”UPSC Prelims Bits For Today” is every day published in the morning between 11:00 AM to 12:00 Noon and contains selective current affairs articles. ”UPSC Prelims Bits For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Prelims Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.
In the ”UPSC Prelims Bits For Today” article, we focus on UPSC Preliminary exam-oriented current affairs covering various sections from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.
PSLV C53 / Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
The PSLV C53 mission has achieved a new milestone by launching two payloads of Indian Start-ups in Space.
Aim of the PSLV C53 Mission
This is the 55th mission of PSLV and 15th mission using PSLV-Core Alone variant. It is the 16th PSLV launch from the second launch pad. The mission proposes to demonstrate the utilization of the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle as a stabilized platform for scientific payloads subsequent to the separation of the satellites.
About the PSLV
- Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is the third generation launch vehicle of India. It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.
- After its first successful launch in October 1994, PSLV emerged as the reliable and versatile workhorse launch vehicle of India with 39 consecutively successful missions by June 2017.
- During 1994-2017 period, the vehicle has launched 48 Indian satellites and 209 satellites for customers from abroad.
- Besides, the vehicle successfully launched two spacecraft – Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013 – that later traveled to Moon and Mars respectively
Payload to SSPO: 1,750 kg
PSLV earned its title ‘the Workhorse of ISRO’ through consistently delivering various satellites to Low Earth Orbits, particularly the IRS series of satellites. It can take up to 1,750 kg of payload to Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbits of 600 km altitude.
Payload to Sub GTO: 1,425 kg
Due to its unmatched reliability, PSLV has also been used to launch various satellites into Geosynchronous and Geostationary orbits, like satellites from the IRNSS constellation.
PSLV uses 6 solid rocket strap-on motors to augment the thrust provided by the first stage in its PSLV-G and PSLV-XL variants. However, strap-ons are not used in the core alone version (PSLV-CA).
First Stage: PS1
PSLV uses the S139 solid rocket motor that is augmented by 6 solid strap-on boosters.
Second Stage: PS2
PSLV uses an Earth storable liquid rocket engine for its second stage, known as the Vikas engine, developed by Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre.
Third Stage: PS3
The third stage of PSLV is a solid rocket motor that provides the upper stages high thrust after the atmospheric phase of the launch.
Fourth Stage: PS4
The PS4 is the uppermost stage of PSLV, comprising of two Earth storable liquid engines.
States’ Start-up Ranking
Key points about States’ Start-up Ranking
- The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) conducted the 3rd edition of the States’ Start-up Ranking Exercise with the key objective to promote India’s vision of competitive and cooperative federalism.
- The exercise was launched in 2018 to encourage states and union territories to work towards easing regulations for the growth of start-ups and strengthening the support to the start-up ecosystem.
- A total of 24 States and 7 Union Territories participated in the exercise this year, an increase from 25 last year and the highest till date.
- As India becomes one of the leading start-up nation globally, the growth of the entrepreneurship in Tier-II and Tier – III cities in the country has become necessary.
- There were 4 states/UTs with start-up policies in 2016. Today, there are over 30 states/UTs who have start-up policies, and 27 states/UTs have their own state start-up portal.
- This edition had 7 broad Reform Areas consisting of 26 action points which are essential in providing regulatory, policy and economic support to startups and stakeholders of the ecosystem.
- The reform areas included Institutional Support, Fostering Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Access to Market, Incubation support, Funding Support, Mentorship Support and Capacity Building of Enablers.
The Digital District Repository (DDR)
- The Digital District Repository (DDR) is an attempt to discover and document stories of India at the ‘micro level’ of district.
- It is divided into four categories (People and Personalities, events and happenings, Living traditions and art forms, hidden Treasures) in accordance with the contribution to our freedom struggle
About Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav
- It is an initiative of the Government of India to celebrate and commemorate 75 years of independence and the glorious history of it’s people, culture and achievements.
- The official journey of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav commenced on 12th March 2021 which started a 75-week countdown to our 75th anniversary of independence and will end post a year on 15th August 2023.
India’s largest floating Solar Power Project / Ramagundam Floating Solar Power Project
NTPC declared that India’s largest floating Solar Power Project is now fully operational.
About Ramagundam Floating Solar Power Project
- The 100-MW Floating Solar project at Ramagundam is endowed with advanced technology as well as environment friendly features.
- The project spreads over 500 acres of its reservoir. Divided into 40 blocks, each having 2.5 MW. Each block consists of one floating platform and an array of 11,200 solar modules.
- The floating platform consists of one Inverter, Transformer, and a HT breaker.
- The solar modules are placed on floaters manufactured with HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) material.
- The entire floating system is being anchored through special HMPE (High Modulus Polyethylene) rope to the dead weights placed in the balancing reservoir bed.
- The power is being evacuated up to the existing switch yard through 33KV underground cables.
- This project is unique in the sense that all the electrical equipment including inverter, transformer, HT panel and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) are also on floating ferro cement platforms.
Key environmental advantages
- From environmental point of view, the most obvious advantage is minimum land requirement mostly for associated evacuation arrangements.
- Further, with the presence of floating solar panels, the evaporation rate from water bodies is reduced, thus helping in water conservation.
- Approximately 32.5 lakh cubic meters per year water evaporation can be avoided.
- The water body underneath the solar modules helps in maintaining their ambient temperature, thereby improving their efficiency and generation.
- Similarly, while coal consumption of 1,65,000 Tons can be avoided per year; Co2 emission of 2,10,000 tons per year can be avoided.