, Chinese bases have largely been much farther from the LAC.
  • Majority of the transgressions in the last few years are in the western sector while there is an increasing trend of transgressions in the eastern and middle sectors.

How LAC is Divided?

  • The LAC is divided into western (Ladakh), middle (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand), Sikkim, and eastern (Arunachal Pradesh) sectors.
  • In eastern Ladakh, India and China are positioned in close proximity at multiple locations along the undefined LAC for more than two years.
  • While several rounds of talks at diplomatic and military levels have eased the stand-off at a few points, turning the areas into no-patrolling zones, there are others where the build-up continues.

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Which are the areas of dispute in Tawang?


  • Tawang has three mutually-accepted disputed areas.
  • In certain areas along the LAC in the Tawang sector, there are areas of differing perception, wherein both sides patrol the area up to their claim lines. This has been the trend since 2006.
  • Such face-offs in Yangtse have been a common feature twice a year— ahead of and post-winter — since 1999.
  • India dominates the ridge there and China perceives it as an intrusion, so attempts to show aggression.

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Tawang Sector and India-China Face Off


  • This is not the first time that the area in Arunachal Pradesh has seen a face-off between the Indian and Chinese troops.
  • Since the boundary is undefined, Indian and Chinese troops often face off while patrolling the area.
  • In October 2021, a similar incident had taken place when some Chinese soldiers of a large patrol team were detained for a few hours by the Indian Army as they engaged in a minor face-off near Yangtse.

How Strong are we in the Tawang Sector?

    • In the last few years, the Indian Army has significantly upgraded firepower and infrastructure along the LAC in the Tawang sector and a similar effort is under way in the rest of Arunachal Pradesh (RALP).
    • This includes road infrastructure, bridges, tunnels, habitat and other storage facilities, aviation facilities and upgradation of communications and surveillance, especially in the Upper Dibang Valley region.

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