UPSC Prelims Bits Today 28-09-2022

”UPSC Prelims Bits Today” covers various topics from UPSC Prelims Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants.
The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable.





  • DRDO conducted two successful test flight of Very Short Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missile on 27 Sep 2022 from a ground based portable launcher at the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, off the coast of Odisha.
  • VSHORADS is a Man Portable Air Defence System (MANPAD) designed and developed indigenously by DRDO’s Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Hyderabad in collaboration with other DRDO laboratories and Indian Industry Partners.
  • VSHORADS missile incorporates many novel technologies including miniaturized Reaction Control System (RCS) and integrated avionics, which have been successfully proven during the tests.
  • The missile, meant for neutralizing low altitude aerial threats at short ranges is propelled by a dual thrust solid motor. The design of the missile including launcher has been highly optimized to ensure easy portability.


The Doctrine of Rarest of Rare


What is it?

  • Death Penalty in India has been restricted to the “rarest of rare” cases.
  • Yet, there are still various statutes that prescribe capital punishment despite the offences not being serious enough.
  • Section 121 (waging war against the state), section 302 (murder), section 364A (kidnapping with ransom), etc. of the Indian Penal Code 1860 and other provisions like The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act 1987, Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002, etc. prescribe offences punishable with capital punishment.
  • The Doctrine of Rarest of Rare was established in the case of Bacchan v. State of Punjab.
  • The Supreme Court, in this case, endeavoured to cut out a doctrine particularly for offences culpable with death to decrease the ambiguity for courts regarding when to go for the highest punishment of the land.
  • By the majority of 4 to 1, the constitutionality of death penalty was upheld by the Supreme Court and a principle was laid down that death penalty must be surrounded only in the “rarest of rare cases.
  • The most common cases involving major death row convicts are terrorism and rape-cum murder cases.




What is Mankading?

  • The term comes from the name of the legendary former Indian cricketer Vinoo Mankad.
  • In 1947, when India were playing a series in Australia, Mankad dismissed opposition batsman Bill Brown twice by taking off the bails at the non-striker’s end before releasing the ball.
  • Mankad was attacked for allegedly violating the “spirit of cricket”, but he had run Brown out only after he had warned him against backing up too far ahead. Even though the name “Mankading” stuck, Sunil Gavaskar has referred to it as “Browned”.
  • Mankad received support from the great Don Bradman himself, who was then captain of Australia.
  • In March this year, the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC), custodian of the Laws of Cricket, accepted Mankading as a normal mode of running out the non-striker, removing it from Law 41 (Unfair play) and clubbing it with Law 38 (Run out).


Surjapuri and Bajjika dialects


What are the Surjapuri and Bajjika dialects?

  • Surjapuri is spoken mainly in Kishanganj and other parts of Seemanchal in northeastern Bihar, including the districts of Katihar, Purnia and Araria.
  • The dialect, a mix of Bangla, Urdu, and Hindi, is also spoken in contiguous parts of West Bengal.
  • The name Surjapuri comes from Surjapur pargana, which no longer exists. But there is a toll plaza called Surjapur between Purnia and Kishanganj.
  • Although Surjapuri has nothing specifically to do with religion, the largest share of speakers of the language is made up of Surjapuri Muslims, who live mainly in Kishanganj, the district that has about 70 per cent Muslim population.

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