UPSC Prelims Bits Today (20-09-2022)

UPSC Prelims Bits Today” is every day published in the morning between 11:00 AM to 12:00 Noon and contains selective current affairs articles. ”UPSC Prelims Bits Today” covers various topics from UPSC Prelims Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC Prelims Bits Todayarticle, we focus on UPSC Preliminary exam-oriented current affairs covering various sections from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.


Commonwealth of Nations


What is the Commonwealth?

  • The Commonwealth of Nations is a group of 56 countries comprised mostly of former British colonies. Members of the Commonwealth are predominantly located in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific, with many of them emerging economies.
  • The three European members of the group are Cyprus, Malta, and the U.K.
  • The developed nations of the Commonwealth are Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.

What are Republics & Realms?

  • The Commonwealth consists of both republics and realms. T
  • The British monarch is the Head of State for the realms, whereas the republics are ruled by elected governments, except in the the case of five countries — Brunei Darussalam, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malaysia, and Tonga — each a self-governed monarchy.
  • The realms are comprised of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu.


Ecological Niche Modelling


What is an Ecological niche?

  • An ecological niche is the right set of environmental conditions under which an animal or plant species will thrive. A range of ecological niches can occur within an ecosystem.
  • Biodiversity is the result of these niches being occupied by species that are uniquely suited to them.
  • Desert plants, for example, are suited for dry, arid ecological niches because they have the ability to store water in their leaves.

What is Ecological niche modelling?

  • Ecological niche modelling is a predictive tool for identifying new possibilities — new inhabitants for an existing habitat, or new geographical locations where a desirable plant may grow well.
  • The modelling involves the use of computer algorithms to compare data about the environment and to make forecasts about what would be ideal for a given ecological niche.


The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection Amendment) Model Amendment Rules, 2022


  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection Amendment) Model Amendment Rules 2022 modify several aspects of the JJ Act, including those governing adoption, foster care, sponsorship, as well as the eligibility criteria for CWCs.
  • The Model Rules state that a person associated with an organisation receiving foreign contribution shall not be eligible to be a Chairperson or member of the Committee.
  • It also states that anyone involved in the implementation of the JJ Act in any NGO or organisation that creates a conflict of interest will be ineligible to serve on a CWC.
  • Anyone involved in rescue and rehabilitation in the district, as well as anyone representing someone running a CCI or a member of the Board or Trust of any NGO, is not eligible to serve on a CWC.
  • Retired judicial officers have also been omitted from the category of persons who can be considered for appointment to a CWC.

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